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t T. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 















First printed 1921 
Reprinted 1947, 1960 





{Bevivescentes sive Picator) 1 


Accusatus sive Trihunalia) 83 

ON SACRIFICES {De Sacrificus) . 153 


et libros mnltos emeniem) 173 


Vita Luciani) 213 


Ariem esse Parasiticam) 235 


sive Incredulus) 319 


[Deorum Dialogi ZZ]) 383 


conductis potentium familiaribus) 411 

INDEX 483 




Phalaris I and II — Hippias or the Bath — Dionysus — Heracles — Amber 
or The Swans — The Fly — Nigrinus — Demonax — The Hall — My Native 
Land — Octogenarians — A True Story I and 11 — Slander — The Consonants 
at Law — The Carousal or The Lapiths. 

The Downward Joiu-ney or The Tyrant — Zeus Catechized — Zeus Rants 
— The Dream or The Cock — Prometheus — Icaromenippus or The Sky-man 
— Timon or The Misanthroi)e — Charon or the Inspector — Philosophies for 

Volume III 
The Dead Come to Life or The Fisherman — The Double Indictment 
or Trials by Jury — On Sacrifices — The Ignorant Book Collector — The 
Dream or Lucian's Career — The Parasite — The Lover of Lies — The 
Judgement of the Goddesses — On Salaried Posts in Great Houses. 

Volume IV 
Anacharsis or Athletics — Menippus or The Descent into Hades — On 
Funerals — A Professor of Public Speaking — Alexander the False Prophet 
— Essays in Portraiture — Essays in Portraiture Defended — The Goddess 
of Surrye. 

Volume V 
The Passing of Peregrinus — The Runaways — Toxaris or Friendship — 
The Dance — Lexiphanes — The Eunuch — Astrology — The Mistaken Critic 
— The Parliament of the Gods — The Tyrannicide — Disowned. 

Volume VI 
Historia — Dipsades — Saturnalia — Herodotus — Zeuxis — Pro Lapsu — 
Apologia— Harmonides — Hesiodus — Scytha — Hermotimus — Promethus 
Es — Navigium. 

Volume VII 
Dialogues of the Dead — Dialogues of the Sea — Gods — Dialogues of 
the Gods (exc. Deorum Judicium cf. Vol. Ill) — Dialogues of the 

Volume VIII 
Soloecista — Lucius or the Ass — Amores — Halcyon — Demosthenes — 
Podagra — Ocypus — Cyniscus — Philopatris — Charidemus — Nero. 




This is Lucian's reply to the storm of angry protest which 
he had evoked from the schoolmen with his Philosophies for 
Sale (II. 450 ff.)> wherein, to their mind, he had unwarrant- 
ably and outrageously ridiculed the ancient philosophers and 
their doctrines. ^_ 

The scene is in Athens. The dead who have come to life 
are the ancient philosophers, bent upon wreaking vengeance 
on Frankness, which is Lucian's alias here. 

Eventually conceded a formal trial before Philosophy, he 
is acquitted on the plea that his ridicule had not been aimed 
at the ancient worthies but at their unworthy successors of 
his own time. As these impostors cannot be induced to 
stand trial, Frankness is empowered to go about and brand 
them, so that people can tell them from the genuine philoso- 
phers. Before departing on his mission, he fishes up, with a 
bait of figs and gold, typical representatives of the chief 
schools for the inspection of their founders. 

Lucian's plea is specious, for in Philosophies for Sale he 
had certainly sliown scant regard for those whom he now 
professes to hold in such high esteem. But it is not meant 
to be taken seriously ; it is put forward with a wink at the 
audience for the sake of turning the tables on his critics. 
His new-found deference, moreover, is well seasoned with 
irony, and quite offset by the pose of urbane and patronizing 
superiority which he assumes in feigned unconsciousness. 
The piece is almost all persiflage, and maddeningly un- 
answerable for that reason. 

The dialogue is strikingly like an Aristophanic comedy in 
its construction, especially in the fact that it has a clearly 
marked second part, somewhat loosely attached to the first, 
which develops a series of incidents after the plot has been 
worked out. Because of this similarity, and for many other 
reasons too, none of Lucian's writings better serves to intro- 
duce and illustrate the Double Indictment, Avhich follows it. 



1 BaX,X,6 fidWe rov Kardparov dcf)66vot<i Tot9 Xt- 
OoL<i' eTTL^aWe tcov ^coXcov irpoaeTri^aWe kuI 
Twv ocrrpdKcov' irale rolfj ^vXot,^ top dXLTTjpiov 
6 pa fxr) Biacfivyr}' koI av ^dXXe, o) UXdrcov koI 
au, 0) y^pvaLTTirey koI av he, kol 7rdvre<; a/xa'^ 
avva(T7rL(Tco/jL€v iiT avTov, 

o)? TT'^pt) 7r7]p7)(f)i,v dprj'yr], ^dxrpa Be ^dKTpoi<i, 

K0LV0<; yap irokep^io^, koI ovk ea-riv r}fiS)V ovriva 
oif)(^ v^piKe. (TV Be, (o Atoyei/e?, et irore koI 
aXkore, ')(p(o rw ^vXw' firjBe dvfjre' BiBotcj ryv 
d^iav ^Xda<j)r]fjLO<; iov. tl tovto; KeKp.rjKare, c5 
^KiTLKOvpe KOL ^ApiaTLTTire; Kal firjv ovk e^prfv, 

dvepe^ 6(TT€, <TO(f)oi, fjiv^aaaOe Be OovptBof; 6pyr]<i. 

2 'A/)/o-T0TeXe9, eTna-TrovBaGOV' en Odrrov.^ ev 
€')(^£L' edXcj/cev to Orjpiov. elXtjcfya/jLev ae, w p,iape. 
elar) yovv avTLKa ovaTiva<; r}p,d<; 6vTa<i iKaKTjyo- 

MSS. available in photographs : r, UPN. 

1 ANABIOYNTE2 H AAIETS y (and Thomas Magister): 

'^ Punctuation A. M.H.: koI ah 8e /col irdvres afxa aw. y ; koI 
av 54. irdvTes a/x3. aw. §, edd. 

" Punctuation K. Schwartz : iKiatroihaaov en darrov MSS. 



Pelt, pelt the scoundrel with plenty of stones ! 
Heap him with clods ! Pile him up with broken 
dishes, too ! Beat the blackguard with your sticks ! 
Look out he doesn't get away ! Throw, Plato ; you 
too, Chrysippus ; you too ; everybody at once ! Let's 
charge him together. 

"Let wallet to wallet give succour, and cudgel to 
cudgel," ^ 

for he is our joint enemy, and there is not a man 
of us whom he has not outraged. Diogenes, ply 
your stick, if ever you did before ; let none of you 
weaken ; let him pay the penalty for his ribaldry. 
What is this ? Have you given out, Epicurus and 
Aristippus } Come, that is too bad ! 

"Show yourselves men, ye sages, and call up the 
fury of battle." 2 

Aristotle, make haste ! Still faster ! That's well ; the 
game is bagged. We have you, villain ! you shall 
soon find out what sort of men you have been 

1 Iliad 2, 363 : 

Kplv^ dvipas Kara <pv\a, Kara (ppiirpas, ^Ayd/jLe/xvov, 
ws <pp7}Tpr) <pp-i]Tpri(piv api^yri, <pvAa Se (pvXon. 

' Iliad 6, 112 ; Homer has *' friends,"' not " sages." 


pel*;. T& T/ooTTft) Se ri<; avrov koI /jLereXOr}; 
ttolkLXov ^ap Tiva Odvarov iinvocafiev Kar avrov 
iraaiv r]fjuv e^apKecrai hwdjievov KaB' €Ka(nov 
yovp CTTTaArt? 8LKai6<; iariv diroXoiXevai, 

'E/iot fiev avacTKokoTT Lddrivat Bok€l avrov, 


N^ Ata, /jLaariycoOevra ye irporepov, 


TLo\v irporepov tou? 6cf)0aX/j,ov<; iKKeKoXd(j>6co. 

T^i^ ykSirrav avrrjv ere rroXv irporepov airo- 


Sot he rl, ^Ei/jLireBoKXeLf;, Bok€l; 


Et9 rov<; Kparrjpa^; ifiirea-elv avrov, 009 fjidOrj firj 
XoiBopeladaL rol<i Kpeurroaiv. 


Kal p.r)v dpiarov rjv Kaddirep riva Hevdea rj 

XaxiffTov iv irerpaicTLv evpeadav fjLopov, 

Xva av Kal ro p.epo<i avrov exaaro^ ^X^^ dirrfX- 


3 M^r}Ba/JLa)<i* dXXa tt/oo? 'l/cealov (peiaaaOe fiov. 


insulting. But how are we to punish him, to be 
sure ? Let us invent a complex death for him, such 
as to satisfy us all ; in fact he deserves to die seven 
times over for each of us. 


I suggest he be crucified. 


Yes, by Heaven ; but flogged beforehand. 


Let him have his eyes put out long beforehand. 


Let him have that tongue of his cut off, even 
longer beforehand. 


And you, Empedocles — what do you suggest ? 


That he be thrown into my crater,^ so that he may 
learn not to abuse his betters. 


Indeed, the best suggestion would have been for 
him, like another Pentheus or Orpheus, 

" To find among the crags a riven doom," ^ 

so that each of us might have gone off with a scrap 
of him. 


No, no ! In the name of Him who hears the sup- 
pliant,^ spare me ! 

^ Aetna, into which Empedocles is said to have leapt. 

2 Both Pentheus and Orpheus were torn to pieces by 
Maenads. The verse is from a lost tragedy (Nauck, Tr. Gr. 
Fragm. p. 895). ^ Zeus. 




"Apapev ovK av a(j)e9€Lr]<; en. opa^ he Brj kuI 
Tov "OfjLTjpov a (j)r](nvy 

CD? OVK €(TTi Xiovai Kal avBpdcnv opKia iria-Tci. 

Kat firjv Ka6^ "Ofxr^pov vfia^ koX avTo<i tVe- 
revao)' alheaea-Qe yap caox; to. eiTTj xal ov rrrapo- 
yjreaOe payjra)B^a-avrd fie' 

^(oypelr ov kukov avBpa kol d^ia Be')(6e UTroiva, 
')(^aXfc6v T€ 'X^pvcrov re, rd Brj (fyiXeovai (ro(l>oi irep. 


'AXV ovBe yfJL€l<; diroprjcrofiev irpo^ ae 'Op,rj- 
pLK7]<; dvTtXoyla^i. dKoue yovv 

firj Bi] fJLOL (f)v^tv ye, KaKrjyope, ^dXXeo Ovfi& 
')(^PV(t6p irep Xefa?, iirel 'Ueo yelpa^ e? dfxd^;. 


Oip,oi TOJv KaKOiv. 6 fiev "Ofirjpo'; tj/jllv dirpa- 
/cro<;, rj jieyiarr] eXirif;. iirl rov ^vpLirlB'qv Brj fiot 
Kara^evKTeov rd-^^a yap dv ifcelvo^ crcoa-eie fie. 

fiT] KTclve' TOV LKeTTiv ydp ov 6efii,<{ Kravelv, 


Tt Be; ov)(l KUKelva KvptTTiBov iarlv, 
ov Beivd 7rda)(^eip Betvd tov<; elpya<Tfievov<i; 



Your doom is sealed : you cannot be let go now. 
Vou know, of course, what Homer says : >(^AX^^ 

" Since between lions and men there exist no bonds 
of alliance."^ 


Indeed, I myself will quote Homer in begging you ^ ^4 
for mercy. Perhaps you will revere his verses and \ 
will not ignore me when I have recited them : 

"Save me, for I am no churl, and receive what is 1 J^ 
fitting in ransom, ; /^ 

Copper and gold, that in truth are desirable even 
to sages." ^ 


But we ourselves shall not be at a loss for a 
Homeric reply to you ; listen to this, for instance : 

"Think not now in your heart of escape, you 
speaker of slander. 
Even by talking of gold, once into our hands you 
have fallen." ^ 


Oh, what wretched luck ! Homer, in whom I had 
my greatest hope, is useless to me. I suppose I 
must take refuge with Euripides ; perhaps he might 
save me : 

*'Slay not ! The suppliant thou shalt not slay."* 


Ah, but is not this by Euripides, too ? 

"No harm for them that wrought to suffer harm." '* 

1 Iliad 22, 262. « ^ cento ; Iliad 6, 46, 48 ; 20, 65. 

' Iliad 10, 447-8, with alterations. 

* Nauck, p. 663. Cf. /on 1553. ^ Orestes 413. 




NOz' ovv 6KaTL prj/jLarcov KTevelre ^ fie; 


N^ Ala* i^rjcrX yovv eKslvo^ avr6<;, 

a')(^akiv(t}V crTO/ubaTcov 
dvo/jLov T d(f)poavva<; 
TO T6X.09 SvaTV^La. 


4 OvKovv iireX BeSoKrai iravrco^i diroKTivvvvai 
Kat ovBcfiia firj^avT) to Bia(f)vy€LV fie, (pepe tovto 
ryovv eiiraTe /jloi, TLve^; 6pt€<; rj tl ireirovOoTe's 
dvrjKecTTOV tt/jo? r)fiS)v d/xeiXiKTa opyl^ecrde koI 
€7rl OavaTO) crvveiki^^aTe; 


" ATLva fiev etpyaaai rj/jud^; tcl Beivd, aeavTOv 

ipCOTU, 0) KUKLCFTe, KOl TOU? Ka\0V<i iKelvOV^i (TOV 

Xoyov^; iv oh (f)tXoao(f)iav re avTrjv KaKa)<; iqjo- 
p€V€<; KoX eU r}fid<; v/3pt^€<;, ioaTrep ef dyopd<; 
aTTOKrjpvTTcov ao(f)OU<i dvSpa<;, Kal to fxeyiaTOVy 
i\evOepov<;' ec^' oh dyavaKTrjaavTC^ dveXrjXvOa- 
/JL€V eVt (T€ irapaiTrja-dfievoi 7rpo<? oXiyov top 
^AlBcovia, XpuaiTnTo^ ovToal koX ^EjiTLKovpo^ Koi 
6 UXaTcop iyot) Kal * AptaTOTeXr]<; €K€lvo<i koI 6 
(TtcDTTCOv 0UT09 Uvduyopaf; kol Aioyivr]^ Koi 
diravTe^ oiroaov^ BUavp€<; iv rot? Xoyoi^. 


5 ^Aveirvevaa' ov yap diroKTevelTe fie, tjv fidOrjTe 
oTTolo^ iyoi irepl vfid<; iyevofirjv coaTe diroppi- 
yjruTe tou? XiOovf;, fidXXov Be (pvXaTTeTe. XP^' 
aeade yap avToh KaTcu twv d^lcov. 

^ Krevuri Gliyet ; KTeivere ^y, 




" Then will ye slay me now, because of words ? " ^ 


Yes, by Heaven! Anyhow, he himself says: 
'' Of mouths that are curbless 
And fools that are lawless 
The end is mischance." ^ 


Well, then, as you are absolutely determined to 
kill me and there is no possibility of my escaping, 
do tell me at least who you are and what irreparable 
injuries you have received from me that you are 
irreconcilably angry and have seized me for execution. 


What dreadful wrongs you have done us you may 
ask yourself, you rascal, and those precious dialogues 
of yours in which you not only spoke abusively of 
Philosophy herself, but insulted us by advertising for 
sale, as if in a slave-market, men who are learned, 
and what is more, free born. Indignant at this, we 
requested a brief leave of absence from Pluto and 
have come up to get you — Chrysippus here, Epicurus, 
Plato (myself), Aristotle over there, Pythagoras here, 
who says nothing, Diogenes, and everyone that you 
vilified in your dialogues. 


I breathe again, for j^ou will not put me to death 
if you understand how I have acted as regards you. 
So throw away your stones ; or better, keep them. 
You will make use of them against those who 
deserve them.^ 

^ Euripides ? Nauck, p. 663. ^ Bacchat 386 flF. 

' It is curious that this suggestion, though emphasized by 
being repeated (§ 11), is not worked out. 



Ar]peL<;. ae Se ')(^prj TrjjMepov airoXwXevai, xal 
fjhrj rye 
Xdivov eaao ^ircuya kukmv eve^ ocraa eopya^. 


Kal firjv, (o apKTTOiy ov ixpV^ /^ovov ef uTrdv- 
Twv iiraLvelv olicelov re vjjlIv ovra koX evvovv 
KoX ofwyvM/JLOva Kai, el firj (fyoprcKov elirelv, KtjSe- 
/jLOva rojv iiriTrjhev/jLdrcov ev tcre diTOKTevovvTe<; , 
Tjv ifxe d7roKT€Lvr)Te roaavra virep v/xojv TTe-rrovr)- 
Kora. opare ovv fir) Kara tou? 7roWov<; ^ tcov vvv 
(l)t\oa6(f)(ov avTol ^ iroielre, d'^^^dptarot /cat opyiXoi 
Kal dyvoi)/jLov6<; (^aLVOfJuevoi 7rp6<; dvSpa evepyerrjv. 


"n T7)9 dvai<TX^VTia<;. Kal X^P''^ ^^^ '^V^ '^^' 

KTiyopia'^ 7rpO(TO(j)€L\o/JL€V; OVTO)<; dpSpaTToSoL^ Ot)9 

dX7]0co<;^ 0L6L SiaXeyeaOai; rj Kal evepyecruav 
KaraXoyifj irpof; r}fxa<^ iirl rfj Toaavrrj vjSpei Kal 
irapoivia rcov Xoycov; 


Uov ydp 67a) v/xa? t] irore v/SpiKa, 09 del 
<j)LXo(TO(j)iav re Oavfid^^cov BtarereXeKa Kal vp,d^ 
avrov<; virepeiraivwv Kal roi<; X6yoi<; oU Kara- 
XeXoLirare ofiiXoiv; avrd yovv a (f)rjijn, ravra, 
iToOev dXXoOev r) irap vp.oiv Xa^oov Kal Kara rrjv 
pueXirrav diravdiadfjievo'; einheiKVvpaL rol<; dv- 
0p(O7roi<;; ol he eiraLvovai Kal yvcopi^ovatp eKua- 

^ Kara rovs troXKovs 7N : not in BU. 

2 avToi Cobet : ahrh MSS. 

^ oi/Tws ai/SpoTrJSots (sicine cum servis — ?) ws a\-n9a>s K. 
Schwartz: ovtus avSparr6^ois oA.rj0«s 7 ; ovtus ws at/SpaTr65ois 
a\7]dws /3, edd. since Jacobitz. 



Nonsense : you must die to-day. Yes, forthwith 

" Don your tunic of stone on account of the wrongs 
you have done us ! " ^ 


Truly, gentlemen, you will put to death, you may 
depend upon it, the one man in the world whom you 
ought to commend as your friend, well-wisher, com- 
rade in thought, and, if it be not in bad taste to say 
so, the defender of your teachings, if you put me to 
death after I have laboured so earnestly in your 
behalf. Take care, then, that you yourselves are not 
acting like most of our present-day philosophers by 
showing yourselves ungrateful and hasty and incon- 
siderate toward a ^enefactor.^ 1^^ 


O what impudence ! So we really owe you gratitude 
for your abuse, into the bargain ? Are you so con- 
vinced that you are truly talking to slaves .'* Will you 
actually set yourself down as our benefactor, on top 
of all your insolent and intemperate language } 


Where, pray, and when have I insulted you ? I have 
always consistently admired philosophy and extolled 
you and lived on intimate terms with the writings 
that you have left behind. These very phrases that 
I utter — where else but from you did I get them .'' 
Culling tliem like a bee, I make my show with them 
before men, who applaud and recognize where and 

» Iliad 3, 57. 



Tov TO avOo<; oOev koX irap orov /cal 07rci)9 
av6Xe^dfi7)v, xal Xoyay fiev €/jl6 ^ifKovcn t?}? avOo- 
\o<yia<iy to S' a\r]66<; vfid<i koI tov Xeificova tov 
v/jbiTCpov, OL TOiavTa i^rjvOrjKaTe iroLKiXa koI 
TToXveiSr] Ta<; 0a<pd<;, ec Tt9 dvaXe^aaOal re avrd 
€7rl(TTat,T0 Kal dvaifke^ai Kal dpfxoGaiy a)9 ft^ 
aTTaSeLV OaTCpov OuTepov. eaO* octtk; ovv TavTa 
€v 7r€7rovda)<{ irap' vp^wv KaKco^ av elTrelv eiTL')(eL- 
prjaeiev €V€pyeTa<; dvBpa<;, d(j)' oi)V elvai rt? eBo^ev; 
e«T09 el p>r) KaTo, tov SdpvpLV rj tov ^vpvTOv elr) 
TTjv (f)V(TLV, 0)9 Tai9 Moucrafc9 dvTaSeiv, Trap^ a)V 
6L\r]<p6 Tr}v (pBijv, rj too ^AttoWcovl ipiBaiveiv 
ivavTia To^evcov, Kal TavTa BoTrjpi ovti t% 



7 TovTO pev, 0) yevvale, /caTa tov<; piJTOpa<; 
eipr)Tai aor ivavTicoTaTov 8' ovv ^ icTTi tw irpdy- 
paTL Kal 'xakeiraiTepav aov iiriBeiKwcri ttjv 
ToXpav, eX ye ttj dhiKia Kal d')(^apL<JTLa irpoaea- 
Tiv, 09 7ra/)' rjpayv to, TO^evpaTa, q)<; ^t]<;, Xaffoov 
KaO' rjpcov eTo^eve^, eva tovtov viroOepevo^ tov 
CTKOTTov, diravTa^ r]pLa<^ dyopeveuv KaKM^i' TOiavTa 
irapd (TOV dTreikrj^apev dvO* a)v aoi tov Xeipwva 
eKelvov dvaTTeTd(TavTe<; ovk eKwXvopev BpeTreaOat 
Kal TO TTpOKoXiTLOV ipTrXfjadpevov dmeXOelv 
uicTTe hid ye tovto p^dXiaTa BiKaio^ av etrj^i 


8 'OpcLTe' jrpo^ opyrjv aKoveTC Kal ovBev tmv 
BiKaicov TrpoaieaOe. KaiTOt ovk dv (pr]6r)v ttotc 
ft)9 opyr) ITXaTft)i^09 rj XpvaLTrTTOV rj ^ApiaTOTe- 
Xof9 rj Twv dXXcov vpcov KaOiKOLTO dv, dXXd poi 

^ 8' odv Fritzsche : yovv MSS. 


from whom and how I gathered each flower; and 
although ostensibly it is I whom they admire for the 
bouquet, as a matter of fact it is you and your garden, 
because you have put forth such blossoms, so gay and 
varied in their hues — if one but knows how to select 
and interweave and combine them so that they will 
not be out of harmony with one another. Would any 
man, after receiving this kindly treatment at your 
hands, attempt to speak ill of benefactors to whom 
he owes his reputation ? Not unless he be like Tha- 
myris or Eurytus in his nature, so as to raise his voice 
against the Muses from whom he had the gift of song, 
or to match himself against Apollo in archery — and 
he the giver of the bow ! 


That speech of yours is good rhetoric, my fine 
fellow ; but it is directly against your case and only 
makes your presumptuousness appear more staggering, 
since ingratitude is now added to injustice. For you 
got your shafts from us, as you admit, and then turned 
them against us, making it your only aim to speak 
ill of us all. That is the way you have paid us for 
opening that garden to you and not forbidding you 
to pick flowers and go away with your arms full. 
For that reason, then, above all else, you deserve 
to die. 


See ! You give me an angry hearing, and you 
reject every just plea ! Yet I should never have 
supposed that anger could affect Plato or Chrysippus 
or Aristotle or the rest of you ; it seemed to me that 



iSo/ceiTe fiovoi Br) Troppco elvai rov tolovtov. 
ir\r)V aWa firj aKpLTOV ye, o) dav/idaiOL, firjhe 
irpo Blkt}^ aTTOKTelvqTe fie. v/juerepov yovp Koi 
TOVTO TjVf fxr] ffla /iTjBe Kara to la'xypoTepov tto- 
XcreueaOaL, Blktj Be to, Bi.d(f)opa XveaOat BiB6vTa<; 
\6yov Kol BexofJL6vov<i iv rat fiipei. ata-re BiKua- 
TTjv ekojievoL Karrjyop^daTe fiev vfieU rj afia 
'irdvTe<i T) ovTiva av ')(^6LpoTOvrj(Tr]T€ virep diravTcav, 
iyo) Be diroXoyrjaoiJLai irpo^ ra eyKXyj/iaTa. Kara 
Tjv flip ri dBi,K(ov (paivwfiai kul tovto irepl ifJLOV 
yva> TO BiKaarijptov, iJ<f>e^(o BjjXaBr) rrjv d^iav 
v/iieU Be fiiaiov ovBev roXfiijaeTe- tjv Be ra^; 
evOvva^ vTToax^v KaOapo^ v/jllp koi dpeTrlXTjirro^; 
€vpL<rK(o/jLaL, dcp^aovai fie ol BiKaarau, v/iel^ Be 
eh Tov<i i^airaTrjaaPTa^ vfid<i kol 7rapo^vpapTa<; 
Kad' r)/xa)P T7)p opyrjp Tpeyjrere. 


Kpovad/jLepo<{ tou? BLKaaTa^i direXdrj^. ^aal yovp 
prJTOpd ae Koi Bikuplkop tipu elpai, koI irapovpyop 
€P Tol<i X6yoi<;. TLPa Be Kal Bi,/cacrTr)p eOeXeL^ 
yeveadai, oPTipa firj av Bo)poBoKt]aa<;, ola ttoXXcl 
TTOieLTe, dBiKa ireLaei^; vTrep aov yfrTjcftlaaaOai; 


%appelTe tovtov ye epeKW ovBepa tolovtop 
BiaLTTjTTfP viroTTTOP rj dfKpL^oXop d^LODaaifi ap 



you, and you alone, were surely far away from any- 
thing of that kind. But, however that may be, my 
masters, do not put me to death unsentenced and 
unheard. This too was once a trait of yours, not to 
deal with fellow-citizens on a basis of force and 
superior strength, but to settle your differences by 
course of law, according a hearing and in your 
turn receiving one. So let us choose a judge, and 
then you may bring your complaint either jointly 
or through anyone whom you may elect to repre- 
sent you all ; and I will defend myself against 
your charges. Then, if I am proven guilty, and the 
court passes that verdict upon me, I will submit, of 
course, to the punishment that I deserve, and you 
will not have taken it upon yourselves to do anything 
high-handed. But if after I have undergone my 
investigation I am found innocent and irreproachable, 
the jury will discharge me, and you will turn your 
anger against those who have misled you and set 
you against me. 


There we have it ! " Cavalry into the open," so that 
you may give the slip to the jury and get away.^ At 
any rate, they say that you are an orator and a 
lawyer and a wizard at making speeches. And whom 
do you wish to be judge, what is more ? It must be 
someone whom you cannot influence by a bribe, as your 
sort often do, to cast an unjust ballot in your favour. 


Do not be alarmed on that score. I should not 
care to have any such referee of suspicious or doubtful 

^ As cavalry seeks open country to manoeuvre in, so the 
lawyer seeks the courtroom. Compare Plato, Theaetetus, 
183 d : lirittas fls ireSiov irpoKa\e7, ^.cvKpdri} els \6yovs irpoKa\ov- 



rfeveaOai Koi 6aTi<; airoBoocreTaL fjLoi ttjv yjrrjifyov. 
6 pare yovv, rrjv ^i\oao(f)iav avTT]v fxeO^ vjicou 
iroLovfiai Si/cdarpiav eytoye. 


Kal Ti9 av KaTrjyop'}](7€L€v, et ye '^fieU SiKd<ro/jLev; 


Oi avTol Karrjyopelre koI SiKa^ere' ovSev ovSk 
TOVTO BiBia. roaovTov virepcjiepoi) roL<; 8t,KaL0i<i 
Kal CK irepiova-ia^ d7ro\oy7]a6a6ai viroXap^^dva), 

10 Tl iroLovfieVi (o TLvOayopa koi X(OKpaTe<;; eoixe 
yap dv7)p ovK dXoya TrpofcaXeiaOai BiKd^eaOat 


Tl Be dWo Tj ffaBi^ay/jLev iirl to BLKaarrfpiov 
Kal Tr)V ^i\o(To^iav irapdXa^ovre'^ dKovawpuev 6 
Tl Kal dTToXoyijcreTai' to irpo BiKrj<; yap ov')(^ 
r)/jL6T€pov, dWd BeLVCO^; IBicotlkov, opyiXcov TivSiv 
dvOpMTTcov Kal TO Blkuiov ev ttj %ei/ol TiOeiievcdv. 
7rapi^ofjL€V ovv d(f)op/jbd<; toU KaKriyopelv iOeXov- 
<TLV KaTaX€V(TavT€<; dvBpa /jltjBc dTroXoyrjad/jievov 
v'TTCp eavTOV, Kal TavTa BiKaiocrvvrj '^aipeiv avTol 
X€yovTe<;. rj tl dv e'lTTOLjiev 'Avvtov Kal McXt^tou 
irepL, Tcov ifiov KaTrjyoprjcrdvTcov, rj tmv totg 
BcKacTTCJV, el outo«? Tedvrj^eTat firjBe to irapdirav 
vBaTO^ fxeTaXa^div; 


"ApKTTa Trapaivel'i, o) Sco^r/^are?* waT€ dnrltop^v 
eirl Tr)v ^iXoao^iav. rj Be BiKaa-aTco, Kal rjp.el^ 
dyairrjaopiev oh dp eKelvrj Biaypw, 



character, who would sell me his vote. See, for my 
part I nomniate Philosophy herself to the bench, and 
you yourselves also ! 


And who can conduct the prosecution if we are 
to be jurors ? 


Be prosecutors and jurors at the same time. Even 
that arrangement has no terrors for me, since I have 
so much the better of you in the justice of my case 
and expect to be so over-stocked with pleas. 


What shall we do, Pythagoras and Socrates } 
Really, the man seems to be making a reasonable 
request in demanding a trial. 


What can we do but go to court, taking Philosophy 
with us, and hear his defence, whatever it may be. 
Prejudgment is not our way ; it is terribly unpro- 
fessional, characteristic of hot-headed fellows who 
hold that might is right. We shall lay ourselves 
open to hard words from those who like to deal in 
them if we stone a man who has had no opportunity 
even to plead his case, especially as we ourselves 
maintain that we delight in just dealing. What 
could we say of Anytus and Meletus, who prosecu- 
ted me, or of the jurors on that occasion, if this 
fellow is to die without getting any hearing at all ? ^ 


Excellent advice, Socrates ; so let us go and get 
Philosophy. She shall judge, and we shall be content 
with her decision, whatever it may be. 

* Literally, "without getting any water at all"; i.e. any 
of the time ordinarily allowed for court speeches, which was 
apportioned with a water-clock, 




1 1 Eu 76, 0) (TO^coraroLy d/jLelvo) ravra /cal vofii- 
fjLcarepa. toj)? fxevTOt Xidov<; (fivXarTere, co? 
€<f)r]V' herjaei yap avrcjv fiLKpov varepov ev tw 

Tiov he rrjp ^iXoao(f)iav evpoi Ti? av; ov yap 
olBa 6v9a oIkcl' Kalroi irdvv ttoXvv i7r\av7]0r]V 
')(p6vov dva^r)ra)V rrjv oiKiav, co? avyyevoiixr^v 
avrfj. elra ivrvyxdvcov dp tlctl Tpi/3covia Trepi- 
/SefiXij/jLevoL^i KOi iro^ywva'i ^aOel's KaOsLfxevoi,^ irap 
avTTjf; €fC6lvr)<; ^k€lv (j)daKovaLV, olofMCi^ofi elhevau 
avTOv<; dvrjpcoTcov ol Se ttoXv /laXXov i/jLOv dyvo- 
ovvT6<i rj ovBev oX&)9 direKpivavTO /jlol, 609 firj 
eXeyxoLVTO ovk elhore^, rj dXXr)v dvpav dvr dXXrjfi 
eTTeheifcvvov. ovSeTrco yovv Koi Trjjxepov i^evpelv 
SeSvvrj/jLat, rrjv OLKtav. 

12 IloXXa/ct? Be rj avTO<i el/cdcra^ rj ^evayrjaavTO^; 
TLVO<; rjKov dv eVt nva^ dvpa<; ^e^aLco^ eXiriaa^ 
Tore yovv evpr^Kevai, TeKfiatpofievo'; t& TrXtjdet, 
Twv elaiovTcov t€ kul e^iovrcov, diravToov (TKvOpw- 
irwv KOi rd cr^^yu-ara evcrraXoiv kuI (f)povTi(TTiK(ov 
rrjv Trpoa-oyjnv fjuerd tovtcov ovv a-vjiirapa^vcr- 
6el<i Kal avTO<; elarjXOov dv, elra ecopcov yvvaiov 
TL ov)( dirXoiKov, el Kal on /jbaXtara €l<; to a^eXe? 
Kal dKodfirjTOv eavTTjv erreppvd/jii^ev, dXXd Kare- 
^dvr) jjLOL avTLfca ovSe rb^dverov Bokovv rr)? Ko/jurj^ 
uKaXXoDTTLdTOV €co(Ta ovBe rod Ifiariov rrjv dva- 
l3oXr)v dv€7rt,Tr)BevTa)<; TreptareXXova-a' 7rp6Br]Xo<; 
Be rjv KoafxovfxevT) avTOL<; Kal 7rpo<; evirpeireLav tm 
ddepaTrevTO) Bokovvtl 7r/?ocr;^yoa)yueV?7. v7re<f)aLveT0 
Be n Kal yfri/jLvOcov Kal (f>VKo<;, Kal rd prjpLara 
irdw eraipLKa, Kal eTraivov/jLevr] viro rcov ipaa- 




Well done, most learned sirs ; this course is better 
and more legal. Keep your stones, however, as I 
said ; for you will need them presently at court. 

But where is Pliilosophy to be found ? For my part 
I do not know where she lives. Yet I wandered very 
long in search of her dwelling, so that I might study 
with her. Then I met men with short cloaks and 
long beards who professed to come directly from her; 
and thinking that they knew, I questioned them. 
But they were far more at a loss than I, and either 
made no answer, in order that they might not be 
convicted of ignorance, or else pointed out one door 
after another. Even to this day I have been unable 
to find her house. 

Often, either by guesswork on my own part or 
under the guidance of someone else, I would go to a 
door in the firm belief that at last I had found it, 
drawing my conclusion from the number of men that 
came and went, all solemn of countenance, decorous 
in dress, and studious in looks. So I would thrust 
myself among them and enter also. Then I always 
saw a hussy who was far from ingenuous, however 
much she strove to bring herself into harmony 
with simplicity and plainness. On the contrary, I 
perceived at once that she did not leave the apparent 
disorder of her hair unenhanced by art, nor let her 
mantle hang about her in unstudied folds. It was 
patent that she used it all as a make-up and employed 
her seeming negligence to heighten her attractive- 
ness. There were also evidences of enamel and 
rouge ; her talk was quite that of a courtesan ; she 
delighted in being praised by her lovers for her 



Tcov €t9 KdWo<; e^aipe, Kal el Boirj rt? irpo^eipoD^ 
iBix^TOf Kal Touf; irXovcnwrepov; av TrapaKaOiaa- 
fievr) irXrjaiov tov<; 7rev7]Ta<i rSiv ipaarcov ovBe 
irpoaepXeTTev. TToXXa/ct? Be Kal fyv/jLvcoOeiarjf; 
avTYjf; Kara to aKOvatov ecopcov TreptBepata ^(^pvaa 
rcop kXolcjv ^ Tra^vTepa. ravra IBcdv iirl TroBa ^ 
av €v6v<; aveaTpe<f>ov, olKreipa^ BrjXaBr] rov<; 
KaKoBaifiova<i eKeivov<; eXKO/nevov; 7rpo9 avTfj<i ov 
T/?9 pLvb<; akXa rov irwywvo'; Kal Kara top ^l^lova 
elBcoXo) avTL t/}? ''Hpa<; (TVv6vTa<;. 

13 ToOto fiev opdcjfi eXefa?* ov yap TrpoBrjXo^; 
ovBe Trdat yvcopcfio^; rj Ovpa. ttXtjv aXXa ovBev 
Beijaei ^aBl^eiv iirl rrjv olKiav evravOa yap ev 
K.epafieLK& v7rop,evov/jL€v avTtjv. r) Be rjBjj ttov 
a(f)L^eTai eTraviovaa ef *AKaBr}/jLla<;, o)? Trepi- 
Trarijaeie Kal ev ttj HolklXt)' tovto yap 6(Tr)/jt,epaL 
TTOielv eOof; avrfj' p^dXXov Be rjBrj TrpoaeLo-tv. 6pd<i 
TTjv KoafjLLOV, TTjv cLTTo Tov (7')(^r]fj,aTo^, TTjv irpoa- 
T^vrj TO ffXefi/ia, rrjv iirl (Tvvvoia^ r)pep^a fiaBi- 


IloXXa? 6fjL0La<; opcj to ye (T')(fip.a Kal to 
^dBio-fia Kal TTJV dva^oXrjv. KaiTOL p,ia irdvTox; 
f] ye dX7}0r](; ^tXocrocpia Kal ev avTal<i. 


Eu Xeyei^. dXXa BrjXcoaei r]Ti<; eVrl (pOey^a- 
fjLevrj fiovov* 


14 Tlairal' tL YlXaTOiv Kal Xpuaiinrof; avto Kal 
*Api(TT0TeX7](} Kal ol Xoiirol diravTe^;, avTO, Br) to. 

^ K\oi(ap : iyxfKewy y (eels). 
2 in\ TrJSa Cobet : inl x6tas MSS. 



beauty; she took eagerly any presents that were 
offered ; and she would let her wealthy lovers sit 
close beside her^ but would not even look at those 
who were poor. And often when she exposed her 
throat as if by accident, I saw gold necklaces thicker 
than shackles. On observing all this I would with- 
draw at once, pitying, as you may well believe, those 
poor unfortunates whom she was leading, not by the 
nose, but by the beard, and who, like Ixion, em- 
braced but a phantom and not Hera. 


You are right in one point : the door is not 
conspicuous and not known to all. However, there 
will be no need to go to her house. We shall wait 
for her here in the Potters' Quarter. She will come 
here presently, no doubt, on her way back from the 
Academy, to stroll in the Painted Porch also, for 
it is her custom to do so every day. In fact, here 
she comes now. Do you see her, the mannerly one, 
the one in the mantle, soft of eye, walking slowly, 
rapt in thought.-* 


I see many who are alike in mantle, walk, and 
fashion. Yet surely only one, even among them, is 
the true Philosophy. 


Right, but she will show you who she is, just by 


Ah I What are you all doing in the upper world, 
Plato and Clirysippus and Aristotle and the rest of 


thp: works of lucian 

KecpdXaid fxov tmv fiaOrj/judrcov; tl avOi^ eU rov 
Piov; dpd ri v/id^; eXvirei tcov Kdrw; opyi^ofxevoL^ 
'yovv ioLKare. Koi riva tovtov avWa^6vT€<; 
dyere; r/ ttov TVfjL^copvxo<; rt? rj di^Bpocpovo^ rj 
lepoavKos ia-riv; 


N^ Ala, (w ^iXoao(f)ba, irdvrayv ye UpoavXwv 
d(T€06araro^, 09 rrjv Upwrdrrjv ae kukoj^; dyopeveiv 
€.'ne')(eip7](jev kol rjiid^ diravra^, oirocroL ri rrapd 
(Tov fia06uT€<: ToU jjued^ rjP'd'i KaraXeXoiTrafiev, 

Elra riyavaKrvjaare XoiBoprjara/jbivov riv6<;, koI 
ravra elhore^ e'/ie, ola 7rpb<; t/)? Kw/jLaySia^ 
aKOvovaa iv AiovvaLOL<; o/xo)? ^iXr^v re avrrjv 
rjyy/xac koX ovre iBiKacrd/jL7)v ovre TJriaadfirjv irpocr- 
eXOovaa, i(j)ir]/jit Be irai^eiv rd eUora Kal rd 
avvrjOr] rfj eoprrj; olBa yap co? ovk dp ri vtto 
aK(o/jL/jLaTo<; 'xelpov yevoiTO, dXXd rovvavTiov oirep 
dv fj KaXov, axTTTep to ')(^pvaLov aTrocr/jLca/jLepov rot? 
Ko/jLjjLaai, Xa/JLTrporepov dirodriX^ei Kal (j)avepco- 
repov yiyverai. vfjuel^ he ovk dlBa otto)? bpyiXoL 
Kal dyavaKTiKol yeyovare. tL 8' ovv avTOv 


Mtai/ rj^epav ravrrjv TTapaiTviadfievoi rJKOfjiev 
eV avTov 009 v'Tr6(T')(rj Tr)v d^iav wv BeBpaKev, 
(^Yjixai ydp rj/MV BLijyyeXXov ola eXeyev €t9 Ta 
irXtjOrj KaO^ rjfxwv. 


15 EZra irpo Bikt)^ ovBe dTToXoyrjcrdiJLevov diro- 
KTevelje; BrjXo<; yovv e<nLv elirelv ti deXwu, 



you, the very fore-front of my studies ? Why have 
you come back to life ? Did anything in the under- 
world distress you ? You certainly appear to be 
angry. And who is this man whom you have taken 
into custody ? Some ghoul or murderer or profaner 
of holiness, I suppose. 


Yes, indeed. Philosophy, the most impious of all 
profaners, for he made bold to speak ill of you, than 
whom nothing is more holy, and of us, one and all, 
who learned something from you and have left it to 
those who came after us. 


Then it made you angry to be vituperated ? And 
yet you knew that in spite of the hard names which \ 
Comedy calls meduring the festival of Dionysus,! have 
held her my friend, and neither sued her at law nor 
berated her in private, but permit her to make the 
fun that is in keeping and customary at the festival. 
I am aware, you see, that no harm can be done by a 
joke ; that, on the contrary, whatever is beautiful 
shines brighter and becomes more conspicuous, like 
gold cleansed by its minting. But you, for some 
reason or other, have grown hot-tempered and violent. 
Tell me, why do you throttle him ? 


Obtaining leave of absence for this one day, we 
came to get him, so that he may pay the penalty for 
what he has done ; for rumours repeatedly told us 
what sort of language he used in public against us. 


Then you intend to put him to death before 
trial, without even a chance to defend himself? It 
is certainly clear that he wants to make a statement. 




OvK, aXX' cttI (T€ to irav ave^aXofieOa, kqI 
aol OTL av BoKy, tovto iroirjcrr) TeA,09 t?}? Bi/cr]^;. 
Tl (f)r]<; av; 

Tovto avTo, co Beairocva ^L\oaro(j)ia, rjirep Koi 
fjLovrj ToXrjOeq av i^evpetv^ Bvvaco' fi6\i(; yovv 
evpopLTjv TToWct, lKeTevaa<; to aol ^vXa^OrivaL ttjp 



Nvv, o) KaTapaTe, Bearroivav avTrjv KaXel'i; 
Trpayrjv Be to aTi/xoTaTov ^iXoaocpiav airecjiaivef; 
iv ToaovTW deaTpQ) ajroKrjpvTTcov kuto, fieprj Bu^ 
6j3o\u)V e/caaTOv elSo? avTrj<; tcoi^ \6y(ov, 

^OpcLTe fjLT} ov ^iXoaocffiav ovt6<; ye aWa 
yorjTa^ avBpa^ errl tco rjfxeTipw ovofxaTL iroWa 
Kol /jLtapa 7rpdTT0VTa<; rjyopeuev kukoj^;. 


Etcr?; avTiKa, rjv e6e\r)<; airoXoyov jxevov OLKOveiv 


^ATTLcofjuev ei9 "Apetov irdyov, [xaXXov Be eh ttju 

aKpoTToXiv avTrjv, cu? av eK 7repL0)7r7]<; dpua KaTa- 

16 (f)av€Lr] TTCLVTa iv ttj TroXei. vp.€L<i Be, o) (pcXai, iv 

TTJ HolklXij reo)? 7repL7raT/]aaTe' rj^w yap vp,lv 

eKBiKaaaaa ttjv Blktjv. 


TtVe? Be elaiv, w ^LXoao(f)ia; irdvv yap pLoi 
Koa/Jiiai Kol avTau BoKovaiv. 

^ tiv i^fvpe7v A.M.H. : i^evpelv y, tcv evpeiv j8. 



No : we have referred the whole matter to you, 
and you are to conclude the trial as you think best. 


You, there, what do you say ? 


Precisely what they do, my Lady Philosophy ; for 
you, even without aid, could discover the truth. In 
fact, it was only with difficulty, after a deal of 
entreaty, that I secured the reservation of the case 
for you. 


Now, you scoundrel, you call her " My Lady," do 
you ? Just the other day you made her out to be 
utterly contemptible by offering every form of her 
doctrines for sale at two obols apiece before so large 
an audience 


Careful ! Perhaps his abuse was not directed 
against Philosophy, but against impostors who do 
much that is vile in our name. 


You shall see at once, if you will only hear my 


Let us go to the Areopagus, or rather, to the 
Acropolis itself, so that at the same time we may 
get a bird's eye view of everything in the city. 
You, my dears, may walk about in the Painted 
Porch meanwhile : I shall join you after concluding 
the trial. 


Who are they, Philosophy ? They too seem very 

VOL. III. B 2 5 



ApeTT) fxev Tf avhpco8r}<; avrrj, X(O(f>p0(Tvvr} Be 
iKCLvrj KOi AiKaLoavprj rj ^ irap avrrfv. r) irporj- 
J0U/JL6VTJ Be HaLBela, 7} dfivBpa Be Kal aaa^rj<i to 
')(pco/jLa 77 ^AXrjOeLCL iariv. 


0^% 6p(o rivriva xal Xeyet^. 

Tr)V aKaWcoTTLCTrov eKeivriv ou% opa<^, rr^v yv/n- 
vrjVy Tr]V v7ro(p€vyovaav del koX BioXiaddvovaav; 


'Opco vvv /jloXl^. dWd tl ov-^l /cal ravra^ 
ayei<i, 00? 7r\rjpe<; yevocro kol evreXe? to avve- 
BpLov; rrjv ^ AXrjOeLav Be ye Kal avvtjyopov dva^t- 
Pdaaadai irpo^ rrjv Blktjv fiovXofxai, 


Nr? Ata, dKoXovdrjaare Kal vfjiel<^' ov ^apv yap 
fiiav BiKaaaL Blktjv, Kal ravra irepl tcov rjfjLerepQyv 


17 *'A7riT6 vfxel<^' eyco yap ovBev Beo/xai, aKOveiv a 
irdXai olBa oirocd iariv. 


'AW' i), CO ^WrjOeia, ev Beovri aupBiKd^oi^i 
dv Kal KaTa/jLTjvvoL^ eKaara. 


OvKovv eirdycdfjiai Kal to) OepaTraivtBlcj tovtco 
evvoLKOTdra) fiOL ovre; 


Kat fidXa oTToaa^ dv ide\rj<;. 

^ 7} Fritzsche : not in MSS. 



This one with the masculine air is Virtue; 
yonder is Temperance, and there beside her Justice ; 
the one in advance is Culture, and she that is faint 
and indistinct in colour is Truth. 


I do not see which one you really mean. 


Do you not see the unadorned one over there, 
naked, always shrinking into the background and 
slipping away ? 


I can just see her now. But why not bring them 
also, in order that the meeting may be full and 
perfect ? As to Truth, indeed, I wish to introduce 
her into the trial as an advocate. 


To be sure. (To the others) Come with us also. 
It is not a hard matter to try a single case, 
particularly one that will involve our own interests. 


You others go : I do not need to hear what I 
have long known all about. 


But it would help us. Truth, if you should join in 
the trial and give us information on each point. 


Then shall I bring along these two waiting- 
women, who are in very close sympathy with me ? 


Yes, indeed, as many as you wish. 




'^FiTreadov, co ^KKeudepla koX HapprjcTia, fieO^ 
rj/jL(ov, CO? rov BelXatov rovrovl avOpooiriaKov ipaa- 
rrjv rj/j,€T€pov ovra kol KivBvvevopra eVt ^rjhefJiid 
7rpo<^datL hiKala crwaai BwrjOco/uiev. av Se, (o 
"EXeY^e, avrov ireplfjueivov. 


MT/Sa/i-co?, o) heaiTOLva, T^/cero) he Kal ovio^, el 
Kai Ti? dWo^' ^ ov yap T0Z9 Tv^ovai 6r)pioL<^ 
TTpocTTroXe/jLrjcrai Beijaei fie, aXX*^ dXa^oaiv dv- 
OpwiroL'; Kal Bv<7e\eyKT0L<;, del riva<; d'iro(f>vyd<i 
evpLdKOfievoL^, coare dvayKcuo^ o "EXe^;^©?. 

EAErxos ' 
^ KvayKaioTaro^ jxev ovv d/iecvov Be, el /cal rrjv 
^KiToBei^Lv TTapdkdpoi^. 


"¥i7re(Tde iravre^, eTreiiTep dvayKoloi BoKelre 
7rpb<; Tr}v Blktiv. 


'Opa<;; irpoaeraipi^eraL KaO^ rjfxSiV, co ^i\o- 
(70<f)La, TTjv ^ AXrjdeiav. 


Elra BeBLre, m UXdrcov Kal ^pvaiirire KaX 
'Ay0io-TOTeX,69, /I.?; TL yjrevaTjTai virep avrov 'AX?;- 
6eia over a; 


Ov rovTO, dXkd Bei,V(b<; iravovpyo^i eariv KaX 
KoXuKiKOf;* axrre irapaireicreL avrrjv. 

^ 61 Kai ris &Wos Fritzsche : Kal ei ris &X\os y ; not in jS. 

- aW edd.: not in MSS. 

3 EAErX02 Gesner : *IA02. vulg. 




Come with us_, Liberty and Free-speech, so that 
we may be able to rescue this poor creature, our 
admirer, who is facing danger for no just reason. 
You, Investigation, may stay where you are. 


Hold, my lady : let him come too, if anyone is to 
come. Those whom I shall have to fight to-day are 
none of your ordinary cattle, but pretentious 
fellows, hard to argue down, always finding some 
loophole or other, so that Investigation is necessary. 


Yes, most necessary : and you had better take 
Proof along too. 


Come, all of you, since you appear to be necessary 
to the case. 


Do you see that ? He is suborning Truth against 
us. Philosophy. 


Then you, Plato and Chrysippus and Aristotle, 
are afraid that she. Truth, may tell some lie in his 
behalf .?> 


It isn't that, but he is terribly unprincipled and 
smooth-tongued, so that he will seduce her. 




Sappelre' ovBev /jltj yivrjrai ahvKOv, AtKato- 

19 (Tvvr)<; Tavrrjq a-v/MTrapouar]^, dvicofiev ovv. aWa 
elire fiot av, ri aoc rovvo/na; 


'Efiol; UapprjcndSrj^ 'A\r]6Lcovo<; tov 'EXey- 


IlaT/Oi? Se; 

'^VpO^y CO ^L\0(TO(^ia, TWI/ 'Ei7r6U(f)paTLBL0)V. 

dWd ri, TovTo; koI 'yap rovTcov Tivd<^ olBa rdv 
dvTiSiKCDV jJLov ov)(^ rjTTOv c/jlov fiap^dpov^i TO 
<yevo<;' 6 rpoTTO^; Bk kol t) TraiBeia ov Kara l^oXea^ 
rj KvTTpLovf; rj Ba^vXcovlovf; rj ^Tay€LpLTa<;. Kai- 
roi 7rp6<; ye ae ovSev dp eXarrov yevoiro ovB^ el 
rrjv ^(ovrjv ^dp^apo^ etr) Tt9, eiirep rj yvM/irj opdrj 
Kol hiKaia (f>aLV0LT0 ovaa. 


20 Ev \eyei<;' aXX&x? yovv rjpopLTjv, rj t6')(V7j Be 
(TOt TL^; d^LOV yap eTTLa-raadaL tovto ye, 

MiaaXa^cov el/jLi kuI /j,iaoy6r]<; Ka\ /iiKToyfrevB}]^; 
Kal iiL(T6TV(f)0<; Kal /jll(T(o irdv to ToiovT(oBe<; elBo<: 
Twv /jLiapMv dvOpooTTcov irdvv Be iroWoL elcriVt a)9 


'HpdxXei^, TroXvfiia-rj TLva fi€T€i ttjv Texvqv, 




Have no fear. No injustice will be done while we 
have Justice here with us. Let us go up^ then. 
But tell me, what is your name .'' 


Mine ? Frankness, son of Truthful, son of 
Renowned Investigator. 


And your country ? 


I am a Syrian, Philosophy, from the banks of the 
Euphrates. But what of that ? I know that some 
of my opponents here are just as foreign-born as I : 
but in their manners and culture they are not like 
men of Soli or Cyprus or Babylon or Stageira.i Yet 
as far as you are concerned it would make no differ- 
ence even if a man's speech were foreign, if only his 
way of thinking were manifestly right and just. 


True : it was a needless question, to be sure. But 
what is your calling ? That at least is worth 


I am a bluff-hater, cheat-hater, liar-hater, vanity- 
hater, and hate all that sort of scoundrels, who are 
very numerous, as you know. 


Heracles ! You follow a hateful calling ! 

1 Although they were born there : Chrysippus in Soli, 
Aristotle in Stageira. No philosopher mentioned by name 
in this piece came from Cyprus or from Babylon, and these 
allusions are not clear. Perhaps Lucian has in mind Zeno 
of Citium and Poseidonius of Seleucia on the Tigris. 




Ei^ Xiyei^i* opaq yovv OTrocrot? dire^ddvo/LLai 
Kol CO? Kivhvvevco ht avrrjv. 

Ov firjv aXXd koX rrjv ivavrlav avry irapv 
CLKpifico^; olBa, Xeyco Be ttjv dirb rov <pt\o^ Tr]v 
dp')(rjv e^ovaav (^L\akrj9r)<^ re yap koI cpiXoKaXof; 
Koi (pi\a7r\olKO<; xal oaa tw <^L\ela6ai avyyevfj. 
ttXtjv dXX^ oXiyoL irdvv ravT7j<; d^toi t^? Te^v7]<;, 
. ol he VTTO rfj evavria raTTOfievoi kol ra> /jLiaeL 
OLKeioTepoi TrevraKia/jLvpioc, Kivhvvevoi roiyapovv 
T7)v fJLev VTT* dpyi,a<; dirofjiadelv vBrj, rrjv he irdvv 


Kal fir^v ovK ixPW' "^^^ J^P clvtov koX rdhe, 
(jyaal, koX rdhe' ware pur) htalpcL ray re^vw pula 
rydp icTTOv hv elvai hoKovaa. 

^'Kpbeivov av ravra olcrOa, &> ^iXo(JO(f)la. rb 
fievTOL epov tolovtov iariv, olov tov<; pev Trovrj- 
pov<i p^iaelv, iiraivelv he toj)? ^pTyo-roi/? KaX ^iXelv, 

21 "Ayg hi^y Trdpeapbev yap evOa ixPV^> evravOd 
TTOv iv TO) irpovdw tt}? IloXtaSo? hLKdacop^p. rj 
^lepeia hidOe<; rjpuv rd fidOpa, rjp^el^ he iv toctovto) 
'w pocrKwrjacopev rrjv deov. 

1 <pi\o Halm : ipiXS) y, <pl\ov ^. Cf. Arist. Vesp. 77, Luc. 
adv. Ind. 20. 




You are right. You see, in fact, how many have 
come to dislike me and how I am imperilled because 
I follow it. 

However, I am very well up in the opposite 
calling, too : I mean the one with love for a base ; 
for I am a truth-lover, a beauty-lover, a simplicity- 
lover, and a lover of all else that is kindred to love. 
But there are very few who deserve to have this 
calling practised upon them, while those who come 
under the other and are closer akin to hatefulness 
number untold thousands. So the chances are 
that by this time I have lost my skill in the one 
calling for lack of practice, but have become very 
expert in the other. 


But that ought not to be so, for if a man can do 
the one, they say, he can do the other. So do not 
distinguish the two callings ; they are but one, 
though they seem two. 


You know best as to that, Philosophy. For my 
part, however, I am so constituted as to hate rascals 
and to commend and love honest men. 


Come, now, since we are where we planned to be, 
let us hold our court somewhere hereabouts in the 
portico of Our Lady of the Citadel.^ Priestess, 
arrange the benches for us. Let us in the meantime 
pay our homage to the goddess. 

1 Athena Polias, who shared with Erechtheus the temple 
now knoM'n as the Erechtheum. 




'n IloXta?, iXOe fioi Kara tcop aXa^ovcop 
avfi/ia'X^o^ avaixvrjaOelaa oiroaa eTnopKovprayv 
6(77)fjLepat dKov€i<; avrcov xal a TTpdrrovai he 
/JLOVT} 6pa<; are Brj eVl c/cott/;? olKovaa} vvv 
Kaip6<; dfxvvaaOai avroix;. e'/xe Be fjv irov Kpa- 
Tovfievov Xhrj<^ kol TrXeiov; Sycnv at /jLeXatvai, av 
TTpoadelaa Tr)v creavrrj^ crco^i fie. 


22 Rlev r)fieL<; fiev v/jllv Kal Brj KaOrjfieOa eroi/ioi 
aKoveiv Tcov \6ya)v, vijl€l<; Be TrpoeXo/xevoL riva i^ 
dirdvTCov, 0(tti<; apicrra Karyyoprjcrat av Bok€L, 
(Tvveipere rrjv Karrjyopiav Kal BteXeyxere' 7rdvTa<; 
yap dfia Xeyeiv dfjLrj-)(avovr' crv Be, a> Uapprj- 
aidBriy diroXoyiqari to /zera tovto. 


Tt? ovv 6 einTTjBeLOTaTO^i ef r^fjuoiyv av yevoiro 
TT/oo? rrjv BiKrjv; 


^v, oj Tl\dro)v. 7] re yap fieyaXovoia Oav- 
fiaarrj fcal rj KaXXLcfxtyvla Beivco^i ^Attiktj Kal to 
Kexc^pLd fxevov Kal 7r€iOov<; /nearov tj re avv€(TL<; 
Kal TO aKpi^e^i Kal to eTrayayyov iv KaipS) rcov 
aTToBei^ecov, iravra ravrd aoi dOpoa irpoaeaTLV 
Mare rrjv Trporjyopiav Be^ov Kal virep dirdvToyv 
elire to, etKOTa. vvv dva/J'VijaOrjTC Trdvrwv eKelvwv 
Kal (TVfJXpopei €t? TO avTo, et ri (rot tt/oo? Vopyiav 
rj JlcjXov rj UpoBiKov rj 'lirTriav eiprjTar Beivo- 
T6/)o<? 0UT09 ecTTtv. iTTLTraTTe ovv Kal Trj<; elpco- 

* iviffKOTTos ovaa ^. 

' oif yap oTov T€ irdvras oijia K^ytiv 7, 





Lady of the Citadel, come to my aid against the 
pretenders, remembering how many oaths thou dost 
hear them make and break each day, and what they 
do thou alone seest, dwelling as thou dost upon a 
lookout. Now is thine hour to requite them. If 
thou seest that I am being overborne, and that the 
black ballots are more than the half, add thou thine 
own and set me free.^ 


Well and good. Here we are for you, gentlemen, 
all seated in readiness to hear the speeches. Choose 
one of your number who in your opinion can best 
conduct the prosecution, and when you have done so, 
build up your complaint and establish your charge ; 
it is not feasible for all to speak at once. You, 
rankness, shall make your defence thereafter. 


Which of us, I wonder, would be the best fitted 
to handle the case ? 

iBk chrysippus 

'Hi You, Plato. Marvellous sublimity, superlatively 
Attic elegance, charm and persuasiveness, insight, 
subtlety, opportune seductiveness in demonstration — 
all this is yours to the full. Accept the spokes- 
manship, therefore, and say whatever is appropriate 
in behalf of us all. Remember now all your former 
successes and put together any points you have urged 
against Gorgias or Polos or Hippias or Prodicus : this 
man is more able than they. So apply a light 

^ Frankness asks of Athena more aid than she generally 
gave ; for the proverbial ballot of Athena merely decided a 
tie vote in favour of the defendant, as in the trial of Orestes. 



V€ia<; fcal ra Ko/jLyfra eKelva kol avvext) ipcora, 

KaV GOV BoKTJ, KUKelvO TTOV 7rapd/3v(T0V, ft)? " 6 

/Ji6'ya<; iv ovpavSi Zeu<; ttttjvov ap/xa eXavvoav " 
dyavaKTTJaeiev dv, el firj ovro^ vTroaxoi tt]v BIktjv. 


23 MT^Sa/xw?, dWd riva twi/ acjioSporepcov irpo- 
')(eLpLaaiixeda, Aioyivrj tovtov t) ^AvTLaOivrj rj 
Kpdrrjra r) xal <7e, c5 XpvcTLTnre' ov yap Brj KaX- 
\ov<i ev TW TTapovTL KOL Beiv6rrjro<; (Tvyypa<j)LK7]<i 
6 Kaip6<;, dWd tlvo<; iXeyfcrt./crj'^ xal BiKavL/crj'i 
TrapaaKevrj^i' prjTwp he 6 UapprjcndBij^; iarLv. 


'AW iyci) avTov /carrjyopTJao)' ovSe yap irdw 
fiaKpayv olfiai rwv Xoycov BerjaeaOai. koI aXKco^ 
vTrep d7ravTa<; v^piafiai Bv offoXcjp 7rpa>7]v diro- 


*0 AioyevTjt;, a> ^iXoao(f>La, ipel rov Xoyov virep 
dirdvTcov. /nifivrjao Be, co yevvale, fMrj rd aeavrou 
jjlovov TTpea^eveiv ev rfj Karijyopia, rd Koivd Be 
opdv el yap tl Kal Trpo? dXXrjXov; Biacpepo/ieOa 
€v T0i9 Boy/iaai, av Be rovro fiev firj e^era^e, /jLjjBe 
oaTL<i earlv o dXrjdeaTepo^; vvv Xeye, oXw? Be 
virep ^iXo<TO<pia'i avrrjf; dyapdfcret. Trepiv^pia- 
fxevT]^ Kal KaK(a<^ aKovovarj^ ev roL<; JJapprjaidBov 
X6yoi<;, Kal rd^i it poaipeaei^; d(j)eL<i, ev ah BiaX- 
XdrTOfiev, o kolvov diTavTe<i 'i'xpiJiev, rovro virep- 
lid')(eL. opa' ae fiovov TrpoearrjadfieOa Kal ev 
aol rd rrdvra rj/icov vvv KivBvveverai, rj ae/xvo- 
rara Bo^ai rj roiavra TnarevOrjvaL ola ovro'i 




sprinkling of irony, too, put those clever, incessant 
questions of yours, and if you think best, also slip it 
in somewhere that '^•' great Zeus in heaven driving 
his winged car" would be angry if this man should 
not be punished. 


No, let us make use of someone more strenuous — 
Diogenes here, or Antisthenes, or Crates, or you 
yourself, Chrysippus. For surely what the occasion 
demands now is not elegance and literary distinction, 
but some degree of argumentative and forensic 
equipment : Frankness is a professional speaker. 


Well, then, I will be prosecutor, for we shall not 
require speeches of any great length, I suppose : and 
besides, I have been insulted beyond all of you, since 
I was auctioned off the other day for two obols. 


Diogenes will make the speech. Philosophy, for all 
of us. Remember, friend, not just to speak for 
yourself in the complaint, but to keep our common 
interests in view. If we do disagree with one 
another a little in our doctrines, you must not 
examine into that, or attempt to say who is the 
nearer right, but, in general, make an impassioned 
plea for Philosophy herself, because she has been 
heaped with insult and shamefully abused in the 
dialogues of Freespeaker ; ignore the personal views 
wherein we differ, and fight for what we all have 
in common. Take note, you are our sole represent- 
ative and it rests with you whether all our teachings 
are to seem worthy of high reverence or to be thought 
no better than this man made them out to be. 




24 Sapp€LT€, ovSev iWeiyjro/juev' virep airdvTwv 

€pM. KCLV 7] ^i\0(T0(j)La Bc TTpO^ TOU? X07OU9 €7n- 

KkaaOelaa — (f>va€i, yap ^/xepo? koi 7rpd6<i iariv — 
d(f>€ivaL Bia/SovXevrjraL avrov, aXX' ov ra i/ia 
ivherjcrer Sei^co yap avro) oTt /jltj fidrrjp ^v\o- 

TovTo jiev /jLr]Ba/ia)<;, dWa tm \6ya) /jloXXov 
djieLvov yap rjirep rw f uX«. jjlt] fieXke S* ovv. rjhr) 
yap eyKex^Tai to vScop Kal tt/jo? ere ro hiKaarrj- 
pLOv diTO^XeTTei. 


01 XotTTol KaOi^ercoaav, w ^ikoaocpla, kul 
^frrJ(fiO(f>op€LTa)a■av fieO' v/jl(ov, Aioy6vr)<; Be KarTjyo- 
peiTd) fi6vo<;. 


O^ BeBia<; ovv purj crou KaTa-^7)<^iawvTat; 


OvBa/jLO)^' irXeioai yovv Kparfjaat / 


Tevvacd crou ravra' KaOlaare B^ ovv. av Be, w 
Ai6yev€<;, \eye. 


25 OloL fjLev rjjiieU avBpe^ eyevofxeOa irapd rov 
^I'ov, 0) ^i\o(TO(f)ia, Trdvv dKpi^w^ olaOa Kal 
ovBev Bel Xoycov I'va yap to kut ifie (TKomjacOy 
dXXa TlvOayopav tovtov Kal TiXdTwva Kal 
^ApiaTOTeXr] Kal XpvaLTriTOV Kal rov? dXXov<i t/? 
ovK olBev oaa eh tov jSiov KaXa elaeKOixiaavTo; a 




Do not be alarmed ; we shall not come short : I 
will speak in behalf of all. Even if Philosophy, 
swayed by his eloquence — for she is naturally kindly 
and gentle — determines to acquit him, I for my part 
shall not be found wanting, for I will show him that 
we do not carry sticks for nothing ! 


Not by any means ! Use arguments, rather, for 
that is better. But do not delay. The water already 
has been poured in,^ and the jury has its eyes upon 


Let the others ^ take seats, Philosophy, and cast 
their votes with your company, and let Diogenes be 
the only prosecutor. 


Then are you not afraid they may find you guilty } 


Not at all. In fact, I wish to win by a larger 


That is handsome of you. Well, then, take your 
seats, and you, Diogenes, begin your speech. 


What sort of men we were in life. Philosophy, you 
know right well, and I need not discuss that point 
at all ; for who is not aware how much beauty was 
brought into life by Pythagoras here, Plato, Aristotle, 
Chrysippus and the others, to say nothing of myself ? 

1 i.e. the water-clock has been filled. 

2 The rest of the philosophers, who are to sit on the jury 



Se TOLOVTOV^ ovra^ r]fJia<; 6 TptaKaTapaTO^ ovToal 
IIapp7)aidSr]<; v^pLKev tjSt] epcj. 

'Frjrcop yap Tt9, w? (paaiv, wv, airdXnrwv tcl 
hiKaaTrjpia kol ra^ iv iK€Lvoi<; evhoKLjirjaei'^, otto- 
(Tov rj SeivoTTjTOf; r) dK/ji7]<; iTTeiropio-ro iv toI<; 

XoyOl^, TOVTO TTCLV 6^' ^/itt? (TV(TK€Vaadp.€VO<; ov 

iraverai, avro^ ^ jjlIv dyopevcov KaKw^ j6r]Ta<; kol 
aTrarecova^i drroKaXMV, ra ttXiJOtj Be dvaTreiOwv 
KarayeXdv tj/jlmv kol Kuracppovetv co? to firjBev 
ovTcoV pLoXkov Be KoX pLiaeLcrOaL tt/jo? twi' ttoX- 
\(OP TjBr} TreiroirjKev avrov^ re r}p,d<i koX ere rrjv 
^iXoa 0(f) lav, (j>\r]vd(f)ov<; Kal \i]pov<; dirofcaXcov 
rd ad Kal rd airovBaLOTara oiv r)pLd<; eTraiBevcraf; 
eVt ')(\evaapL(p Bie^ccov, axrre avrov pbev Kporel- 
crOac Kal iiraiveladai irpo^ tmv dearoov, r)p,d<; Be 
v^pi^eadai. (pvaei, ydp tolovtov iarcv 6 ttoXu? 
Xeft)?, ')(aipov(Tv rot? aTroaKcoTrrova-iv Kal Xoi- 
Bopov/ievoi<;, Kal pid\i<y6* orav rd aep^vorara eivai 
BoKovvra BiacrvprjTai,, cjairep dpuekeL Kal irdXai 
e')(^atpov *Api(TTO(f)dvei Kal EuTroXiSt ScoKpart] 
TOVTOvl eirl ^(XevacrLa irapdyovaiv eirl rrjv aKT)- 
vr)v Kal KQ)jjLwBov(TLV dXXoK6rov<i TLvd^ irepl avrov 

K^airoL eKeivoL p,€v KaO^ evo'; dvBpcx; eroXpiwv 
roiavra, Kal iv Aiovva-Loi<; icfiecp^evov avro eBpcov, 
Kal TO <rKcopp,a iBoKei fiepo^ ri, rrj<; €oprrj<;, Kal 

6 ^609 t<7ft)9 e'x^aLpe ^ (ftiXoyeXoo^ Tt? a>v. 

26 6 8e rov<; dpLcrrov<; crvyKaXcov, ck ttoXXov ^pov- 
Ttcra? Kal 7rapacrK€va(Tdjj,evo<; Kal ffXao-fprjfilaf; 

^ aitrhs inserted by A.M.H. : ri/xas Bekker ; irauerai fxfp 
MSS. 2 n^aipe Bekker, K. Schwartz j xat>et MSS. 



I shall proceed to speak of the insults which, in spite 
of our merit, this double-dyed scoundrel Frankness 
has dealt us. 

He is a public speaker, they say : but abandoning 
the courts and the successes to be gained therein, he 
concentrated upon us all the eloquence and power 
that he had acquired in rhetoric, and not only 
unceasingly abuses us himself by calling us cheats 
and liars, but induces the public to laugh and sneer 
at us as if we amounted to nothing at all. More 
than that, he has at last made people actually hate 
you. Philosophy, as well as us by dubbing your 
doctrines stuff and nonsense and rehearsing in 
mockery all that is most serious in what you taught 
us, so as to get applause and praise from his audience 
for himself and contumely for us. The common sort 
are that way by nature ; they delight in jesters and 
buffoons, and most of all when they criticise what is 
held in high reverence. Just so in days gone by 
they took delight in Aristophanes and Eupolis, who 
brought Socrates on the stage to make fun of him 
and got up monstrous farces about him. 

The playwrights, however, showed their boldness 
against only one man, and at the Dionysia, when it 
was permissible to do so, and the joking was 
considered part of the holiday, and 

The god, who loves his joke, no doubt was pleased.^ 

But this man brings the best people together, after a 
long period of thinking and preparing and writing 

* Author unknown. 



Tiva^ eh iraxy ^tfiXiov iyypd-^a^y fJLeyaXr) ry 
^covfj dyopevei Kafcco<i UXdrcova, UvOajopav, 
^ Apia TOT eXi] rovTov, XpuaiTTTrov eKelvov, ifie Ka\ 
o\&)? drravra<i ovre eoprrj^; icj^teio-r)^ ovre Ihia tl 
7rpo<i r)/ji(bv TraOcov e2')(^6 yap dv riva avyyvcofirjv 
avTcp TO Trpdy/jua, el dfivvoiievo^;, dWd fxrj dp')(^(i)P 
avTo<i eSpa. 

'^O Be TrdvTcov Betvorarov, on Tocavra ttoicov 
KoX TO aov ovofxa} to ^iXoao<pLa, virohveTat xal 
VTTeXOoov TOP AidXoyov rj/xeTepov olKeTrjv ovtu, 
TovT(£) avvaycovtaTjj kol vTroKptTrj ')(^prjTai Kad^ 
rjfxoyvy €TL Koi yievircTTOv dvaireia-a'i eTolpov rjixoyv 
dvSpa avyKco/iKpBelv avTW Ta iroWd, 09 fiovo^ ov 
irdpecTTLV ovBe KaTrjyopel fieO^ rj/icov, 7rpoBov<; to 


27 'Ai'^' (av aTravTcov d^Lov idTiv vTroa^^cv avTov 
TTjv BiKTjv. rj TL ydp dv elirelv e')(oi, Ta aejxvoTaTa 
Biaavpa^i eirl toctq-utcov fiapTvpcov; ')(pi](Ti/iiov 
yovv Ka\ 7rpo<; eKelvov<; to tolovtov, el OedaaivTO 
avTov KoXacrOevTa, 0)9 piriBe dWo<; Tt9 €TI KaTa- 
<j)povoL7] OfcXocro</)ta9* eVet to ye ttjv yav)(Lav 
dyeiv Kul v^pL^ojievov dveyeaOai ov /MeTptoTrjTO'^, 
dWd dvavBpia<; Kal evrjOela^ elKOTco^i dv vo/jll- 
fo«TO. Ta fxev ydp TeXevTala tlvl cf^op^Td; 69 
Kaddirep Ta dvBpdiroBa irapayaydiv ripua^ eirl to 
iroyXrjTrjpiov fcal KijpvKa einaTrjaa'i dirrjiJiTroXT]- 
aev, W9 (f>aoriv, Tov<i fiev eirl ttoXX^, eviov^ Be 
/jivd<; 'ATTi/c^9, e/jL€ Be 6 7rafjL7rov7]p6TaTO<; ovTo<i 
Bv o^oXwv ol TTapovTe'i Be eyeXwv. 

*AvO' MV avTOL T€ dveXrjXvOafiev dyava/CTij- 
a-avT€<i Kal ae d^iovp^ev Tip^wprjaeiv rjpXv Ta 
eaxctra v/Spia/jievoi^;, 

^ rh ahv ipofia K. Schwartz : vvh rh ahv tyofxa MSS. 


down slanders in a thick roll, and then loudly abuses 
Plato, Pythagoras, Aristotle here, Chrysippus there, 
myself,and in a word, one and all, without the sanction 
of a holiday and without having had anything done 
to him personally by us. He would have some excuse 
forthething,of course, if he had acted in self-defence 
instead of starting the quarrel. 

What is worst of all, in doing this sort of thing, 
Philosophy, he shelters himself under your name, 
and he has suborned Dialogue, our serving-man, em- 
ploying him against us as a helper and a spokesman. 
Moreover, he has actually bribed Menippus,^ a comrade 
of ours, to take part in his farces frequently ; he is 
the only one who is not here and does not join us 
in the prosecution, thereby playing traitor to our 
common cause. 

For all this he ought to be punished. What, pray, 
can he have to say for himself after ridiculing all that 
is most holy before so many witnesses ? In fact, it 
would be a good thing for them, too, if they were to 
see him punished, so that no other man might ever 
again sneer at Philosophy ; for to keep quiet and 
pocket insults might well be thought to betoken 
weakness and simplicity rather than self-control. 
And who could put up with his last performances ? 
Bringing us like slaves to the auction-room and 
appointing a crier, he sold us off, they say, some for 
a high price, some for an Attic mina, and me, arrant 
scoundrel that he is, for two obols ! And those 
present laughed ! 

On account of this, we ourselves have come up 
here in a rage, and we think it right that you for 
your part should avenge us because we have been 
insulted to the limit. 

^ The Cynic, of Gadara : Lucian's chief predecessor in 
satirical prose. 




28 Fiv 76, CO Ai6y€P€<i, virep airavTcov kqXco^ 
OTToaa ixpW o,TTavTa elprjKa^. 


UavaaaOe €TTaivovvT€<;' e'y)(eL rw aTroXoyov- 
fxevw, (TV Be 6 TIapprjaLd87j<; Xiye rjhrj iv t« 
/leper aol yap to vvv pel. /x?) fxekXe ovv. 


29 Ov TTCLvra fiov, w <PiXoao(f)[a, KarTjyopijae 
Aioyevrj^i, dWa ra ifXeiw kol oaa tjv 'x^aX.eTro)- 
repa ov/c olSa 6 ti iradwv nrapeXiirev. eyoD Be 
ToaovTov Beco e^apvo<; yeveaOat 0)9 ovk elirov 
avrd, rj diroXoyiav rivd /jLep^eXerTjKco^ d<pi'y^dat, 
a>are Koi et nva r) avTO<^ dTreaicoirrjaev rj eyco p,r] 
iTporepov e^Orjv elpr)K(i)<;, vvv irpoaOrjaeLV fjuoL 
BoKO). ovTco<; yap av pLdSoi<; ovartva<i dire/CTj- 
pvTTov /cal KaKox; rjyopevov dXa^6va<; Koi y6r)ra^ 
diTOKaXoyv. Kai p^oi p.6vov rovro irapacjyvXdTreTe, 
el dXr]Orj Trepl avrcov epa>. el Be tl ^Xda(f)r]p.ov rj 
rpax^ (f>aivoiTO e^cov 6 X6yo<;, ov rbv BieXeyxovra 
ip,e, dXX^ €KeLVOV<; av ol/j,ai BtKacorepov alrid- 
aataOe,^ roiavra irovovvTa^. 

*E7(w yap eTreiBt} Ta^^crra avvelBov oiroaa roL<; 
prjTOpevovaiv dvay/calov rd Bv(T)(eprj Trpoaelvat, 
aTrdrrjv Kal '\jr€vBo<; Kal Opaavrrjra Kal fforjv koI 
0)di,ap.ov<; Kal p,vpia dXXa, ravra fiev, Mairep 
elKo^ rjv, aTrecpvyov, eirl Be rd ad, c5 <i>LXoao(j)ia, 
KaXd 6pp.rj(Ta<; rj^Lovv oitogov ert /xot Xolttov tov 
filov KaOdirep ix faX-?;? Kal KXvBo)vo<i eh evBiov 

^ alrid<Tai(Tdf Dindorf : alridafadai B, alridaaaOai P, OiVta- 
(Tfffde UN, alriaadf y. 



Good, Diogenes ! You have splendidly said all 
that you ought on behalf of us all. 


Stop applauding ! Pour in the water for the 
defendant. Now, Frankness, make your speech in 
turn, for the water now is running for you. Don't 
delay, then. 


Diogenes did not complete the complaint against 
me, Philosophy. He left out, for some reason or 
other, the greater part of what I said, and everything 
that was very severe. But I am so far from denying 
that I said it all and from appearing with a studied 
defence that whatever he passed over in silence or 
I neglected previously to say, I purpose to include 
now. In that way you can find out whom I put up 
for sale and abused, calling them pretenders and 
cheats. And I beg you merely to note throughout 
whether what I say about them is true. If my 
speech should prove to contain anything shocking 
or offensive, it is not I, their critic, but they, I think, 
whom you would justly blame for it, acting as 
they do. 

As soon as I perceived how many disagreeable 
attributes a public speaker must needs acquire, such 
as chicanery, lying, impudence, loudness of mouth, 
sharpness of elbow, and what all besides, I fled from 
all that, as was natural, and set out to attain your 
high ideals. Philosophy, expecting to sail, as it 
were, out of stormy waters into a peaceful haven 



Tiva Xifxeva eVTrXeucra? vtto aol o-KeirofJievo^ 

30 l^aireihr) fjuovov 7rape/cv\jra el<; ra vfierepa, ae 
fiev, wairep avayKolov tjv, koX rovaSe airavraf; 
eOavfia^ov apiarov /3lov vofioOera^; 6vTa<i fcal rot? 
eV* avTOV i7r€iyofievoi<; X^^P^ opeyovra^, ra koX- 
Xiara koX (TVfi<t)op(i)TaTa Trapaivovvra^i, €l rt? /jlt} 
irapa^alvoi avra /jurjSe BioXiaOdvoL, aXk* drevei; 
cLTro^XeTTwv el^ tou? Kav6va<; oix; TrporeOeiKare, 
TTpo^ TovTOVf; pvOfii^oi Kol diTevOvvoi rov iavrov 
^iov, oirep vt) Ala Kal twv KaO^ vp.a<i^ avjov^ 
oXijoL iroLovcnv. 

31 'Opwv he 7roXXov<; ovk epcuTi (f)t,Xo(TO(f>ia<; e%o- 
jievov^ dXka S6^rj<; fiovov r^? dirb rov Trpdypa- 
T09 i(f)Lep.evov<;, Kal rd pev TTpoyeipa ravra Kal 
hrjpocna Kal oirocra iravrl pipLelaOai paSiov cv 
pdXa eoLKora^i djadol'i dvBpdai, to yeveiov Xeyoy 
Kal TO ^dStapa Kal rr]v dvafioXtjv, iirl he rov 
fiiov Kal TMV TTpaypdrcov dvrt<f)Oeyyopevov<; Ta> 
a^Vf^cLTi Kal Tavavria vplv eTnTrjhevovra^; Kal 
hia^delpovTa^; to d^iwpia Trj<; vTroax^aew^, rjya- 
vdKTOVv, Kal TO irpdypa 6p,oiov ehoKCL poi KaOd- 
Tiep av eX ti<; VTroKpiTrjf; Tpaywhia^i paXOaKo^ 
avTO<; o)v Kal yvvaLKelo<i ^A^t-XXea rj S^jaea 77 Kal 
Tov ^HpaKXea viroKpiVOLTO avTov prjre ^ahi^ojv 
p,rjTe 0O(ov rjpaylKov, dXXd OpvTTTopuevo^ vtto ttjXi- 
KOVTM irpoaayTreiq), ov ovh* av rj ^EiXevrj ttotc rj 
UoXv^evr) dvdcrxoivTO irepa rov p^erpLOv avTaU 
TTpoaeoiKOTa, ou^ oircoq 6 'HpaKXrjf; 6 KaXXuvLKo^it 
dXXd pLOL hoKel Td^idT av eTriTpcyjrai Tft) poirdXto 

* T)fxas p : see opposite note. 



and to live out the rest of my life under your 

Hardly had I caught a glimpse of your doctrines 
when I conceived admiration for you, as was inevitable, 
and for all these men, who are the lawgivers of the 
higher life and lend a helping hand to those who 
aspire to it by giving advice which is extremely good 
and extremely helpful if one does not act contrary to 
it or falter, but fixedly regards the principles which 
you have established and tries to bring his life into 
harmony and agreement with them — a thing, to be 
sure, which very few, even of your own disciples, do ! ^ 
^ When I saw, however, that many were not in love 
with Philosophy, but simply coveted the reputation 
of the thing, and that although in all the obvious, 
commonplace matters which anyone can easily copy 
they were very like worthy men (in beard, I mean, 
and walk and garb), in their life and actions, how- 
ever, they contradicted their outward appearance 
and reversed your practice and sullied the dignity of 
the profession, I became angry. The case seemed 
to me to be as if some actor in tragedy who was 
soft and womanish should act the part of Achilles 
or Theseus, or even Heracles himself, without either 
walking or speaking as a hero should, but showing 
off airs and graces in a mask of such dignity. Even 
Helen or Polyxena would never suffer such a man 
to resemble them too closely, let alone Heracles, the 
conquering hero, who, in my opinion, would very soon 

^ I give Fritzsche's interpretation of this last clause, 
though I fear it strains the Greek and is foreign to Lucian's 
thought. Another, and I think a better, solution is to excise 
the clause as an early gloss, reading -fj/xas and interpreting it 
more naturally, "a thing which very few, even in our own 
time, do." Compare the late gloss in /3 : t1 ravra to7s *co0' 
Ti/j-as toiKf fiovaxois. 



iralcov TOVTOV avrov re koX to Trpodwirelov, ovrcof; 
drifico^ KaTaTeOrfkvjiiJLivo^ irpo^ avrov. 

32 ^oLavra kol avro^; u/xa? 'TTd(T')(^ovra<; vir* eKeivwv 
6pa)V ovK rjve^Ka rrjv ala')(yv7]v rrj<; v7roKpiae(o<;, 
el iridTjKOi 6vre<; eroXfjurjaav rjpcocov irpoaayirela 
TrepLOiaOai rj rov ev ^vfxr) ovov fii/jU'^aaaOaL, 09 
\eovrrjv rrepi^aK6fjLevo<^ rj^cov Xecov avro<i elvac, 
7rpo<; dyvoovvra^ tou? Kf/xatou? 6yK(o/j,€vo<; jxaka 
rpa^v KOL KarairXrjKrLKOP, d')(^pt By rL<^ avrov 
^evo^ fcal Xeovra lBodv kol ovov TroWdxif: rjXey^e 
Kal aTreSlco^e Traicov roh ^v\oi<;. 

'^O Be fiaXiard /not Betvov, St) ^Lkoao^la, Kare- 
(pauvero, rovro rjv at yap dvOpwiroi el rtva 
rovrcov icopcov irovrjpov rj da')(7j/j,ov rj daeXye^; ri 
emrrjBevovra, ovk eariv oari^ ov ^iXoao^lav 
avrr)v rjndro Kal rov XpyaiiTTrov evOv<; rj TiXd- 
rcova rj HvOayopav rj orov eTrcovv/jLOv avrov 6 
BiafjLaprdvcov €fcecvo<; eTToielro Kal ov rov<; Xoyov; 
e/jLL/iecro' ^ Kal diro rov KaKco<; ^Lovvro^ iTOvrjpd 
rrepl v/jlcov e'cKa^ov rcov irpo iroXXou reOvrjKorcov' 
OV yap rrapd ^covra<; vfid^; 77 i^eracri^ avrov eyi- 
yvero, dXX v/jl€L<; fiev eKrroBdtv, eKelvov Be ecopcov 
(Tacpco'; diravref; Betvd Kal daefMva eTTirrjBevovra, 
ware epr]iir)v rjXia-Keade fier avrov Kal iirl rrjv 
ojxoiav Bia^oXr)v avyKarearrdade. 

33 Tavra ovk r^veyKa opwv eycoye, dXX^ rjXey^ov 
avrov<; Kal BieKpivov d<p^ v/moov v/JLeL<; Be, rifidv 
iirl rovroL^ Beov, eh BtKaar'^piov fie dyere. ovk- 
ovv rjv riva Kal rcov fie/jLvrj/jbivcov IBcbv e^ayopev- 
ovra ralv Oealv rd diroppyra Kal e^op^ovfievov 
dyavaKrrj(T(o Kal BceXey^co, e/JLe rov dae^ovvra 

^ ifiiixuTo Seager : iiroie^ro y^, 


smash both man and mask with a few strokes of his 
club for making him out so disgracefully effeminate. 

Just so with me ; when I saw you so treated by 
those others, I could not brook the shame of their 
impersonation when they made bold, though but apes, 
to wear heroic masks, or to copy the ass of Cumae 
who put on a lion's skin and claimed to be himself a 
lion, braying in a very harsh and fearsome way at the 
ignorant Cumaeans, until at length a foreigner, who 
had often seen lions and asses, exposed him and 
chased him away by beating him with sticks. 

But what seemed to me most shocking. Philosophy, 
was this, that if people saw any one of these fellows 
engaged in any wicked or unseemly or indecent 
practice, every man of them at once laid the blame 
upon Philosophy herself, and upon Chrysippus or 
Plato or Pythagoras or whichever one of you 
furnished that sinner with a name for himself and a 
model for his harangues ; and from him, because he 
was leading an evil life, they drew sorry conclusions 
about you others, who died long ago. For as you were 
not alive, he could not be compared with you. You 
were not there, and they all clearly saw him following 
dreadful and discreditable practices, so that you 
suffered judgment by default along with him and 
became involved in the same scandal. 

I could not endure this spectacle, but set about 
exposing them and distinguishing them from you ; 
and you, who ought to reward me for it, bring me 
into court ! Then if I observed one of the initiates 
disclosing the mysteries of the Goddesses Twain and 
rehearsing them in public, and became indignant and 
showed him up, would you consider me the impious 



rjyrjcreaOe elvai; aX)C ov SiKatov. iirel koI oi 
aOXoOerai jiaanyovv elayOaaiv, rjv n^ v7roKpLT7)<; 
WOr]vdv T) Tloaei^odva r) rov Aia viroSeSvKcof; firj 
Ka\(o(; vTTO/cplvTjTat firjSe Kar a^iav rwv Oewv, 
Koi ov hi] TTOV opyi^ovrat aurol^ eKelvoi, Biotl 
Tov irepiKeifjLevov avrwv ra nrpoacDTrela koX to 
axVH'^ ivBehvKora eTreTpeyjrav iraUiv rot? fiaart- 
yo(j)6poi<i, aXXa /cat rjSoivr av, olfiat, fiaWov ^ 
/jLao-TLyov/jLevo)' ^ oiKerijv /xev yap riva rj dyyeXov 
fjLT) he^ioi^ vTTOKpivaadaL jxiKpov to irTalafjia, tov 
Aia Se rj tov 'HpaxXia /jbrj KaT a^iav eiTLhei- 
^aaOai toI<; OeaTal<i, airoTpoTraiov w? ala)(p6v. 
34 Kal yap av /cal ToBe ttclvtcov aTOircoTaTOv 
iaTiv, OTL Toi'9 jjbkv \6yov<; v/ulcjv irdvv afcpi^ovaLV 
ol TToWol avTCOv, KaOdirep Be eirl tovto jjlovov 
dvayiyvo)aKovT€<^ avT0v<; Kal /j-€\€T(opt€<;, oo? tol- 
vavTia eTTLT-qBevoiev, ovtco^ /SLOvaiv. to fjuev yap 
fit/3\Lov ')(prj/jidTQ)V <f)r)a\ Belv KaTa(f)povelv^ Kal 
Bo^Tjf; Kal /jLovov to koXov dyaOov oieaOai Kal 
dopyrjTOV elvat, Kal tcov Xajjurpodv tovtcov virep- 
opav Kal ef iVoTi/xta? avTo2<; BidXiyeaOac, Ka\d,^ 
w deoL, Kal cro(j)a Kal Oav/idaia \eyov ^ co? dXrj- 
0(o(i. 01 Be Kal avTCL TavTa eirl fiicrOa) BiBdaKovaiv 
Kal Tou? 7r\ov(TLOV<; TeO^Traaiv Kal tt/jo? to 
dpyvpiov Keyjqvaaiv, opyikdiTepoL fjuev tcov kvvi- 
Blcov 6vTe<;, BeiXoTepot Be tcov Xaycocov, KoXaKLKOO- 
repoL Be tmv ttiOtjkcov, daeXyeaTepou Be tcov ovcov, 
dpiraKTiKcoTepot Be tcov yaXcjv, (jyiXoveiKOTepoc Be 
TCOV dXeKTpv ovcov. TOiyapovv yeXcoTa 6(f)XiaKd- 
vovcTiv codii^ofxevoL eV avTa Kal irepl ra? Tcav 

^ ol/jiat juaAAov Jacobs : oliuLai p, /xaWou y. 

^ p.a(niyovp.4vop Bekker : ^lacriyovfiivuv MSS. 



one ? It would not be just. Certainly the officials 
of the games always flog an actor if he takes the part 
of Athena or Poseidon or Zeus and does not play it 
well and in accordance with the dignity of the gods ; 
and the gods themselves are surely not angry at them 
for letting the scourgers whip a man wearing tlieir 
masks and dressed in their clothing. On the contrary, 
they would be gratified, I take it, if he were flogged 
more soundly. Not to act a servant's or a messen- 
ger's part cleverly is a trivial fault, but not to present 
Zeus or Heracles to the spectators worthily — Heaven 
forfend ! how shameful ! 

It is most extraordinary, too, that most of them 
are thoroughly up in your writings, but live as if they 
read and studied them simply to practise the reverse. 
y Their book tells them they must despise wealth and 
reputation, think that only what is beautiful is good, 
be free from anger, despise these people of eminence, 
and talk with them as man to man ; and its advice 
is beautiful, as Heaven is my witness, and wise and 
wonderful, in all truth. But they teach these very 
doctrines for pay, and worship the rich, and are agog 
after money; they are more quick-tempered than curs, 
more cowardly than hares, more servile than apes, 
more lustful than jackasses, more thievish than cats, 
more quarrelsome than game-cocks. Consequently, 
they let themselves in for ridicule when they hustle 

' Text 7 : -ni-vra fxtv yap oaa (pacrlv oTov XRV/^'^'rocv Karatppove^y 
/3, edd. 

* a\K* y. ^ A€70J' A.M.H. : Xtyovres y, Xiav ^. 


ifKovaiwv 7rv\cova<; a\Xj]\ov<; irapayfccovL^ofievoL 
Kol SeLTTva TToXvavOpcoira Bec7rvovvT6<; koI €v av- 
TOi<i TouTOt? eTratPovvre^ (f)opTLK(o<; Kal irepa rod 

Ka\(x)<i €')(OVTO(; €/jL(j)OpOVfieVOl, KoI fJLejJL-y^ifJLOipOL 

(f)aiv6/jL€voi Kal iirl r?}? kvXiko^ arepTrrj kol 
airayBa ^i\oao<f)ovvTe<; koX top aKparop ov 06- 
poPT€<;' ol IBicorac Be OTroaoc irdpeiaip, ^yekoiai, 
BifkaBr] Kal KaraTrrvovaip (f)L\oao(f)ia<;i el rotavra 
Kaddp/jLara eKTpecpei. 

35 To Be irdvT(OP aia)(^L(Trop, on fi7]B€Po^ BelaOai 
Xeycop €Ka(TT0<; avrcop, dWd fiopop irXovaiOP elpau 
TOP (T0<j)0P K€Kpayci)<; fjutKpop varepop TrpoaeXOcov 
alrel Kal dyapaKrel firj Xa^cop, OfxoLOP o)? el rt? 
ep /SaatXLKO) a')(^iiaTL opOrjp ridpup e)((t}p Kal 
BidBrjfjLa Kal ra dXXa oaa ^a<TLX€La<; ypcopicrfiara 
TrpoaaiTOiT) rcop viroBeearepcop Be6/j,epo<;. 

"Orap fiep ovp Xafieip avrov^; Bey, ttoXv^; 6 irepl 
rod KOiPCOPiKOP elpat Belp X6709 Kal co? dBidcfyopop 
6 ttXoOto? Kal, *' Tl yap to '^pvalop rj Tapyvpiop, 
ovBep TOJP ep rot? alyiaXoL<i '^^(pcop Bia^epop^ 
OTap Be Tt? €7rLK0vpia<; Beo/iiepo'^ €Tatpo(; ck ira- 
XaLov Kal </)tXo9 dirb ttoXXmp oXiya alTrj irpoaeX- 
doop, aicoTTT} Kal aTTopia Kal dixaOia Kal TraXipoyBla 
TMP Boy/jidTCOP TT/JO? TO ipaPTLOP' ol Be TToXXol 
ire pi 0iXta? eKelvoL Xoyot Kal 77 dperr) Kal to 
KaXop ovK olBa oiroi ttotc oX')(eTai TavTa diroirTa- 
fiepa irdpTa, irTepoepTa co? dXrjdcof; ewr], /jidTTjp 
oarjfjiepaL tt/oo? avTcop ep rat? BiaTpL^al^; GKiay^a- 

36 'x^ovfiepa. P'^XP'' y^P '^ovtov (puXo^; €Ka<TT0<i av- 
Tcop, e/9 oaop CLP fit) dpyvpLOP rj ^p^^^op y TrpOKel- 
fiepop ep TO) /jbidM' rjp Be rt? o^oXop eiriBei^rj 
fjLOPOP, XeXvTai p.ep r) elprjpj], daTTOpBa Be KaKJ]- 



after it all and elbow one another at the portals of the 
rich and take part in great banquets, where they pay 
vulgar compliments, stuff themselves beyond decency, 
grumble openly at their portions, vent their philo- 
sophy disagreeably and discordantly over their cups, 
and fail to carry their drink well. All those present 
who are not of the profession laugh at them, 
naturally, and spit philosophy to scorn for breeding 
up such beasts. 

Most shameless of all, though each one of them 
says he needs nothing and bawls it abroad that only 
the wise man is rich, after a little he presents 
himself and asks for something, and is angry if he 
does not get it. It is just as if someone in royal 
robes, with a high turban and a diadem and all the 
other marks of kingly dignity, should play the 
mendicant, begging of men worse off than himself. 

When they must needs receive a present, there is a 
great deal of talk to the effect that a man should be 
ready to share what he has, and that money does not 
matter : " What, pray, does gold or silver amount 
to, since it is not in any way better than pebbles 
on the sea-shore ! " But when someone in want 
of help, an old-time comrade and friend, goes and 
asks for a little of their plenty, he encounters silence, 
hesitancy, forgetfulness, and complete recantation 
of doctrines. Their numerous speeches about friend- 
ship, their "virtue" and their "honour" have all 
gone flying off, I know not whither, winged words 
for certain, idly bandied about by them daily in their 
class-rooms. Each of them is your friend as long 
as silver and gold are not in sight on the table ; 
but if you merely give them a glimpse of an obol, 
the peace is broken, it is war without truce or parley 



pvKTa TTcivra, Kal ra /Si/SXla e^aXrjXiTrraL koI r) 
dpeTT] irecpevyev. olov n Kal ol Kvv€<i irda^ovcnv 
iTreiBdv rt? oarovv eh fieaovi avTov<^ ijjL^aXr}' 
dva7rr}B7]o-avT€<; hdKVOvaiv dWrjkov^; KaX rov irpo- 
apTrdaavra to oarovv vXaKTovaLv. 

Aiyerai Be Kal ^aaCKev^ ri? AlyvTrrio^ ttlBi]- 
K0v<; TTore irvppL'X^L^etv BiBd^ai Kal rd 9T)pL% — 
fii/jLijXoraTa Be iari, rayp dv6 pwrrivwv — eKpLaOelv 
Td^iaTa Kal op^eladai, d\ovpyiBa<^ d/JLirexopeva 
Kal TrpoacoTreta Tre piKeifxeva, Kal p^e-^^pi ye ttoX- 
\ov evBoKLfxelv rrjv Oeav, d)(pL Br) deartj^; rt? 
dcrrelo^ Kdpva vtto koXttov^ ^^oyv dcpiJKev eh ro 
fxecrov' ol Be ttlOtjkol lB6vre<; Kal eK\a66p,€V0L rrj<; 
op)(^rjaew<;, rovO' oirep rjcravy ttlOtjkol eyevovro dvrl 
'TrvppLX(^o"T(ov Kal avverpL^ov rd Trpoacoirela Kal 
rrjv eaOrjra KareppTJyvuov Kal ep^d-y^ovro irepl rrj<i 
oTTcopa^; 7r/309 dWi]\ov<;, to Be auvraypa t^? 
TTvppixv^ BceXeXvTO Kal KareyeXaTo vtto tov 
37 ToiavTa Kal ovtol TTOiovaiv, Kal eycoye tov<; 
TOiovTov; KaKa)<; r/yopevov Kal oviroTe Travaopiai 
BieX€y')(^cov Kal Kcop^wBcbv, irepl vfxwv Be rj twv 7rapa7rXr}(Ti(ov — elcrl ydp, eldi Tive<; &>? dXtj- 
^ft>9 <j>lXoo- 0(f) lav ^rfkovvre^ Kal rah vpeTepoi^ 
v6poi<; epip^ivovTe^ — put] ovto)<; paveirjv eycoye o)? 
^Xda(l>r}pLOV elirelv tl rj aKaiov. rj tl ydp dv 
elirelv e^oi-P't; tl ydp vptv tolovtov ^e^iwTai ; 
T0U9 Be dXa^ova^ eKeivov^ Kal Oeoh e^Opovf; d^iov 
olpLaL pLLcrelv. rj (jv ydp, co Ylvdayopa Kal II Xa- 
T(ov Kal Xpi/o-fTTTre Kal 'Apfo-roreXe?, tL (pare ; 
iTpoarjKeLv vpuv tou9 tolovtov^ r) oiKelov tl kuI 

^ k6kttov du Soul : kSattov MSS. 


everywhere, the pages of their books have become 
blank, and Virtue has taken to her heels. So it is 
with dogs, when you toss a bone among them ; they 
spring to their feet and begin biting each other and 
barking at the one that was first to snatch the bone. 

It is said, too, that a king of Egypt once taught 
apes to dance, and that the animals, as they are very 
apt at imitating human ways, learned quickly and 
gave an exhibition, with purple mantles about them 
and masks on their faces. For a long time the show, 
they say, went well, until a facetious spectator, 
having nuts in his pocket, tossed them into the midst. 
On catching sight of them, the monkeys forgot their 
dance, changed from artists of the ballet to the 
simians that they really were, smashed their masks, 
tore their costumes, and fought with each other for 
the nuts; whereby the carefully planned ballet was 
entirely broken up, and was laughed at by the 

These self-styled philosophers do just that, and I 
for my part abused their sort, and shall never 
stop criticizing and ridiculing them. But as for you 
and those who resemble you — for there are, there are 
some who truly cultivate philosophy and abide by 
your laws — may I never be so insane as to say any- 
thing abusive or unkind of you ! What could I say ? 
What is there of that nature in the lives that you 
have led? But those pretenders and miscreants 
deserve in my opinion to be hated. Come, now, 
Pythagoras, Plato, Chrysippus, Aristotle — what do 
you say ? Have their sort anything to do with you, 



avyyevh iTriBeUvvcrOai, rro /9tft); vt} At' 'Hpct/cX?}?, 
(f>a(jiv, Kol 7ri07}KO<i. rj Biort irioycovaf; e^ovai koI 
<^i\oao(^eiv (pda/couai /cal aKvdpcoTrol elat, hta 
TOVTO ')(^pr) vfilv eUd^eiv avTOv<;; dWa r/veyKa dv, 
el TTiBavdl yovv rjcrav kcu eVl tt}? vtt ok pL<T €(*><; 
avrrf^' vvv he Oclttov dv yvyjr drjSova /jLtfjLTjaatTO 
rj ovroL (f)i\oo-6(pov<;. 

^I'prjKa virep i/iavrov oiroaa el^oV' (Jv Be, <a 
AXrjOeLa, fiaprvpec 7rpo<; avTov<; el dXrjdrj €<ttlv, 


38 M.€TdaTr]Oi, ft) UapprjaidSr)' en Troppcorepco. tl 
TTOicofiev r^jxeh; 7r(o<; v/jllv elprj/cevat dvrjp eSo^ev; 


'£70) /JL6V, ft) ^iXoao^ia, jxera^v Xeyovro^ av- 
Tov Kara rry? 77}? Bvvai ev^ofjurjv ovtco<; dXrjOr] 
Trdvra eiTrev. iyvcopL^ov yovv dKovovaa eKaarov 
T(ov 7roLovvT(ov avTa koL i(f)7]pfjLo^ov /xera^v toI<; 
Xeyofievot^, rovro fiev eh TovBe, tovto Be 6 Belva 
TToiec' Koi 6\(D<^ eBei^e tou9 dvBpa<^ ivapycjf; 
KaOdirep eTri tlvo^ ypa(j)rj<^ rd Trdvra irpoaeoLKo- 
Ta<;, 01) ra (Tay/jLara /lovov dWd koi Td<; 'y^v')(d<; 
avTd<i eh TO d/cpL^ia-rarov d7r€iKdaa<;, 


J^dyo) Trdvv rjpvOpiaaa rj ^Aper')]} 

*T/A€t9 Be TL (fyare; 

1 71 'Ap€T^ B : 2) 'Aper-h other MSS. 


or have they displayed any similarity or kinship in 
their mode of life ? Aye, " Heracles and the monkey," 
as the proverb has it I ^ Because they have long 
beards and claim to be philosophers and look sour, 
ought they to be compared with you ? I could have 
put up with it if they were at least convincing in 
their roles, but as things are, it would be easier for a 
buzzard to imitate a nightingale than for them to 
imitate philosophers. 

I have said all that I had to say in my own 
defence. Truth, tell them whether it is true. 


Stand aside, Frankness ; still farther . . . What are 
we to do ? What did you think of the man's speech ? 


For my part, Philosophy, while he was speaking I 
prayed that I might sink into the earth, so true was 
everything that he said. In fact, as I listened, I 
recognized each of the men who act that way and 
applied his remarks to them: "That refers to this 
man ; so-and-so does that." In short, he portrayed 
the gentlemen to the life, as in a painting, accurate 
likenesses in every respect, depicting not only their 
persons, but their very souls as faithfully as could be. 


I, Virtue, also had to blush for shame. 


And what say you ? 

1 You are no more like these men than Heracles was like 
the monkey that wore the lion's skin. Cf. § 32, and Lover 
of Lies, § 5. 

VOL. III. C 57 



Tt Be dWo rj a^elaOai avrov rov eyKKrjfiaTOfi 
Koi (piXov r)fuv Koi euepyirrjv dvay€ypd(f>OaL; rb 
yovv Tcov ^iXiifov are^i/oj? TreirovdafJLev' rpayroBov 
TLva TOVTOv e<^* rj/jidf; KGKLvrjKafiev acrofievov rd^; 
^puyojv crv/JL^opd<;. aBero) 8' ovv fcal rov<i Oeol^; 
e-)(6pov<; itcrpa^wBeiTd). 


Kal auT09, w ^t\oao(f)ia, irdw eTracvco rov 
dvBpa Kol dvande/iai rd KaTrjyopovfieva /cal 
<f>i\ov TTotovfiai avTov yevvalov ovra. 

39 Eu 6X^1' irpoaiOi UapprjaidBrf d^U/nev ce tt}*? 
alrlaf;, kol d7rd(TaL<; Kparel^, kol to \olttov taOi 
r}/i6T€po<; wv. 


YlpoaeKvvrjaa ttjv ye TrpcoTijv'^ /idWov Be, 
TpayiK(t>Tepov avro iroLi^aeLV /jloc Bokco' ae/x- 
voTCpov yap' 

0) jjbeya ae/nvrj Nlkt], tov ifiov 

fiiOTOv Karexot^ 

Kal /jiTj \rjyoi<; arecjjavovaa. 


OuKovv Bevrepov KpaTrjpo<; tjBt] Karapxfo/JLeSa' 
7rpoaKa\(b/jL€v KdK:eivov<s, &)<? Blktjv v7r6cr)(^coaiv dvO^ 
a)v 6t9 rjfid^; v/Spi^ovar Karrjyopijaei, Be Ylap- 
pr](7idBi]<; eKaarov. 

^ tV nTfpuTj.y Madvig, i.e. Victory. But for tV 7« irpwri]* 
cf. Xen. Mem. 3, 6, 10 : and Demosth. Enc. 30. 





What else but to acquit him of the charge and set 
him down as our friend and benefactor? Indeed, just 
what happened to the Ilians ^ has happened to us — 
we have brought down upon ourselves an actor of 
tragedies to hold forth about the woes of the Trojans ! 
Let him hold forth, then, and make tragedies out 
of these miscreants. 


I, too. Philosophy, commend the man highly, take 
back my complaint and count him a friend, for he is 
a gallant fellow. 


Good ! Come, Frankness. We acquit you of the 
charge ; you have an unanimous verdict in your 
favour, and from now on you may count yourself one 
of my household. 


I pay my homage at once. {He kisses his hand.) 
But no ! I think I shall do it more as they do in a 
play, for that will be more reverential : 

' O Victory, goddess so greatly revered. 
Take my life in thy care 
And cease not to crown me with garlands." ^ 


Well, then, let us now initiate our second bowl of 
wine. Let us summon up those others to be punished 
for the insults they are inflicting upon us. Frankness 
shall accuse each of them. 

^ The latter-day Trojans. 

' Euripides, close of Phoenissae, Orestes, Iphigenia in 



'Op^w?, w ''Aperrjy eXefa?. wcrre av, iral Si/X- 
Xoyiafjii, KaraKuyp-a^ eh to darv irpoaKrjpvTTe 
Toi)? (f>L\oa6<pov<i. 


40 "Akovc, aiya' Tov<i <f>c\oa6<f)ov<i tjkelv eU 
uKpoiroXiv aiToXoyrjaofJievov^ iirl t^? ^Ap6Tfj<; xal 
^i\oao(j)La<; koI Alktj'^. 


Opa?; oXiyoL aviacri yvcopicravre^ to Ktjpvyfia, 
KOL aXXo)? BeBlaat, TrjV AiKrjv ol iroWol 8e avrcov 
ovBe a'X,okr]V ayovGiv d/j,(f>l tov? irXovaLOv^ ^X^v- 
Te?. 6t 5e ^ovXec iravra^ rjKeiv, Kara rdBej w 
XyWoyio-fie, KijpvTre — 

2TAAOri2M02 ^ 

M.7)BafJL(o^, dWd (TUy w UapprjcTLdBr], irpocTKaXet 
KaO^ 6 TL aoL BoKel. 


41 OvBev T6B€'XP''\.e'Tr6v. ^Akovc, alya. 6(tol(J>l\6- 
(TO(f)oi elvai Xeyovdiv /cal oaoi tt pocrrjKeLv avrol<i 
olovrai Tov ovofiaro^, rJKeiv ei? aKpoTToKiv eirl rrjv 
BiavojjLiqv. Bvo fjbval eKaarw BoOijaovrac koX 
ar]cra/jLaLO<; 7r\aKOV<;' o? 8' av Trcoycova ^aOvv 
iTTtBeL^ijraL, koX iraXdOrjv la^dBcov ovt6<; yeirpoa- 
eTrLkrjy^rerai. ko/jLL^€LV S* CKaarov o-(0(f>poavvr]v 
fxev rj BiKaiocTvvTjv r) iy/cpdretav fi^-jBa/jLCo<;' ovk 
dvayKota yap ravrd ye, rjv firj irapfj' irevre Be 
avWoyLa fJLOv<^ e^ d7ravT0<s' ov yap Oep.i<i avev 
rovTcov elvai ao<p6v. 

Kelrai 8' iv /xeaaoiai Bvo ^/Qvo-oto rdXavra, 

Tw BopueVi 09 p,eTd irdaLv epL^ep,ev e^o^of; eLt], 

1 2TAAOri2M02 A.M.H.: *IA. edd. 




Quite right, Virtue ; so slip down into the town. 
Syllogism, my lad, and summon the philosophers. 


Oyez ! Silence ! Let the philosophers come to the 
Acropolis to present their defence before Virtue, 
Philosophy, and Justice. 


Do you see ! Very few of them understood the 
summons and are coming up. Besides, they fear 
Justice, and most of them are actually too busy be- 
cause of their attentions to the rich. If you wish 
them all to come, Syllogism, make your proclamation 
like this — 


No ! You summon them. Frankness, in the way 
you think best. 


Nothing hard about that. Oyez ! Silence ! All 
who assert that they are philosophers, and all who 
think that they have any connection with the name, 
come to the Acropolis for a distribution of gifts ! Two 
minas will be given to every man, and a seed-cake 
also ; and whoever displays a long beard shall receive 
a basket of figs into the bargain. Never mind tem- 
perance or justice or self-control, as these qualities 
are not essential if they are not available ; but let 
each bring with him five syllogisms by all means, for 
without these it is impossible to be wise. 
" Lo, we have set up as prize two talents of gold for 
the contest; 
These shall we give unto him who prevails over all 
in debating ! " ^ 

1 Cf. Iliad 18, 507-8. 



*IA050*IA 1 
42 Ba/9at, oaor 7r\r}pr}<; fjuev rj avoSo^ 006 l^o fievcav 
eirl Ta<; Bvo /JLvd^, &>? rjKovcrav fjLovov irapa he rb 
UeXaa'yiKov aXkoi koi Kara to ^AaxXTjineLOv 
erepoL koX irapa rov "Apetov irdyov '-^ eri, irXeiov;, 
evLOL he Kol Kara rov TaXw rdcpov, ol he xal tt/oo? 
TO ""AvaKelov TrpoaOefievoi KXL/jLaKa<i dvepirovai 
^ofi^rjhov vr] Ala koI /3orpvh6p ecr/juov hlfCTjv, 'iva 
Koi Ka6^ ''Ofirjpov eiirco' dXXa KuKeldev ev fidXa 
TToXXol KavrevOev 

fivploi. Sacra re (jivXXa /cal avOea yui/eraL cjpy. 

fxearr] he r) aKpoiroXi^i ev /Spax^l /cXayyrjhov irpo- 
KaOi^opTcov Kal Travraxov Tvrjpa KoXaKeia, Trcoycov 
dvaLa')(vvria, ^aKTrfpia Xi')(veia, auXXoyLa/i6<; 
(jaXapyvpia' ol oXlyoi he, oirocrot, tt/jo? to Trpcorov 
K-qpvyfjLa eKelvo dvrjeaav, d(^avel<i /cal darjiioL, 
dva/jLL')(^6€VTe<; t« iTXrjdeL rcov dXXcov, Kal XeXr]- 
daaiv ev rfj oplolottjtl tcov dXXeov (J'xrjiidrwv. 


ToOto yovv TO heivorarov eariv, w ^iXo(TO(f)la, 
Kal 6 Tt? dv fiefiyjraLTO /bLdXiard aov, rb /jiijhev eiri- 
fiaXelv yvd)pia-fjLa Kal arj/ielov avroU' TrtOavcorepoi 
yap ol yoi-jTe'^ ovtoi 7roXXdKi<; rcov dXrjOo)^ (f>i,Xo- 

^ *IA020*IA A.M.H. ; double point U: no change of 
speaker in FN, edd. 

2 irdyov vulg. : not in y^. 

3 nAPPH2IAAH2 A.M.H.; double point F: no cliange of 
speaker in UN, edd, 

^ The prehistoric wall of the Acropolis. Only tumble- 
down pieces were then to be seen (cf. § 47). The bit referred 




Aha! What a lot of them ! The road up to the gate 
is full of men hustling after the two minas, as soon 
as they heard of them ; others are coming up beside 
the Pelasgicon;^ others by the precinct of Asclepius;^ 
even more of them along the Areopagus ; ^ some, too, 
by the tomb of Talus ; * and some have set ladders 
against the temple of the Tv^dn Brethren ^ and are 
climbing up with a hum, by Heaven, and "in clus- 
ters" like swarming bees, to use the words of Ho- 
mer ; ^ from that side right many, and from the other 

*' Thousands of men, like the leaves and the flowers 
[ that come in the springtime." '^ 

The Acropolis is full in a trice as they " noisily settle 
in place," ^ and everywhere are begging-bags and 
flattery, beards and shamelessness, staves and gluttony, 
syllogisms and avarice. The few that came up in 
answer to the first summons are obscure and incon- 
spicuous, intermingled with the crowd of others, and 
they escape the eye in the general similarity of garb. 


In fact, that is the worst feature of it all. Philo- 
sophy, and the one for which you could be most 
criticized, that you have set no mark and token upon 
them. These cheats are often more convincing than 
the genuine philosophers. 

to here was at the north-west corner, by the cave of Pan 
[Double Indictmtnt, §9). 

^ On the south slope, near the theatre of Dionysus. 

^ To the west, near the main entrance. 

* Talus (or Calus) was nephew of Daedalus, who out of 
jealousy threw him down the olifF. Certain stones at the 
back of the theatre of Dionysus are thought to belong to his, 
tomb. ^ North side : exact site uncertain. 

« Iliad 2, 89. 7 Iliad 2, 468. » j^^^ 2, 46.3. 




"Eo-rai TOVTO fier 6X1 jov, aWa Bex^ofieOa rjSr) 


43 'H/Lta? TTpcoTOf? XPV Toy? IlXaTa}viKOv(i Xaffelv. 


Ou/c, dWa Tov<; TlvdayopiKoifi rjfJLci^' Tvporepo^ 
yap 6 n.v6ay6pa<; yv. 


Arjpelre' dfieLVOV<; r)/jL€i<; ol aTro t»}? '^rodf;, 


Ov fi€v ovv, a>OC ev ye roU 'X^py/jLuaL TrpcoroL av 
'^fieU el'r]/jL€V ol ix tov UepLTrdrov. 


'HfiLP TOt? ^^TTLKOvpeioi^ Tov<; irXaKovvra^ hore 
Kol ra? 7ra\dOa<;' irepX he twv puvoiv irepipevov- 
fjieVi icdv vaTaTov^ Serj Xa^elv. 


Tlov ra Bvo TaXavra ; hei^ofiev yap ol ^AKaSrj- 
fiai/col oaov rcov dXXcov eafiev epiaTCKcojepoi. 


Ovx VH'^^ y€ rS)V ^rcolKOiv Trapovrcov. 


44 Uava-acrOe (f)iXoveiKovvr€<;' vpbei^ he ol Kvvifcol 
firjre oiOelre dXXrjXov^; fjLrjre rot? ^vXol<; TraUre' 
iir dXXa yap Xcrre KeKXrjfievoi. Kal vvv eycoye rj 
^CXoao^ia Kal ^Aperrj avrrj kol ^ AXrjOeia SiKa- 
(TOfiev olrtV€<; ol 6pSa)<; (pLXoao(f)ovvTe<; elaiv. elra 
6(T0i (lev dv evpeOcoaLV /card rd rj/xcv BoKovvra 
fiiovvT€(;, evBaifiovTjaovaiv dpcarot KeKpupAvoi' 
Tou? yoTjTa^ Be xai ovBev rjfuv 'iTpoarjKovra<s Kafcov<; 




That shall be seen to presently ; but let us wel- 
come them now, 


We Platonists should get our share first. 


No ! we Pythagoreans^ for Pythagoras was earlier. 


Nonsense ! we of the Porch are better. 


Not at all ; in matters of money we of the Walk 
should be first. 


Give us Epicureans the cakes and the figs, but we 
will wait for the money, even if we have to be the 
last to get it. 


Where are the two talents.'* We Academics will 
show you how much better debaters we are than 
the rest ! 


Not while we Stoics are here ! 


Stop your bickering I You Cynics, do not jostle 
one another or strike each other with your staves. 
You were asked here for a different purpose, let me 
assure you ! And now I, Philosophy, and Virtue 
here and Truth will decide who are the genuine 
philosophers. Then all who are found to be living 
by our rules shall be pronounced superior and will be 
happy ever after, but as for the cheats and all those 
who have nothing in common with us, we shall put 



KaK(o<; iTTirpiylrofiev, ox; /jltj avrnroLfovrai twv 
virep avTOv<; aXa^6v€<; 6vre<;. ri tovto; (pevyere; 
vrj Ala, Kara tojv ye Kprj/nvcjv ol ttoWoX aXko- 
fievoi. KevT) S* ovp 17 aKpoTroXif;, ttXtjv oXiycov 
Tovrcov oiroaoi ixefievrjKaaiv ov ^o^TjOevTes rr)v 
45 Kpidiv. ol vTTTjperaL dveXeaOe rrjv Trijpav, rjv 6 
KvviKo^ aireppLy^rev iv rfj rponfj. (pep' lBo) tI koL 
e%6f rj TTOV deppLOV<i rj 0i^Xlov rj aprov^ riav 


OvK, aXXa ')(^pvalov rovrl koI fivpov koI fia^o-l- 


^v ye, 0) yevvale. TOiavra r^v aoi ra e<t>68t,a 
T^9 acicrjaew^i koI fiera tovtcdv r/^lov<; XoiBopel- 
adai ircLGLV koX tov9 dXXov<; TraiBaycoyelv; 


ToLovroL fiev ovv v/jllv ovtoi. ')(prj 8e v/jLd<i 
(TKOTrelv ovTiva rpoirov ayvoov/jueva ravra ireirav- 
aerai /cal Biayvdoa-ovrai ol evrvyx^'VOVTe^, oitiv€<; 
ol ayaOoX avrayp elai koX oXrive^ av ttclXlv ol rov 
erepov fflov. 

*IA020*IA 3 

Xv, <o ^ AXrjOeia, e^evpiaKe' virep aov yap tovto 
yevoir av, 009 yu^ eirifcparTJ aov to ^ev8o<; firjSe 
viro rfj 'Ayvola XavOdvcoaiv ol (pavXoi twv dv- 
Spcbv (76 TOt'9 %/377crT0i'9 fiefii/jLrjfievot. 

1 TnHPETH2 A.M.H.; cf. ol virrjpeTai : HAPP. vulg. 

^ Ka\ /xaxaipiov KOvpevriKhy A.M.H. (xoupt/cbj' du Soul) : Koi 
fiaxaipiov dvTiKhu 7 ; not in j8. Cf. Olympiodorus, Vit. 
Platon. 4. 

' *IA020*IA Bekker ; double point after ^lov in rU. 



the wretches to a wretched end, so that they may 
not claim any part in things that are over their heads, 
false pretenders that they are ! What is this ? Are 
you running away ? By Heaven, they are, most of 
them jumping over the cliffs ! The Acropolis is empty 
except for these few who have remained because 
they did not fear the trial. Attendants, pick up the 
bag which the Cynic threw away in the rout. Come, 
let me see what is in it ; probably lupines, or a book, 
or some whole-wheat bread. 


No ! gold — see here !— perfume, a razor, a mirror, 
and a set of dice ! -- 


Good for you, my fine fellow ! Were these your 
instruments for the mortification of the flesh, and did 
you think that with the aid of these you could abuse 
all mankind and instruct the rest of the world .'' 


Well, there you see what they are like. You must 
consider how all this is to stop going on unobserved, 
and how those who come into contact with them are 
to tell which of them are the good and which, on the 
contrary, the followers of the other life. 


Invent a plan. Truth ; for it would be in your own 
interest to do so, in order that Falsehood may not 
prevail over you, and bad men, under the cloak of 
Ignorance, escape your eye when they imitate the 





45 'Ett* avTO), el 8ok€l, Ylapprja-idSr} TTOirjacofieda 
TO roiovTOv, iirel %/377<7t69 WTrrat kol evvov^ rj/ilv 
Kol ae, (b ^Cko(TO(f>ia, fiaXtorra Oav/jud^eov, irapa- 
\a/36vTa /jued' eavrov rov "RXeyxov dvacrc roi? 
(fxiaKovai (pLXoaocpetv ivrvy^dveiv. eW ov fxev av 
€vpr) yvrjaLOV &)? dXrjOco^ ^i,\6(to<^ov, arec^avco- 
adrco OaWov o-Te(f}dv(p koI eh to Tlpyravelov 
KoXeadTco, rjv Be tlvl — olol ttoWol elai — Kara- 
pdrw dvBpl viroKptrfi ^LXo(To^ia<; ivrvx^iTo rpifio)- 
vLov irepLcnTdaa^i diroKeipdra) rov Trcoycova iv 'X^po) 
TTavv TpayoicovpiKfi yLta;^atpa kol eVl tov p^erdiirov 
(TTiyp,aTa iTrL/BaXiro) r) iyKavadrco Kara to 
p.ea6(f)pvov' 6 he TU7ro9 toO /cavTrjpo<; edrco dXco- 
TTT^f rj 7rldr}K0<;. 

Eu ye, a) ^AXrjdeia, (f)rj<^' 6 he eXeyxo^, Hap- 
pr)(Tid8r), TOLoahe ecrrw, olo? o twz^ deTciiv tt/oo? 
Toi^ TjXiov elvai Xeyerai, ov p.k At* ioare KaKeivovf; 
dvTilBXeireLv tw ^wt\ kol iTpo<; eKelvo BoKip,d^e- 
adai, dXXd 7rpo6el<; XP^^^ov koI ho^av kol rjBovrjv 
ov pev av avrcov t'S?;? virepopcovra kol p-qhapw^ 
eXKopevov 7rpo<; rrjv oylnv, outo? earco 6 rw OaXXw 
aTe<j)6p,€vo<;, ov 8* av dreve^ diro^XeTTOvra /cal rrjv 
X^^P^ opeyovra eVl to xP^^^^^> dirdyeiv eirX to 
Kavrrjpiov rovrov d'noK€ipa<^ ^ irporepov tov Trco- 
ycova 0)9 eho^ev. 


47 "EcTTat ravra, o) ^tXoaocpLa, koX o^ei avriKa 
pdXa Tov<i TToXXou? avro)v dXwjreKia^ rj ttlOtjko- 

^ avoKcipas Fritzsche : awoKflpavra 7N ; itTroKeipavras BU. 



If you think best, let us empower Frankness him- 
self to do this, since we have seen that he is honest 
and in sympathy with us, and that he particularly 
admires you, Philosophy — to take along Investiga- 
tion and put himself in the way of all who claim 
to be philosophers. Then, whenever he finds a truly 
legitimate son of Philosophy, let him crown the 
man with a wreath of green olive and invite him 
to the Prytaneum ; ^ and if he meets a scoundrel 
whose philosophy is but stage-play — there are many 
of that sort — let him tear his mantle, cut off his 
y'beard close to the skin with goat-shears, and stamp or 
brand a mark on his forehead, between the eyebrows ; 
let the pattern of the brand be a fox or an ape. 


Good for you. Truth I Let the test. Frankness, be 
like the test of the eaglets against the sun. Not that 
they, like the eaglets, are to stare at the light and 
be put to the proof in that way ; but set gold and 
fame and pleasure in their view, and whomsoever of 
them you see paying no attention and in no way 
attracted to the spectacle, let him be the one to wear 
the crown of green olive ; but whomever you see 
gazing fixedly at the gold and reaching his hand out 
after it, hale him off to the branding-place, after first 
cutting off his beard in accordance with our decision. 


It shall be done. Philosophy. You shall very soon 
see most of them wearing the fox-brand or the ape- 

1 To be maintained at public expense, as Socrates thought 
he should have been. 



<f)6pov<;, oXiyovfi 5e Kal iaTecftavco/jiipov^' el ^ov- 
Xeade /juivTOL, KavravOa vfuv avd^eo Tiva<; r]8r) 

riw? Xeyeif;; avd^et^ tol'? (f)v>y6vTa<;; 


Kal /jbdXa, rjVTTep rj lepeid fiot iOeX'^crrj tt/jo? 
oXijov 'X^pTJaat Trjv 6p/jLiav iKcivijv Kal ro ayKi- 
GTpoVy oirep 6 a\.L€v<; dveOrjKCV 6 e'/c Hetpaioj^;. 


^l8ou Brj Xa^e, Kal rov KdXafjbov ye d/jLa, &>? 
irdvra e;^???. 


OvKOvv, o) lepeia, koX laxdhaq /jlol Tiva<; 809 
avvaaaa Kal oXiyov rov ■)(^pu(7Lov, 




Tt irpdrreiv dvrjp hiavoelraL; heXedaa<^ to ayKi- 
arpov l(T')(^dBi Kal tw y^pvaitp KaOe^o/jLevo^; iirl to 
aKpov Tov T€L')(^LOv KaOrjKev et? tt^v ttoXlv. tl 
ravra, w Uapprjaidhrj, iroLel^i; r) irov rovg Xi6ov<; 
dXievaeiv BieyvojKa^ eK tov UeXaayiKov; 


^Lcorrrrjaov, w ^iXoao^la, Kal Tr)v aypav irepL- 
/JL6V6' av Be, 0) YIocreLBov dypev Kal 'Ayut^trptT?; 
48 (j)iXi], 7roXXov(; rjfuv avdirefxire twv l')(dvwv. aXX' 
opSi TLva XdppaKa ev/jL€ye6r},fxdXXovBe')(pva-o(j)pvv' 
ovK, dXXa yaXeo^; i(TTLV. irpoaeiaL yovv to) dyKi- 
(TTpfp Ke')(r]v(jo(;' SacppaTai tov ^pUfrtoL'- ttXtjctlop 


brand, and but few crowned with wreaths. If you 
like, however, I will bring you up some of them here 
and now. 


What ! you will bring up the runaways ? 


Yes, indeed, if the priestess will be good enough to 
lend me for a moment that hook and line which the 
fisherman from the Peiraeus dedicated. 


There, take it, and the rod too, so that you may 
have a complete outfit. 


And now, priestess, give me some figs quickly 
and a little of your gold. 


Take them. 


What does the man intend to do.^ Baiting the 
hook with the fig and the gold, and taking his seat 
on the crest of the wall, he has made a cast into the 
town ! Why are you doing that, Frankness ? Have 
you made up your mind to fish up the stones out of 
the Pelasgicon .'' 


Hush, Philosophy ; wait and see my catch. Posei- 
don, god of fishermen, and dear Am{)hitrite, send us 
up quantities of fish ! Ah ! I see a fine big pike, or 
rather, a golden carp. — No, it is a cat-fish. Anyhow, 
he is coming up to the hook with his mouth open. 
He has scented the gold ; now he is close by ; he 



^Br) icTTLV' €^frava€V' €t\,7)7rTar avaairdawfiev. 
fcal av, 0) *'EX67;)^e, avdcnra' "¥i\e<y^€} avvein- 
ka/Sov Trj<; 6p/iia<;. 


"Avco i(TTL. ^ep Ihco rt? el, co ^iXrtare l^^Ovcov; 
KV(ov ovTO? 76."^ 'H/)a«Xet9 tmv oBovtcov. rl tovto, 
o) yevvaiorare; eXXrjy^ai \i')(yev(Dv irepl rd<; ire- 
Tpa<;, evda Xrjaetv 7]\7naa<; vTroBeSv/ccof;; dWa vvv 
ear) ^avepo^ diraatv e/c twv ^pa'^yiwv dirr^pTTj- 
fjiivo^. i^iXco/xev to dy/cLarpov koI to Bekeap. 
fid AC eiTLev.^ tovtI ksvov aoi, to dyKiaTpov rj 
3' icr')(^d<; Tjhr] iTpocjea-^rfTat kol to 'X^pvaiov iv ttj 


'Ef6/x€o-aTQ) VT) Aba, ft)? Kal eV dWov^; BeXedao)- 
fiev. ev e;3^6t* tl </)^'9, co Ai6y€V€<;; olcOa tovtov 
6aTi<i iaTLV, Tj irpoarjKei tl aoc dvrjp; 



Tt ovv; TToaov d^LOv avTov 'y^prj ^dvai; iyo) fiep 
yap Bv 6l3o\a>v iTpa)rjv avTOV iTLfxrja-dfirjj^. 

JJoXv X6y€i<;' d^pcoTo^; re ydp iaTiv xal elBe- 
X^V^ '^ctt (TKXrjpo^ Kal dTip,o<;' d(f)€<i avTov iwl 
Ke(paXr)v kutu t^? TveTpa^' av Be dXXov dvd- 
(jTraaov Kadeh to dyKiaTpov. eKelvo /nevTor opa, 
0) UapprjaidBr}, fir) KafiiTTOfievo^i aoi 6 KdXafio<; 

1 avda-ira- *'E\c7X« 7 : not in j3, vulg. 
^ Kvcov ovt6s ye 5-, L. Bos : avwv ovt6s ye y : not in /3. 
* yua At' eTrtev : 7, but after KOiXix : after 5e\eap A.M.H. 
Previous edd. omit. ^ omits /col rh Se'Aeop . . . &yKi<TTpov. 



struck ; he is on ; let's pull him up. You pull too, 
Investigation. Investigation, take hold of the line 
with me ! 


He is up ! Come, let me see what you are, my 
good fish. A dogfish ! ^ Heracles, what teeth ! How 
about it, my fine fellow ? Caught, were you, gorman- 
dizing about the rocks, where you hoped to shp 
under cover and keep out of sight ? But now you 
will be in public view, hung up by the gills ! Let 
us take out the hook and the bait. No, by Zeus, he 
has swallowed it ! Here is your hook, all bare ; the 
fig and the gold are secure in his insides. 


Let him spew them up, by Zeus, so that we may 
bait for others. That's well. What say you, Diogenes ; 
do you know who this fellow is, and has he anything 
in common with you } 


Not in the least ! 


Well, how much ought we to call him worth ? For 
my part, I valued him at two obols the other day. 


A high price. He is inedible and ugly and tough 
and worthless. Throw him down the cliff head first. 
Let down your hook and pull up another. But I 
say : look out. Frankness, not to let your rod bend 
till it breaks. 

^ t.e. a Cynic, 




tappet, CO Aioyeve^' Kov(f)OL elac koX to3v 
a(f)vcov €\a<^p6Tepoi. 


Nt) At", d(pvicrTaTol yc avdcnra he 6/ji(o<;, 


49 *l8ov Tt? dWo<; vTroir^aro^; wairep r}/jLiTo/jLO<; 
l)(6v<i TrpoasLaiv, -y^rjTrd rt?, Kexrjvco^; eh to ajKL- 
arpov KariiTLev, e'^eTaiy dveaTrdaOco. rt? iarip; 


'O UXaTCDvtKOf; elvai Xeycov, 


Kal (TV, 0) Kardpare, i]K€i<; iirl to 'X^pvaiov ; rl 
<j)rj<i, w UXdrcov; ri Troico/iev avrov; 


50 'Atto t^9 avTrj<; Trirpa^; Kal ovto<;' eV* dWov 


Kat fJLrjv opo) TLva irdyicaXov irpoaiovra, a)? av 
iv j3v6q) Bo^eiev, ttolkiXov rrjv ')(^p6av, Taii'ia<^ 
TLvd^ eTrl Tov vcorov einj^pvaov^ e'xpvra, 6pd<;, u) 


'O TOV *ApLaT0Te\7] IT poairoLovjievo^i outo? 





Have no fear, Diogenes. They are light, and pull 
no harder than weakfish.^ 


Aye, they are mighty weak, for certain ; pull them 
up, however. 


See ! Here comes another fish that looks like a 
plate,2 as if he were sliced lengthways, a sort of 
flatfish, opening his mouth for the hook. He has 
swallowed it ; he is caught. Up with him ! What 
is he ? 


The kind that styles itself Platonic. 


So you came to get the gold too, confound you ? 
What do you say, Plato ? What are we to do with 


Over the same cliff with him ! Let down for 


Ah, I see a very handsome one coming up, as far as 
can be judged in the deep water ; of many colours, 
with golden stripes on his back.^ Do you see him. 
Investigation .'' 


He is the kind that claims the name of Aristotle. 

1 Lueian puns upon atpvTi (a small fish, sprat) and acpvf)! 
(dull, stupid). 

2 The pun here is upon UXdrav and vXarvs (flat). 

3 The Peripatetics were criticized for love of gay clothing 
and gold. 




*H.\66V, elra irdXiv aireiaiv. Trepia-KOTrei ^ cLKpi- 
ySw?, avOi^i eiravrjkdev, e^O'Vep, ecXrjTrrai, dvi- 


M^ dvepD fjL€, (o UapprjaLaBrf, irepl avrov' 
dyvoo) yap ocrrt? idTLV. 


OvKovv KoX ovTo^;, (o ^ApLaroTeke^:, Kara rcov 

51 7r€Tp(ov. aW* "^v IBov, 7roWov<; irov tov<^ l'x^6v<; 

opoi Kara ravrov 6p.6')(^poa<;, dKavOa)BeL<; koi ttjv 

iiTL^dveiav eKTeTpax^o-p'^vov<;, i^^ivcov hvaXrjTTTO- 

repov<;. rj irov aayrjVT]^ iir avTOv<; Seijaei; 

'AXV ov Trdpeariv. Ikuvov el kolv eva tlvcl e/c 
Tt}? djiXrjf; dvaa^irdaaipev. rj^et, Be eVl to djKt,- 
arpov BrjXaBrj 09 dv avrcov Opacrvraro^i rj. 


Ka^€9, el BoKec, aiBrjpooa-a^; ye irporepov eirl 
TToXv Tr)9 6pfiid<;, (h<; /jurj dTTOirpidr) Tol<i oBovac 
KaTWTTtoDV TO ^pvaiov. 

l^adrjKa. koX av Be, co JJoaeiBov, ra^^^elav 67rt- 
reXet rrjv dypav. fia^ai, p.dxovrai irepl rod 
SeXeaT09, kuI ol fiev avvd/ia iroXXol TrepLTpooyovdi 
T7]V lo")(^dBa, ol Be 7rpoa(})vvT€<; e^ovrat, rod 
'^pvcTLov. ev e%€«* Trepieirdpi] Tt9 fidXa Kaprepo^. 
^ep iBca rlvo<; eTroovv/nov aeavrov elvai Xeyet<i; 

1 IIAPP. A.M.H.: no change of speaker in MSS. 
- irepia-KOTTu Seybold, Fritzsche : 'irepi(TK6irei MSS. 
' *IA. A.M.H. : double point after Se^o-et in r. 



He came up and then swam away again. He is 
making a careful survey. Now he has come back 
again ; he has opened his mouth ; he is caught. Up 
with him. 


Don't ask me about him, Frankness. I don't 
know who he is. 


Then he too shall go over the cliff, Aristotle. But 
look here ! I see a great number of fish closely alike 
in colour, spiny and rough-skinned, harder to grasp 
than sea-urchins.^ Shall we need a seine for them } 


But we haven't any. It will be enough if we 
land only one out of the school. The one that 
comes to the hook will of course be the boldest of 


Let down your line, if you want, but first arm it 
with iron for some distance, so that he may not saw 
it off with his teeth after he has swallowed the gold. 


It is down. Poseidon, grant us a quick catch ! 
Aha ! they are fighting over the bait ; some are 
nibbling the fig in schools and some have taken firm 
hold of the gold. Good ! A very powerful one is on 
the hook ! Come, let me see whose namesake you 

^ Stoics, then the most numerous school. They themselves 
were uncouth, and their doctrines spiny. 



KULTOt yeXolo^i €l/iic dvayKa^cov Ix^^^ XaXeiv 
d(f)covoL yap ovtoL ye. aXKa av, Si "EXey^^, elire 
ovTLva e;^et hihddKaXov avrov. 

yipV<7L7nrOV TOVTOvL 


M.avOdvci)' Biort %/3uo-toz' irpoarjv, olfiai, tw 
ovo/xaTL, (TV S' ovv, ^pvaLTTire, irpo^ t?}? ^ Kdrjvd^ 
etVe, olcrda tov<; dvhpa^ rj roiavra irapaLvel'^ 
avTol<; iroulv; 


N^ At*, v^pKTTLKa ip(OTa<;, co HapprjcridBij, 
irpoarjKeiv rt r]fuv viroXa/jL^dvcov TOtovTov<; ovra^i. 

Eu 76, w Xpva-LTTTre, y€vvato<; el. ovTo<i Se xal 
avTo? eTrl fcecpaXrjv fierd rcov dXXwv, cTrel koI 
dKavO(i)Br]<; iaji, Koi Seo? p.r] hiaTrapfj rz? top 
XaLfibv eadicov. 

52 " AXi^, 0} TlappTjaidBr}, tt}? dypa^, firj kul Tt? 
croi, oloL TToXXoL el(nv, olxv"^^^ dTToairdaa^ to 
XpvaLov Koi TO dyKLarpov, elrd ae diroTlaai rfj 
lepela Be7]arj. uxxre 7?/x6i9 puev diriwfiev Trepi- 
Trarrjaovaar KaLpo<i Be Koi v/idf; d-mevaL oOev 
TjKere, firj kol vTreprjfiepoc yevrjaOe rrj<; irpo- 
OeapLia^;. crcpo} Be, av koi 6 ''E\€7%09, o) Hap- 
pyaidBrj, ev kvkXo) iirl Trdvra^ avTOv<; l6vT€<i rj 
arecfyavovre t) iyxdere, ox? e<f>r}v. 



say you are. But it is silly of me to try to make a 
fish talk ; these anyhow are certainly dumb ! Come, 
Investigation, tell us whom he has for master. 


Chrysippus here. 


I understand : because there was gold in the name, 
I take it. Well, Chrysippus, in the name of the 
Goddess of VV^isdom tell us, do you know these 
fellows, and do you advise them to do as they do ? 


By Zeus, your questions are insulting, Frankness, 
if you imply that we have anything in common with 
that sort. 


Good, Chrysippus : that is handsome of you. He too 
shall go head first after the rest, as he is spiny and 
there is danger that anyone who should try to eat 
him might get a hole in his gullet. 


Enough of fishing, Frankness. One of them — 
there are many capable of it — may snatch off the gold 
and the hook and make away with them, and then 
you will have to settle with the priestess. So let 
us go away to take our stroll, and as for you (to ike 
Philosophers), it is high time you went where you 
came from, that you may not overstay your leave. 
Frankness, you and Investigation seek them all out 
on every hand and either crown or brand them, as I 




"Earai ravTa, &> ^iXoao^ia. 'X^alpere, w BeX- 
Ti(770i avhpo)V. r)fjL€L<; Se Karicofiev, o) *'KKe'yx€i 
KoX reXcofjicv ra TTaprjyyeXfjbiva. 


Tiol he Kot irpoiTOv dirUvat Beijaei; ficjv et9 rrjv 
^A/caBrj/jLiav rj et? ttjv Xroav r) ^ am-o rov Avkclov 
irocTjadOfjieda rrjv ap')(riv; 


Ovhev hioiaei tovto. ttXtjv olBd ye e'^ft) co? 
OTTOL ttot' au aTreXOw/jLev, oXiycov jxev tS)v are- 
(fxipcov, TToXXcov Be rcov KavT'qpicdv BerjaofieOa* 

1 ^ Seybold : not in MSS. 




It shall be done, Philosophy, Good-bye, gentle- 
men. Let us go down into the town, Investigation, 
and carry out our orders. 


Where shall we go first ? To the Academy, or to 
the Porch ? Or shall we begin with the Lyceum ? 


It will make no difference. I am sure, however, 
that wherever we go we shall need few crowns of 
olive, but many brands. 



Again we have a reply to criticism, this time largely of an 
aesthetic nature. Lucian had been assailed from both sides, 
by the rhetoricians for abandoning speech-making and essay - 
writing and going over to dialogue, consecrated, since Plato's 
time, to the service of Philosophy, and by the philosophers 
for not handling dialogue in the traditional way. It is the 
usual reception accorded to innovators. Lucian's response 
is characteristically novel and effective. Using the form 
which he is censured for employing in precisely the way 
that he is censured for employing it, he insinuates himself 
into the favour of his audience by taking them first to 
Heaven to overhear a conversation between Zeus and 
Hermes, then in company with Hermes and Justice to the 
Areopagus, where Justice, after a brief and amusing colloquy 
with Pan, presides over a series of mock-trials (always a 
delectable entertainment to Greeks), culminating in the two 
that give the piece its name, Lucian v. Oratory and Lucian 
t'. Dialogue, from which his audience is delighted to see him 
come oflf triumphant. The result is that rhetoric and philo- 
sophy a la mode, who have brought him before the bar of 
public opinion, are laughed out of court. 

The Dialogue was composed, Lucian tells us (§ 32), when 
he w as about forty years old, therefore probably not far from 
the year 165 a.d. 


1 'A\V iirLTpL^elev ottoo-ol tcov cfjiXoo-ocfxov 
irapa fiovoi^ rrjv evBaifiovLav (paalv elvai Tot9 
Oeol<;. el yovv ySeaav oiroaa tcov avOpcoircov €V€Ka 
Trda^OfjLev, ovk av rj/jud^; rov V6KTapo<; y) ttj^ 
ap.^po(ria<; ep^aKapi^ov 'Op,y]p<p 7ri(7Tev<TavT€<; 
avBpl TV<j)\(M Koi joyri, p,dKapa<i rjpd<; Kokovvrt 
xal ra iv ovpavw Bcr]<yovp,6va), o? ovBe ra iv rrj 
fyfi KaOopdv iBvvaro. avriKa ye roi 6 puev "YiXioq 
ovToal ^€V^dp,€vo<; to dpp,a iravrjpepo^ rov ov- 
pavov irepLiToXel irvp ivBeBvKox; koX tmv olktivoov 
CLTroariX^cov, ovS* oaov KvrjaaaOai ro ov<;, (paal, 
a')(o\r]v aywv riv yap ti kclv oXiyov iircppaOv- 
fi7]aa<; XdOrj, dcfyrjvLdaavTef; ol lttttoi, koI t»}9 oBov 
TraparpairopevoL Kare^Xe^cw ra rrdvTa. r) Xe- 
Xr)vr] Be dypvirvo'^ koi avrr] Trepieiaiv <j)aLvovaa 

T0Z9 K(Op,d^0V(TLV Kol TOL<; dcOpl dlTO rOOV BeUTTVCOV 

eTravLovdiv. 6 ^AttoXXwv re av TroXv'wpdyp.ova rrjv 
re')(vr)v eiraveXo/juevof; oXiyov Belv rd wra eKKe/cco- 
(pijraL TTyoo? TCOV evoxXovvTcov fcard •)(peiav t^? 
p,avTiKr]<;, Kal dpTi pbkv avTa> iv AeX^ot? dvay- 
Kalov elvai, per oXlyov Be eU }^oXo(j>a)va del, 
KUKeWev eU B<dv0ov p^era^alvei Kal Bpojj,alo<s 
Available in photographs : r, UPN. 



Plague take all philosophers who say that bliss is 
to be found only among the gods ! If they but 
knew all that we endure for the sake of men, they 
would not envy us our nectar and ambrosia, putting 
their trust in Homer, a blind man and a fraud, who 
called us blissful and told about what is in heaven 
when he could not even see what is on earth. Here 
is an example right at hand : Helius puts his team to 
his chariot and traverses the sky all day long, clad in 
a garment of fire and resplendent with rays, not even 
getting leisure enough to scratch his ear, as they say : 
for if he unconsciously relaxes the least bit, his horses 
run away, turn out of the road, and burn everything 
up. Selene, too, goes about without a wink of sleep, 
giving light to night-roisterers and people returning 
late from dinners. Apollo, again, has taken up a 
very active profession, and has been deafened 
almost completely by people besetting him with 
requests for prophecies. One moment he has to be 
in Delphi ; the next, he runs to Colophon ; from 
there he crosses to Xanthus, and again at full speed 


av6i<; €69 A7]\ov rj et? l^payx^^^'^' '^^'' o\(o<i ev6a 
av rj 7Tp6/JMVTL<; inovaa tov lepov vdixaro^ Kal 
fjuacrrja-ajxevr) rrj<; Bd(f>V7)<; Kal tov rpLTroSa 8ia- 
a-eicraaa KcXevrj irapelvai, doKvov 'Xpr) avruKa 
fidXa irapeardvai avveipovra tou? ')(^pr]afiov<i rj 
oi-)(eadai ol rrjv Bo^av t^? Te')(i>T]<;. iw yap 
XeyeLV onoaa eVt ireipa t^9 /JLavriKrj^ 67rcT€)(^va)v- 
rat avTW apveia Kpka koX ')(^e\oi)va^ eU ro avrb 
e\jrovT€<;, ware el /irj rrjv plva 6^v<s rjv, kclv 
dirrfkOev avTOv 6 Av8b<; KarayeXojv. 6 fiev yap 
^A(T/c\'rj7n6<; vtto rcov voctovvtcov ivo)(\ovfi€vo<? 
*' opfj re Beivd Oiyydvei re drjBecov e7r* dXXorpirjai 
re avfi(f)opfjaiv lBia<; KapwovTai XuTra?." rl yap 
av Tf ^ Tov<i Wv6/j,ov<; (^VTovpyovvra^ Xeyoifjn Kal 
TrapaTre/jLTTOvTa^ rd ifKola Kal tol<; XiKficbatv 
iirLTTveovTa^, rj rov^'Tirvov iirl irdvra^ Trero/jievov, 
r) TOV "Oveipov fjuerd tov^Tttvov BiavvKrepevovTa 
Kal v7ro(f>r)TevovTa avrw; TrdvTa yap TavTa vtto 
^iXavOpwiria^ ol Seal irovovaiv, iTpo<i tov eirl ti]<; 
7?79 ^iov €Ka(TT0<i^ avvreXovvre^. 
2 Katrot Ta fiev tmv dXXcov jjArpia' iyoo Be auT09 
6 irdvTwv ^aaiXev^ Kal Trarrjp 6o-a<; fiev dr)Bia^ 
dveyop^aiy ocra Be irpdyfiara e')((o irpo'^ ToaavTa<; 
^povTiBa^ Bir)p7j/jLevo<i' (o irpSiTa fiev to, twv 
dXXcov Oeoiv epya eTTLaKOTrelv dvayKalov ottoctoi, 
TL r)fiLV o-vvBcaTrpdTTOvaL 77)9 dpx^]<;, £09 firj ^Xa- 
Kevcoaiv ev avTol<;, eireira Be Kal avrw fivpia 
drra Trpdrretv Kal (T')(eBov dve^LKra vtto Xeirro- 
Tr}TO<;' ov yap fiovov Ta KecftdXaia Tavra T7}9 

M C. F. Hermann (and ^F ?) : et 7UN. 

^ (KacTTos Cobet (e/cacTTc^s ti) : fKuoroi /3, fKaffrois y. 



to Delos or to Branchidae. In a word, wherever his 
prophetess, after drinking from the holy well and 
chewing laurel and setting tlie tripod ashake, bids 
him appear, there is no delaying — he must present 
himself immediately to reel off his prophecies, or 
else it is all up with his reputation in the profession. 
I say nothing of the devices they get up to test his 
powers of divination, cooking mutton and turtle 
together, so that if he had not a good nose, that 
Lydian would have gone off laughing at him.^ As 
for Asclepius, he is pestered by the sick : " Dire 
sights he sees, and touches what he loathes, and 
in the woes of others finds a crop of sorrow for 
himself." ^ Why should I refer either to the Winds, 
that aid the crops and speed the ships on their 
courses and blow upon the winnowers, or to Sleep, 
that wings his way to everyone, or to Jack-of-dreams, 
that keeps vigil all night long with Sleep and serves 
as his interpreter ? All this work the gods do out 
of love for man, each contributing to life on earth. 

And yet the others are not so badly off in 
comparison with myself. I am the monarch and 
father of all : but how many discomforts I put up 
with and how many bothers I have, distracted as I 
am by such a number of things to think of! First, 
I must oversee the work of all the other gods who 
help me in any way in administering my sovereignty, 
in order that they may not be remiss in it. Then 
I myself have to do any number of tasks that are 
almost impossible to carry out on account of their 
minuteness ; for it is not to be supposed that I 

^ Croesus, who got up the device, according to Herodotus, 
to see which oracle was the most trustworthy (Herod. 1, 

2 Hippocrates de Flatibus, 1, 6 ; said of the physician. 



hioiKYjaeco^, veroii^ koI 'x^aXd^a^ /cal Trvev/jLara 
real daTpaira^ auT09 olKovo/ji7}a-dfievo<; kol Bia- 
rd^a^ Triirav/Jiai, t(op iirl fxepovi (f>povTLB(ov dirrjX- 
\ayfJLevo<;, dWd fie Set kol ravra fiev iroLelv 
dnro^Xiireiv Be Kara rov avrov ^(^povov diravTa- 
^0(76 KOL Trdvra eTncTKOTrelv wcnrep rov iv rfj Ne/zea 
fiovKoXov, Tov<; Kkeirrovraf;, tou? einopKovvra<;, 
rov<; Ovovra^y el rt? ecnreiae, nroQev 77 Kvlaa Kal 
6 KUTTVO^ dv€p')(€Tai, Tt9 voacov Tj irXicov i/cdXeaev, 
KOL TO irdvTwv iiriTrovcoraTOV, v<j) eva Kaipov ev 
re ^OXvfJLTTLa ry eKarofi^r] irapelvai kol iv Ba- 
^vXwvL Tou? TToXepLovvra^ eirLaKonrelv kol iv 
Ferat? ')(^aXa^dv Kal iv AlOioy^iv ev(o')(^elaOai. 

To he /JL€/jLyjrL/jLocpov ovBe ovto) BLa<^vyelv paBiov, 
dXXa 7roXXd/cL<i ol fiev dXXoi deoi re Kal dvepe^ 
l7nroKopv(TTal evBovcn iravvvy^iOL, rov Ala Be ijne 
ovK e^et vrjBvfio^ vttvo^;' rjv ydp rC ttov Kal 
fjLiKpov iTTivva-rdo-cofiev, dXr]Or)<; evOix; 6 ^Kttlkov- 
po<;, cLTTpovorJTOVf; rjficL'^ aTTOcfyaivoov tS)v iirl 71)9 
Trpay/jbdrcov. Kal 6 kivBvvo^ ovk evKara^povrjro'^ 
el ravra ol avOpwiroi ma-revaovaLV avrw, dXX* 
darecpdvoyrot fiev rjfMV ol vaol eaovrai, aKvla-wroL 
Be al dyvLal, aarrovBoi Be ol Kparrjpe^;, yfrv^pol Be 
ol /ScofiOL, Kal o\<»9 dOvra Kal aKaXXiepr^ra 
rrrdvra ^ Kal 6 Xf/xo9 7roXu9. roiyapovv axnrep ol 
Kv^epvrjrat v\lrrjXo<i /jl6vo<; iirl t/}9 irpv/ivrjf; 
earrjKa ro irrjBdXLOv e')((ov iv ralv yepolv, Kal ol 
ixev eTTL/Sdrai fi€dvovre<; el rv^oc iyKaQevBovaiv, 
^ vavra Guyet : not in MSS. 



simply manage and direct in person the principal 
features of my administration^ such as rain, hail, wind, 
and lightning, and that then I am through, being 
dispensed from thinking of details. No, not only 
must I do all that, but I must look in all directions 
at the same time and keep an eye on everybody, 
just like the herdsman at Nemea,i to see who is 
stealing, who is committing perjury, who is offering 
sacrifice, whether anybody has poured a drink- 
offering, from what quarter the steam and the smoke 
of burnt-offerings rise, who has called upon me in 
sickness or at sea. What is most laborious of all, 
at one and the same moment I must attend the 
great sacrifice at Olympia, keep an eye on the armies 
at war near Babylon, send hail in the country of the 
Getae, and attend a banquet among the Ethiopians. 
At that, it is not easy to escape criticism. It often 
happens that the others, "the gods and the warriors 
crested with horse-tails," sleep all through the night, 
while I, though Zeus, am not " held in the sweetness 
of slumber," ^ for if I drowse off, even for an instant, 
Epicurus is instantly confirmed in his assertion that 
we exercise no providence over what happens on 
earth. And we cannot make light of the danger if 
men are going to take his word for this : our temples 
will have no wreaths, our wayside shrines no savoury 
steam, our wine-bowls no drink-offerings, our altars 
will be cold, and in short there will be general 
dearth of sacrifices and oblations, and famine 
will be rife. For that reason, like the master of 
a ship, I stand by myself high up on the stern with 
the tiller in my hands, and everybody else aboard 
gets drunk, perhaps, and goes to sleep, whereas I, 

^ Argus. 2 Partial paraphrase of Iliad 2, 1-2. 

VOL. III. D ^9 


iya) Be aypvirvo^i koI d(riTO<; virep airavTcov 
*' fi€p/jLr)pi^co Kara (ppeva kol Kara Ovfiov^' pLovqy 

3 TO) heaiTOTri^ elvau hoKelv reri/jL'rj/j,ivo<;. ware 
r]he(o<i av ipoi/jLijv tou9 (f^tkoao^ov^, ot /novovi 
rov<i 6eov<^ evSaLfiovi^ovaiv, irore Kal a')(o\dl^€LV 
'^fjid<; Tw veKrapi real rfj afi^poaua vo/jLL^ovai /xvpla 
6a a 6)(0VTa<; irpdyp-aTa. 

^IBov ye TOL vii d(j')(o\ia<; ToaavTa<^ icoXov; 
Slku^ (^vXaTTOjiiev d7roKei/JL€va<; vir evpcoro^; 'r]Srj 
Kal apa')(yiwv BLecf)Oap/ubeva<i, /cal /naXtara OTToaat 
Tat9 e7naTi]fjLai<i Kal Te^vai^; 7rp6<; dvdpaDirov^ 
Ttvaf; avvearaaiVy irdvv TraXa^a? evia^ avrcov. 
ol he KeKpdyaaiv d'KavTa')(p6ev Kal dyavaKTovaiv 
Kal Tr)v huKrjv eTTL^owvTat KcipLe rvjq jSpaSvrrjro^ 
alriMVTai, dyvoovvTe<; co? ovk oXiywpia Ta<^ Kpi- 
aei<; v7r€pr)/jL€pov<; crvve^r] yevecrOai, aXx vtto rri<; 
evhaLfiovia^ y avpeivaL r)p.d<; viroXapb^dvovaLv, 
TOUTO yap Tr]v do-^oXiav KoXovatv. 


4 KauTo?, (x) Zev, iroXXd roiavra iirl r?}? 7% 
aKOvcov hv(T')(^epaLv6vT(ov Xeyeiv tt/jo? ae ovk iroX- 
/jLcov. eTTcl Se av irepl rovrcov tov<; X6yov<i eve- 
/SaXe^i, Kal Stj Xiyco, irdvv dyavaKTOvaiv, (o 
irdrep, Kal a'X^erXid^ovatv Kal eh to (pavepbv fiev 
ov ToXficbat Xeyetv, virorovOopv^ovai Se avyKe- 
Kv^6re<^ alridofievot top ')(p6vov' ou? eBec TrdXai 
TO, KaO' avrov<; elB6Ta<; arepyeiv CKaarov tol^ 


Tt ovv, w *Ep/jLr], BoKei ; irporlOefiev avrot^ 
dyopav BiKSyv^ rj OeX€L<i et? vecora irapayyeXovixev; 



without closing my eyes or eating, " ponder in heart 
and in soul " ^ for the benefit of all, rewarded only 
by being considered captain. So I should like to 
ask the philosophers, who say that only the gods are 
happy, when they suppose we really find leisure for 
our nectar and our ambrosia in the midst of our 
countless bothers. 

Now, here is a case in point : for lack of spare 
time we are keeping all these stale lawsuits filed 
away, already spoiled by mildew and spiders' webs, 
especially those brought against certain persons 
by the sciences and the arts — some of these are very 
antiquated. 2 People are making an outcry on all 
sides and losing patience and hurling reproaches at 
Justice and blaming me for my slowness, not know- 
ing that the hearings have not been postponed, 
as it happens, on account of our negligence, but on 
account of the bliss in which they imagine we exist : 
for that is what they call our press of business. 


I myself hear a great many complaints of that sort 
on earth, Zeus, but I did not venture to mention them 
to you. Now, however, I shall do so, as you began 
the discussion of this topic. They are indeed out of 
patience and indignant, father, and although they do 
not venture to talk openly, they put their heads 
together and grumble, finding fault with the delay. 
These men should have known long ago how things 
stood with them and should have acquiesced in the 
verdict in each case. 


Well, what do you think, Hermes ? Shall we open 
a session of court for them, or do you wish we should 
announce it for next year ? 
^ Iliad 2, 3. ^ What these are becomes clear later (p. 109). 




Ov JJL€V ovv, aWa rjErj irpodoifiev, 


OvT(D TToief av fiev KijpvTTe KaraTTTdfievof; on 
ayopa Blkwv earat /cara rdSe. iravra^ oirocrot 
ra? ypa(f>a<; diT€vr)v6x<^(^i'V, rj/cecv rrjfiepov etV 
^ApeLOV Trdyov, eKel he rrjv fxev Ai/crjv dTTOKXrj- 
povv a(pLaL TO, hiKaarrjpLa Kara Xoyov t(ov Tijirj- 
fidrcov e'|- dirdvTcov ^AOrjvaLcov el Be rt? clBlkov 
OLOLTO yeyevrjcrdaL rrjv KpicnVy i^elvau €(f>epTi eir 
ifjLe BiKd^eaOau e^ virapxv^, &>? et jJL'qBe to irapd- 
irav ehehiKaaTO. av Be, w Ovyarep, fcaOe^ofievr} 
irapd Td<; aefjLvd<i Oed<i diTOKkrjpov ra? BLKa<; koI 


5 AvOl<; et? rrjv yrjv, Xv e^eXavvo/iievTj tt/do? avrcov 
BpaTrerevco TrdXtv eK rov ^lov rr)v ^ABiKiav eTrcye- 
Xwaav ov ^epovaa; 

XpTjard eXiri^eLV ae Bel' wdpro)^ yap tjBtj 
TTeireLKaaiv avrov<; ol (f)iX6(ro(f)OL <re tj)? 'AS^^ta? 
irpOTLfjLOLV, Kot fidXicra 6 rod X(0(f)poi'L(rKou to 
Blkulov virepeTTaiveaa^i kuI dyaOoiV to pbeyiaTov 


Udvv yovv ov ^^9 avTov eKelvov cjvrja-av ol 
ire pi e/iov Xoyoi, 09 irapaBoOel's tol<; evBeKa Koi 
el^i TO Bea-jjLayTTJpLOV e/JLTreacDV eiriev dOXio<; tou 
KoyveuoVj firjBe tov dXeKTpvova Ta> ^AaKXrjinco 




No, indeed ; let us open it now. 


Do so. Fly down and proclaim that there will be 
a session of court under the following regulations. 
All who have entered suit are to come to the Areo- 
pagus to-day ; at that place Justice is to empanel 
juries for them out of the entire body of Athenians, 
the number of jurymen to depend upon the penalty 
involved ; and if anyone thinks that his hearing has 
been unjust, he is to be allowed to appeal to me and 
have the case tried afresh, just as if it had not been 
tried at all. (To Justice) Daughter, take your place 
beside the Dread Goddesses,^ empanel the juries and 
have an eye on the trials. 


Back to earth once more, to be driven off by them 
and to flee from the world again because I cannot 
stand being laughed at by Injustice .'* 


You must be of good hope. Certainly by now the 
philosophers have persuaded them to regard you 
more highly than Injustice ; especially the son of 
Sophroniscus,^ who praised just dealing to the skies 
and declared it the greatest of blessings. 


Truly the very man you mention profited greatly 
by his talk about me ! He was handed over to the 
Eleven, thrown into prison, and drank hemlock, poor 
fellow, before he had even paid that cock to 

^ The Eumenides, since the trial of Orestes, had an altar 
on the Areopagus. ' Socrates. 



a'7roB€S(i)K(o<;' rrrapa roaovrov virepeay^ov ol Karrj- 
jopoc ravavTia irepl r?)? 'A^t/cta? (\>i\oao(^ovvT€^. 


6 'E<eva erv tol<; ttoXXoZ? ra t^? (j)iXoao<f)ia'i rfv 
Tore, Kol oXlyoi, rjaav ol ^i\oao(povvTe^, ware 
eZ/coTOj? eh rov "Apvtov koI MeXrjrov eppeirev ra 
BiKaarijpLa. to Be vvv elvai, ov)(^ 6pa<; oaoi rpi- 
^(ove^ Koi paKTrjpiaL Kal it f] pat; kol dTravra^ov 
TTCoycop fSa6v<; koi ^i.^\iov ev rfj api(TT€pa, koX 
TrdvTe'i virep crov <^i\oao(j}OV(Ti, pLearol he ol irepi- 
TraTOi Kara I'Xa? Kal (j)dXayya<i dX\^\oL<; dirav- 
rcovT(i)v, KOL ovSeU oari^ ov T/oo^iyuo? r?)? dperr/f; 
elvai Bo/celv /SovXerai. ttoXXoI yovv rdf; Tex^a^ 
d(j)evTe<; a? €l)(ov reco^, ctti t^z^ Trijpav a^avT€<; 
Kal TO Tpi^wvLov, Kal TO (T(>}fxa TTpo'i Tov tjXlov eh 
TO KWlottlkov €7Ti')(^pdvavTe<i avToa'^^eSiot <f)iX6- 
(TO(j>oi €K o-kvtot6/jl(ov TJ TeKTOvcov TTeptvoaTOvat 
ae Kal ttjv a-rjv dperrjv eTraivovvTe^. ware Kara 
Tfjv Trapoi/JLcav, Odrrov dv Tt? ev irXoiw irecrcdv 
SiafidproL ^vXov rj evda dv dirihr) 6 6(f)OaX/jL6<;, 
diroprjo-ei (\>lXo(76^ov. 


7 Kal ixrjv ovTOi fie, o) Zev, SeBlrrovrai, 7rpo<; 
dXX^Xov; €pL^ovTe<; Kal dyvo)pLOvovvTe<; ev avroh 
oh irepl e/jiov Bt.e^ep'x^ovTac. <f)a(jl he Kal tov<; 
irXelarov^ avTMV ev fiev rah X6yot,<; rrpoairoiel- 
aOai fxe, errl he rcov Trpayfidrcov /injhe ro irapdirav 
eh Tr)v oLKiav 'irapahe')(ea6aL, dXXd hijXov<; elvai 
diroKXeLaovra^ rjv dcj)LK(o/iiaL rrore avroh eirl ra? 
Ovpa^i' irdXai yap ttjv ^ABiKLav irpoeire^evwadai, 



Asclepius ; ^ so much the better of the argument had 
his accusers, whose philosophy was directly opposed 
to his, and favoured Injustice. 


The people were still unfamiliar with the teach- 
ings of philosophy at that time, and there were few 
that pursued it, so it was natural that the juries 
inclined towards Anytus and Meletus. But at 
present, do not you see how many short cloaks and 
staves and wallets there are ? On all sides there are 
long beards, and books in the left hand, and every- 
body preaches in favour of you ; the public walks 
are full of people assembling in companies and in 
battalions, and there is nobody who does not want to 
be thought a scion of Virtue. In fact, many, giving 
up the trades that they had before, rush after the 
wallet and the cloak, tan their bodies in the sun to 
Ethiopian hue, make themselves extemporaneous 
philosophers out of cobblers or carpenters, and go 
about praising you and your virtue. Consequently, 
in the words of the proverb, it would be easier for a 
man to fall in a boat without hitting a plank than 
for your eye to miss a philosopher wherever it looks. 


Yes, but those very men frighten me, Zeus, by 
quarrelling with each other and showing unfairness 
even in their discussions of me. It is rumoured, 
too, that while most of them claim kinship with me 
in words, when it comes to facts they do not even 
open their house to me at all, but make it plain that 
they will lock me out if ever I come to their door ; 
for they made Injustice their bosom friend long ago. 

^ His last words were: "Crito, we owe a cock to 
Asclepius. Do pay it without fail." (End of Phaedo). 




Ov 7rdvTe<;, o) Ovyarep, fjLO')(6rjpoi elaiv Ifcavov 
Be Kav ivLOif; tlctIu XPV^'^^I^ ^^'^^XV'^- «^^* airiTe 
i]B7], 0)9 Kav oXlyat rrj/jL€pov eKhiKaaOwaiv. 


8 Upotcofiev, CO Alki}, ravrrj evOv rov Sovviov 

fJLLKpOV VTTO TOV 'T/jL7]TT0V 6771 TCL XaiO. T^? TldpVrj- 

Oo^, evda at Bvo eKetvat aKpar au yap eoLKa<^ 
eKXeXrjadai iraXai ttjv 686v. dWd ri SaKpveL<i 
KOI cr')^eT\Ld^e{,^; /jlt) SiSuOr ovkW ofioia rd iv 
Tw ^La>' reOvaatv eKelvoL 7rdvT6<; ol ^Keipo3V6<^ Kal 
UiTvoKd/jLTTTai Kal BovaiptBe^i Kal ^a\dpiBe<; ov<; 
iBeBUi^: Tore, vvvl Be Soc^ta Kal ^KKaBrjfieLa Kal 
Xrod KarexovcTi irdvra Kal Traz^ra^^oO ae ^r)Tovaiv 
Kal TTSpl (TOV BiaXiyovrai,, /ce^^T/i^ore? ei irodev et? 
avTOv<; KaraTTTolo TrdXiv. 


Su yovp px)L Td\r]6e<;, m 'Ep/jLrj, av et7roi<; /jl6vo<;, 
are auvoov avrol^; rd TroWd Kal avvBiarpl^cov ev 
T€ yv/jLvaaLOt<i Kal iv rrj dyopa — Kal dyopaio<; ydp 
el Kal iv Tai9 iKKXrjaiaL^ Kr]pvTT€L<; — oiroloi 7676- 
vrjvrai Kal ei Bvvarrj /jlol Trap* avroU V /jlovtJ. 


Nt) Ala, dBiKOLTjv ydp dv 7rpo<; dBeXcfy-^v ce 
ovaav fjurj Xiycov, ovk oXiya 7r/)09 t?79 (l>iXoao<j>la<; 

^ Lycabettus and the Acropolis. The promontory of 
Suniura is the moat conspicuous landmark because Hermefl 




They are not all bad, my daughter, and it is 
enough if you find some that are good. But go now, 
so that a few cases, at least, may be heard to-day. 


Let us set out in this direction, Justice, straight for 
Sunium, not far from the foot of Hymettus, to the left 
of Parnes, where you see those two heights ^ ; you 
have probably forgotten the way long since. But why 
are you crying and taking it hard ? Don't be afraid : 
things are no longer the same in life. All those 
Scirons and Pinebenders and Busirises and Phalarises 
whom you used to fear in former days are dead, and 
now Wisdom and the Academy and the Porch are 
in full sway, seek for you everywhere, and hold 
conversations about you, in open-mouthed expecta- 
tion that, from some quarter or other, you may 
perhaps come flying down to them once more. 


Well, Hermes, you are the only person who can 
tell me the truth, inasmuch as you associate with 
them a great deal, passing your days with them in 
the athletic clubs and in the market-place ; for you 
are the god of the market, as well as being crier in 
the meetings of the assembly. What sort of people 
are they, and is it possible for me to abide among 


To be sure ; I should not be treating you fairly if 
I did not tell you, since you are my sister. Most of 

and Justice are coining down from above, and from seaward 
(cf. below, if Sf^ia). Lucian's gods live in Heaven, not on 
Olympus or Ida. 



QXpiXrjvrai ol iroXkol avrcjv /cat yap el /jbrjBev 
dWo, alSol yovp rod (T^ijfjuiTO<; fier p loot € pa Bia- 
fiaprdvovaiv. ttXjjp dWd Kal iio')(9r]pol<i tlctiv 
ivrev^T} avrcav — XPV l^P^ olfxaL, TaXrjOrj Xeyeiv — 
ivloL<; Se 7]/jUL(t6(I)ol<; /cal r)/jLt<l)av\oi<;. iirel yap 
avTov<; pLerepaiTTev rj ao(f}La TrapaXa^ovaa^ oiroaoi 
fjL€P et? Kopov eiTLOV Trj<; fia(j)r]<;, ')(prjaTol dKpi^o)<; 
direTeXeadi^aav djjLiyel^ iripcov 'X^pco/Jbdrcov, /cal 
7rpo9 ye rrjv arjv v7roBo)(r)v ovtol erot/jLOTaror 
ocroi he viro rod TrdXai pvirov /jltj et? jSdOo^ irape- 
he^avTO oiTOGov SevaoTrOLov rod (f)ap/j,dKov, tojv 
dXXcov d/jL€Lvov<;, dr€XeL<; Be 6/ii(o<; Kal jjUL^oXevKOL 
Kal KaTeaTiyfxkvoi Kal TrapBaXcorol rr]v 'X,p6av. 
elal 8* ot Kal fxovov yjravaavTe^ eKroaOev rov 
Xe^rjrof; aKpw rS> BaKrvXw Kal eTTi'X^pLadfievoL tt}? 
da^oXov lKav(o<s otovrai Kal ovtol fieTa/Se^dcpOai, 
aol jxevroL hrjXov on fierd rcjv dplarcov rj BiarpL^rj 
ear at. 
9 *AXXd /jueTa^v Xoywv rjBr) irXr^aid^oiJiev rfj 
^ArrtKr}' coare to fiev Xovvlov ev Be^id KaraXei- 
TTcofiev, eh Be rrjv aKpoiroXiv dirovevw fjuev tjBt). Kal 
eTreiirep KaTa^e^rjKafMeVy avTT) jxev evTavOd irov 
eirl Tov Trdyov KdOijao et? rrjv irvvKa opwaa Kal 
irepifievovaa ear dv Krjpv^co Ta irapd tov Ai6<;, 
eyo) Be eh rrjv aKpoiroXiv dva^d<; paov ovTOXi 
diravTa^ e/c rov iTTTjKoov irpoaKaXeaojiai. 


M^ TTporepov d7reX0r)<;, w ^Ep/jbi], irplv elirelv 
o<TTt9 0UT09 o 7rpoo-id)v icTTLv, 6 Kepa(T<f)6po^, 6 Tr]V 
avpiyya, 6 Xdaio^ ix toIv aKeXolv, 



them have been helped not a little by philosophy : 
for if it goes no further, at least regard for their 
cloth makes them more circumspect in sinning. 
However, you will come upon a few rascals among 
them — I imist tell the truth, I suppose — -and some who 
are partly wise and partly foolish. You see, when 
Wisdom took them in hand and dyed tliem over, all 
those who thoroughly absorbed the dye were made 
entirely serviceable, without any intermixture of 
other hues, and they are quite ready to receive you ; 
while those who because of their ingrained filth 
were not deeply penetrated by the colouring matter 
of the dyestuffare better than the rest, to be sure, 
but unfinished products, half-white, blemished, and 
spotted like the pard. And there are some who 
have only touched the kettle on the outside with 
a finger-tip and smeared on some of the soot, yet 
think that they too are well enough dyed over. 
You, however, will of course pass your time with 
the best of them. 

But in the course of our talk we are already draw- 
ing near to Attica, so let us leave Sunium on our 
right, and now let us glide down to the Acropolis. 
. . . Now that we have alighted, you sit down here 
on the Areopagus somewhere, facing the Pnyx, and 
wait until I give out the proclamation from Zeus. 
If 1 climb the Acropolis it will be easier for me to 
summon everybody from that point of vantage for 
the voice. 


Don't go, Hermes, until you have told me who 
comes here, the person with the horns and the 
shepherd's pipe and the hairy legs. 




Tt (pij'i; ayvoel^; tov TLava, tmv Atovvaov Oepa- 
iTovTwv TOV fiaKXt-fCMTarov; outo? mkci fiev ro 
irpoaOev ava to YiapOeviov, vtto Be tov AartSo? 
eiriirXovv Koi ttjv MapaOcovaBe tmv ^ap/3dp(ov 
aTTo^adiv r)Kev ukXtito^ to2<; ^ KdrjvaioL^ avfijia-x^o^t 
fcal TO air iKeuvov ttjv vtto ttj d/cpowoXeL aTnjXvyya 
TavT7]v diroXa^opLevci olk€l fiLKpov virep tov 
UeXaayifcov et? to /jl€tolklov crvvTeXoyv. /cat vvv 
<»9 TO €Iko<; IBoov r}fia<i eK yeiTovoav irpoaeLa-i Be^tay- 


10 XaipeTC, 0) 'Eppbi] kuI Alktj, 


Kal (TV ye, w TIdv, fjLOvaiKCOTaTe kol TrrjBr}- 
TiKOiTUTe ^aTvpcov dirdvTcov, ^AO^vrjcri Be Kal 


Tt9 Be u/xa?, w 'Kpfii], %y06ta Bevpo Tjyayev; 


AvTTj (Toi BirjyrjcreTaL tcl irdvTa' eya) Be iirl T171/ 
aKpoiroXiv direLfMc ^ kol to Ki]pvyfia. 


'O Zev^, o) Udv, KaTeTre/jLyjre /xe diroKXrjpcoaoV' 
aav Ta? BlKa<;. (tol Be ttw? tol ev ^KdrjvaL<; e%€t; 


To fjiev oXov ov kut d^iav irpdTTco irap avTol^, 
aXXd TToXv KUTaBeecTTepov t^? e\7rtSo9, Kal TavTa 

^&Tr€ifjLi N: not in other MSS. Probably a conjecture, 
and more than one word may have been lost. 




What ! Don't you know Pan, the most bacchana- 
Han of the servants of Dionysus ? He formerly lived 
on Parthenion,^ but at the time of the approach of 
Datis by sea and the landing of the barbarians at 
Marathon, he came unasked to fight on the side of 
the Athenians ; and since then, accepting this cavern 
under the Acropolis, a little above the Pelasgicon,^ 
he lives in it, paying the usual tax as a resident 
alien. V^ery likely he has seen us near and is coming 
up to greet us. 


Good day to you, Hermes and Justice. 


The same to you. Pan, most musical and most 
frolicsome of all satyrs, and at Athens the most 
bellicose ! 


What business brought you two here, Hermes ? 


She will tell you the whole story ; I am going to 
the Acropolis, to make my proclamation. 


Zeus sent me down. Pan, to empanel juries for the 
lawsuits. But how do you find things in Athens ? 


On the whole, I do not get on as well as I ought 
here — much worse than I expected ; and yet I dis- 

^ A mountain in Arcadia. 

2 The cave of Pan, being in the N.W. corner of the Acro- 
polis, can be pointed out (ravrriv) from the Areopagus, which 
is close by (^« yeirSvwv). For the bit of the prehistoric wall 
below it (Pelasgicon), see p. 63, note 1, and p. 71. 



T7}\tKOVTov airaxrdiievo'i KvBoifiov rov ifc twv 
fiap^dpcov. 6fjL0i)<; Be Bl<; rj Tpl<; rod erov^ dviovre^i 
iinXe^diJLevoi rpdyov evopxw Ovovai fioi iroWrj^ 
rrjf; KLvdppa^ drro^ovra, elr evcoxovvrai rd Kpea, 
TTOtTjadfievoL jxe t^? €v<p pocrvprj^; fidprvpa koI ylriXw 
TLfirjaavre^ tw Kporw. ttXtjv aXV €)(€i rivd fioi 
'y]rv)(^aya)yiav 6 ye\ci)<; avrcov Kal rj Traihtd. 


1 1 Ta K dWa, ct> TLdv, dfieivov^ irpo^ dperrjv 
iyevovTO viro roiv (f)L\oa6<pa)v; 

TtW? \6y€L<; T0U9 (faXoao^ov^; dp' eKCLvov; 
TOi)? Kart](f)eL<;, tol/? crvvdfia iroWov'i, rov'i to 
yevGiov 6/jLolovf; ifioi, roi/? \d\ov<;; 


Kal fidXa. 


OvK olBa 6Xci)<; 6 ri Kal Xiyovaiv ovSe avvir^ixL 
Tr)V ao^iav avroyv opeio^ yap eycoye Kal rd 
KO/jL^d ravra prj/xdrLa Kal darLKd ov /jLe/jbddrjKa, 
oi Alkt]. TToOev yap iv ^ApxaBla cro^i,(TTr}<i rj 
(f>iX6ao(f)0<i; P'^XP'' "^^^ irXayiov KaXdpuov Kal rij^i 
avpcyyo^ iyco (to(J)6<^, rd B^ dXXa aliroXo^ Kal 
Xop€vr7j<i Kal 7roXefjii(TT^<;, rjv Berj. irX'qv aW* 
aKOVw ye avrcav del KeKpayorcov Kal dpertjv riva 
Kal IBia^ Kal (ftvaiv Kal dacofiaTa Blc^lovtcov, 
dyvwcTa ip^ol Kal ^eva opofiara. Kal rd Trpcora 
fiev elpr]ViK(a<i ivdpxovrai rcov 7r/)09 d\Xi]Xov<; 
Xoywv, irpoLovcTT)'^ Be t% avvovaLa<; einTeivovaL 
TO (pOeyp^a yLtep^/3* tt/oo? to opOiov, wcrre virepBia- 
TeivofjL€V(i)v Kal d/xa Xeyeiv ideXovTcov to tc wpo- 



pelled the mighty hue and cry of the barbarians. 
In spite of that, they come up only two or three 
times a year, pick out and sacrifice in my honour 
a he-goat with a powerful goatish smell, and then 
feast on the meat, making me a mere witness of 
their good cheer and paying their respects to me 
only with their noise. However, their laughter and 
fun afford me some amusement. 


In general, Pan, have they been improved in 
virtue by the philosophers ? 


What do you mean by philosophers ? Those 
gloomy fellows, flocking together, with beards like 
mine, who talk so much ? 


To be sure. 


I do not know at all what they mean and I do not 
understand their wisdom, for I am a mountaineer 
and I have not studied those clever, citified, technical 
terms. Justice. How could a literary man or a philo- 
sopher possibly come from Arcadia ? My wisdom 
does not go beyond the flute and the pipes ; for the 
rest I am a goatherd, a dancer, and if need be a 
fighter. However, I hear them bawling continually 
and talking about ^"^ virtue " (whatever that means) 
and " ideas" and "nature" and " things incorporeal," 
terms that are to me unknown and outlandish. Tliey 
begin their discussions peaceably, but as the con- 
ference proceeds they raise their voices to a high 
falsetto, so that, what with their excessive straining 
and their endeavour to talk at the same time, their 



acoTTov ipvOpia koL 6 Tpd')(7fKo^ olBel koX at ^X,e/5€9 
i^avLaravraL oiairep rcov av\r)Tcov ottotuv eh 
(TTevov Tov avXov epLirveiv ^id^covTai. Btarapd- 
faz^T69 yovv tov<; \6yov<; koL rb ef cLp')(r)^ iirc- 
(TKOTrovfievov crv'y')(€avT6<; diriaai XoLBoprjadfievoi 
dWi]\oi<; ol TToXkoL, TOV IhpSira ck rov fxeroo'Trov 
dyKv\(p Tft) BaKTvXo) diro^vofMevoi, kol ovto<; Kpa- 
relv eho^ev o? av fieya\o(pcov6T€po<; avroov y koX 
Opaavrepo^ Koi BcaXvofievcov diTeXOr) varepof;, 
ttXtjv dXX^ 6 y€ Xeo)? o 7roXv<i reOrjiTaaiv avrov^;, 
Kal /jLaXiara oirocrov^ fxrjhev rcov dvayKaioripcop 
da^oXel, kol irapearaai irpo'; to dpdao^ koi ttjv 
ffor}v KeKrjXTj/iivot. i/xol fjuev ovv dXa^6ve<; rti^e? 
iSofcovv UTTO tovtcov kol rjVLWfJLTqv iirl Trj tov 
7rd)y(ovo(; 6/J,oi6T7)Tt. el Be ye Br]/io)<l)€X€<; tc evrjv 
TTJ ySo^ avToyv Kal tl dyaOov ex TOiv prj/judTcov 
eKeivwv dvet^veTO avToh, ovk av elirelv e^otfju. 
7rXr}v dXX' el' ye Bet /jirjBev VTroaTetXa/jLevov TdXr]Oe<; 
Birjy^craa-OaL — oIk(o yap iirl (TKOTrrj'^, co? 6pa<; — 
TToXXoL'? avTcov TToXXdicLf; ijBrj edeaadpurjv irepl 
BelXrjv oyJTLav — 


12 *E7r/(T%€?, ft) Udv, ovx o 'EpfjLrj<: aoi KrjpvTTecv 

Hdvv fjL€V ovv, 


'A^oi^€T€ Xeo),^ ayopav BiKUiv dyaOy TV')(rj 
KaTaaTTjaofieOa TrjfjLepov ^FjXa^rj^oXLCovo^ e^Bo/jLij 
laTajiievov. oiToaoL ypa<pag d7ri]veyKav, rjKeiv et? 
"Apeiov Trdyov, evOa 17 AtV»; dTroKXrjpoocrei to. 

1 \f(p Dindorf, Cobet : hews MSS. 


faces get red, their necks get swollen, and their veins 
stand out like those of flute-players when they try to 
blow into a closed flute. In fact, they spoil their 
arguments, confuse the original subject of inquiry, 
and then, after abusing one another, most of them, 
they go away wiping the sweat off their foreheads 
with their bent fingers ; and the man that is most 
loud-mouthed and impudent and leaves last when they 
break up is considered to have the best of it. How- 
ever, the common people admire them, especially 
those who have nothing more pressing to do, and 
stand there enchanted by their impudence and their 
shouting. For my part, I considered them impostors 
in consequence of all this, and was annoyed at the 
resemblance in beard. But perhaps there was some- 
thing beneficial to the common weal in their shouting 
and some good sprang from those technical terms 
of theirs — I can't say. However, if I am to tell the 
truth without any reserve — for I dwell on a look-out, 
as you see — I have often seen many of them in the 
dark of the evening — 


Hush, Pan ; didn't it seem to you that Hermes is 
making a proclamation ? 


Why, yes. 


Oyez, oyez ! Under the blessing of Heaven, we 
shall hold a session of court to-day, the seventh of 
Elaphebolion.i All who have entered suits are to come 
to the Areopagus, where Justice will empanel the juries 

* T}ie seventh of Elaphebolion was not far froir.. the first 
of April. 




BiKaaT'^pia Koi avrrj irapearaL tol<; hifcd^ovaiv 
ol BiKaaral e^ aTravrcov ^AOrjvaicov 6 fiL(TOo<; 

rpLCi)j3o\oV €Kd(TT7J<; 8lK7J(;' dpLd/jLO^ TMV 8lKa(TTC0P 

Kara \6jov tov iyKXtj/jbaro';. oiriaoi he dirode- 
fjLivoL ypa^rjv nrplv elaekOelv direOavov, /cal rov- 
TOv<; 6 AlaKo^; dvaireix^^drct). rjv Si t£? dhiKa 
hehiKdaOai olrjraL, €(f)6ai/jLov dycovistraL ttjv BIktjv' 
T) Be e<^6(7i9 eVt tov Ala. 


BajSal TOV Oopvffov rfKiKov, w Ai/crj, dve^OTj- 
aav, ft)? he kol airovhrj (TvvOeovcnv €\/covt€<; dW'^- 
Xou? 7rpo<; to dvavTe<^ evdv tov ^Apeiov irdyov. 
Kol 6 '^ipfjLY}^ he Tjhrj irdpeaTiv. wcrre uyaet? fiev 
d/jL^l ra? 3iVa? e^ere kuI diroKk-qpovTe kol hia- 
KpivaTS &<nrep vfMiv vofxof;, iyoj he eVl to <T7n]Xatov 
dTreXOcbv avpl^ofjiaL tl fxeXo^ tcop epcoTiKcov w Tr)v 
^ii)(^cti etcoOa eTTt/cepTOfielv aKpodaewv he koI Xoycop 
Tcoi^ hiKavLKWv dXi<; €')(et> fioi oarj/jiepai t(ov iv 
*ApeLa) irdyw httca^ofjuevcov dKOvovTi. 


13 "Aye, w AUrj, TrpoaKaXco/juev, 


Eu XeyeL^. dOpoot yovv, oo? o/oa?, TTpoalaa-L 
dopvpovvTe^, axTTrep ol a^rjKe^ irepi^ofi^ovvTe^ 
TTJV cLKpav. 


¥itX7}(f)d <re, w KaTdpaTe, 



Aft)o-ei9 TTore '^Brj ttjv hiKJjv, 


and be present in person at the trials. The jurors 
will be drawn from the entire body of Athenians ; 
the pay will be three obols a case, and the number 
of jurors will be in accordance with the charge. All 
those who have entered suits but have died before 
they came to trial are to be sent back to earth by 
Aeacus. If anyone thinks he has had an unjust 
hearing, he is to appeal the case, and the appeal will 
be to Zeus. 


Heavens, what a hubbub ! What a shout they 
raised. Justice, and how eagerly they are gathering 
at a run, dragging each other up the hill, straight for 
the Areopagus ! Hermes, too, is here already, so busy 
yourselves with the cases, empanel your juries and 
give your verdicts as usual ; I am going back to the 
cave to pipe one of the passionate melodies with 
which I am in the habit of provoking Echo. I am 
sick of trials and speeches, for I hear the pleaders on 
the Areopagus every day. 


Come, Justice, let's call them to the bar. 


Quite right. Indeed they are approaching in 
crowds, as you see, with a great noise, buzzing about 
the hilltop like wasps. 


I've got you, curse you ! 


You are a blackmailer ! 


At last you are going to pay the penalty ! 




'EfeXeyfo) ae BcLva elpyaa-fievov* 

'E/xoi irp(i>T(p aTTOKKrjpuxJov, 

"EtTOU, /JLLapif TTyOO? TO BlKttO-TIJplOV, 


OlaOa o 8pd(Tco/jL6v, o) 'EpyLt?}; ra? fiev aXXa? 
^lfca<; eh rrjv avpiov VTrep^aXcofjueda, rrjfxepov Be 
K\r]pcofJLev Ta<; TOtavrat; oiroaai Te)(yaL<; rj fiuoig rj 
eiTLCTTrifiai^ vrpo? dvBpa<; elalv eTrrjyyeX/JLevai, /cal 
fiot, rauTa? dvdBo^ to)v ypa^wv. 


Me^?; Kara Trj<; ^AKaBr]fjL€La<; irepl IloXe- 
fi(ovo<; dvBpaTToBia/jLov. 


'ETTTa Kkrjpayaov. 


'H ^Toa /cara tt)? 'H80Z/779 dSiKua^, otc top 
epaa-TTjv avTrj<; Aiopvacov dire^ovKoXrjaev, 


riei^Te iKavoL 

^ As Hermes gives each writ to Justice, he reads the head- 
ing and she tells him how many jurors are to be drawn. Her 
orders are carried out in silence, and the juries are all in 
readiness when the first case is called, which is not until she 
has filled the docket for the day {§ 15). 

2 Polemo, intemperate in his youth, went to a lecture by 
Xenocrates to create a disturbance, but was cou verted to 




I will prove that you have committed horrible 
crimes ! 


Empanel my jury first ! 


Come to court with me, scoundrel ! 


Stop choking me ! 


Do you know what we ought to do, Hermes ? Let 
US put off the rest of the cases until to-morrow, and 
to-day let us provide only for those entered by 
professions or pursuits or sciences against men. Pass 
me up the writs of that description.^ 


Intemperance v. the Academy in re Polemo : 
kidnapping. 2 


Draw seven jurors. 


Stoa r. Pleasure: alienation of affections— because 
Pleasure coaxed away her lover, Dionysius.^ 


Five will do. 

philosophy by what he heard. He succeeded Xenocrates as 
head of the Academy (Diog. L. iv. 1 ff. ). 

3 Dionj-sius the Convert was a pupil of Zeno, but became 
a Cyrenaic, " being converted to pleasure ; for sore eyes gave 
him so much trouble that he could not bring himself to 
maintain any longer that pain did not matter " (Diog. L. vii. 
1, 31 ; cf. vii. 4). 




Ilepl ^ApiaTLTTTrov Tpv(j)r) irpof; ^Aperrjp, 


Uevre Kal tovtol^ SLKaadrcoaav, 


^Apyvpa/jLoificKT) hpaafMOv Acojepei, 


TpeU aiTOKXrjpov fi6vov<!, 


rpa<j>iKr} Kara Ilvpp(ovo(i XtTrora^LOV, 


*EsVvia Kpivdrcoaav. 


14 BovXet /cal raura? aTroKXrjpco/JLev, to Alktj, ra? 
Svo, ra? Trpoorjv dTrevrjvey fieva<; Kara rov prjTOpo';; 


Ta9 7ra\atd(; irporepov hiavvawfiev avrai Be 
eh varepov BehLKdaovrai, 


Kal p.7]v o/jioiaL ye kul avrac Kal to ejKXrjfia, 
el Kal veapovy dWd irapairXi^aLov toU irpoairoKe- 
K\7]pcopLevoL<;' wcTTe iv tovtol^; SLKaaOrjvai, d^iov. 

^ Follower of Socrates ; later, founder of the Cyrenaic 

2 Diogenes the Cynic was son and partner of the banker 
Hicesias in Sinope. They were caught making counterfeit 




High-living v. Virtue, in re Aristippus.^ 


Let five sit in this case too. 


Banking v. Diogenes : absconding. ^ 


Draw only three. 


Painting v. Pyrrho : breach of contract.' 


Let nine sit on jury. 


Do you want us to provide juries for these two 
cases also, recorded yesterday against the public 
speaker ? * 


Let us first finish up the cases of long-standing ; 
these can go over until to-morrow for trial. 


Why, these are of the same nature, and the com- 
plaint, although recent, is very like those for which 
we have already provided juries, so that it ought to 
be tried along with them. 

coin ; the father was put to death, and the son fled to Athens 
(Diog. L. vii. 2, 1). 

3 Pyrrho the Sceptic began life as an artist (Diog. L. 
ix. 11). 

• Lucian ; coming from Samosata on the Euphrates, he is 
presently called " the Syrian." 



*'EofA:a9, (o 'Rpfirj, 'Xapi'^OfjLevqy rrjv herjcnv. 
a7roK\r)pa)fJL€V S' o/^o)?, el BokcI, irXrjv dWa TavTa<; 
jMova^i' LKavaX yap at dTroKeKXrjpcofjbivat. 3o? Td<i 


^VrjTOpLicr) KaKcoaeco^i tm Svptp' ^idXoyo^ tw 
avT& v/3p€0)(;. 


Tt? Be ouTo? iariv; ov yap eyyeypairrai rov- 


Oi;Tft)9 diroKXt^pov, Ta> prjTopi tw %vpqy kcoXv- 
aei yap ovSev kul dvev rod 6v6fMaTO<;. 


^ISov, Kal rd(; vTrepoplov; 7]8rj ^ KOrjvrjaiv ev 
*Kpei(p irdyw d7roK\r}pco(ro/j,ev, a? vrrep rov ^ixfipd- 
rrjp /traXw? el^j^e BehiicdaOaL; ttXtjv dWd Kkrjpov 
evheKa rov? avrov^ eKarepa rcov Blkcov. 


E^ ye, 0) AiKT}, (pelBrj firj ttoXv dvaXlaKeaOat 
TO BiKaariKov. 


15 Ol irpwTOL Kadi^ercoa-av rfj ^AKaBrj/jLeta xal rfj 
MiOr]' (TV Be TO vBcop ey\eL, irporepa Be ait Xeye 
rj MeOrj. tL aiya Kal Bcavevei; pdOe, cj 'Eyo/xr;, 


" Ot* Bvvafxai,^^ ^7]ai, " top dywva elirelv viro 
rov dfcpdrov rrjv yXojTTav TreireBTjp.evr], jjltj yeXtora 





You appear to have been unduly influenced to 
make the request, Hermes. Let us make the 
drawing, however, since you wish ; but only for these 
two cases ; we have enough on the docket. Give 
me the writs. 


Oratory v. the Syrian : neglect. Dialogue v. the 
same : maltreatment. 


Who is this man .'' His name is not recorded. 


Empanel a jury for him as it stands in the writ — 
for the public speaker, the Syrian. There is nothing 
o hinder its being done anonymously. 


Look here, are we really to try cases from over the 
border here in Athens, on the Areopagus ? They 
ought to have been tried on the other side of the 
Euphrates. However, draw eleven jurors, the same 
to sit for both cases. 


You are right. Justice, to avoid spending too much 
in jury-fees. 


Let the first jury sit, in the case of the Academy 
t'. Intemperance. Fill the water-clock. Plead first, 
Intemperance . . . Why does she hold her tongue 
and shake her head .^ Go to her and find out, 


She says that she cannot plead her case because her 
tongue is tied with drink and she is afraid of getting 



o(f>Xco ev Tw BiKaarrjpLoyJ* fioXi^ Be kol ecTTrjKev,^ 
CD? 6pa<;. 


OvKOvv trvvTjyopov dva^ifiacrdaOco roiv koivmv^ 
TOVTwv TLvd' TToXkol jdp ol KCLV iirl Tpl(0fi6\(p 
hiappayfjvai eroi/jLoi. 


'Aw' ovSe el? iOeXycei ev ye tw (f)ai'epa> avva- 
yopevaat yieOrj. ttXtjv evyvco/jiovd ye ravra eoLKev 



Ta TTola; 


** *H ^AKaByj/xeia tt/jo? d/j,(j)OTepov<; del irape- 
CKevacrraL tov<; \6yov<; Koi tovt daKel rdvavria 
KaXoa^ hvvaaOai \eyeiv. avrrf toliwv,^* (prjaiv, 
" virep e/jiov Trporepov eiTrdrQ), elra varepov virep 
€avT7]<i epec." 


Kaivd fiev ravra, elire Se o[i(jd<;, co ^AKaBtj/jLeta, 
rov \6yov eKdrepov, eiTei aoi paSiov. 


16 'A/couere, co dvBpef; BtKaarai, irporepa rd virep 
rrj<; Me0r]<;' eKeivrj^; yap ro ye vvv peov. 

^HSiKTjrai rj dOXia rd fjLeyiara viro t% ^AKaBrj- 
peia^ epov, dvBpdiroBov o p.6vov el')(^ev evvovv Kal 
marov avrfj, p,r]Bev ala^pov wv 'Trpoard^eiev 
ol6p,evov, d^aipeOelaa rov TLoXep^oova eKelvov, 09 
ped^ r)p,€pav e/cd)p,a^€v Bid t?}? dyopd<; /leo"?^?, 
'\jraXrpLav e'X^cov Kal KaraB6pevo<; ecoOev et? eairepav, 
pbedvoav del Kal KpanraXwv Kal rr)v KecpaXrjv rolq 

1 fffTTiKa y. 2 Sftvuv /S ; cf. Jup. Trag. 29. 



laughed at in court. She can hardly stand, as you 


Then let her have an advocate appear, one of these 
public pleaders. There are plenty of them ready to 
split their lungs for three obols ! 


But not one will care to espouse the cause of 
Intemperance, not openly, at any rate. However, 
this request of hers seems reasonable. 


What request? 


'^ The Academy," she says, "is always ready to 
argue on both sides and trains herself to be able to 
speak eloquently both pro and con. Therefore let 
her plead first for me, and then after that she will 
plead for herself." 


That is unprecedented. Nevertheless, make both 
speeches. Academy, since it is easy for you. 


Listen first, gentlemen of the jury, to the plea of 
Intemperance, as the water now runs for her. 

The poor creature has been treated with the 
greatest injustice by me, the Academy. She has 
been robbed of the only friendly and faithful slave 
she had, who thought none of her orders unbecoming, 
Polemo yonder, who used to go roistering through 
the middle of the square in broad day, who kept 
a music-girl and had himself sung to from morning 
to night, who was always drunk and debauched and 



arecfxivoif; Bi,r)vOi(Tfievo<i. Koi ravra ort aXrjOrj, 
fjLOLpTvpe^ ^AOrjvaloi aTraz^re?, oi fjLr]B€ vcoTroTe 
vrj<^ovTa UoXefjLcova elSov. eVel Be 6 KaKoBal/icov 
67rt Ta<; t?}? *A/caSr;yLteta9 6vpa<; iKcofiaaev, wcnrep 
iirl Trayra? elooOei, aphpairohLaafjievrj avrov koI 
CLTTo Tcov ')(eLp(i}V T^9 Me^7;9 dpTrdaacra jxera ^ca^; 
KOI 7rpo<i avTTjv dyayovaa vhpoTTorelv re Karrf- 
vdyKaaev koI vijcpeiv jxerehiBa^ev koI tou? arecfid- 
vov<s nrepLecnraaev koL Biov iriveiv Karafcelfievov, 
p-qjjbdna (TKokid koi Bva-TTjva koL iroWi}'; ^povriBo^; 
dvdpeara eTralBevaev wcrre dvrl rov rew? eirav- 
6ovvTO<; avTM epv9r]fiaT0<; ft)X/oo9 o ^ olOXlo^ koI 
f)LKV0<; TO (Tcofia yeyevrjrai, kol tcl^ a>Bd<; aTraVa? 
aTTo/jLaOobv dcrvTO'i ivlore koi BiylraXeo<; et? fiiarju 
kairepav fcdOrjraL Xr]pa)v oirola iroXXd 7) ^AkuBtJ- 
fjLeia iyci) Xrjpelv BiBdaKw. to Be jMeyidTov, otl 
Koi XoiBopeLTai ttj MeOrj tt/oo? i/iov eTrapOeU Kal 
fjLvpia KaKCL Biel^eiGi irepl avTrj<;. 

^ip7]TaL a'X^eBov to, virep Trj<; MeOrj<;. '^Brj Kal 
VTrep ifiavTrj^ epco, fcal to uTrb tovtov efiol peva-dTco. 


Tt dpa rrrpo^ TavTa ipel; irXrjv dXX! €y)(^et to 
laov ev T(p fiepei. 


17 OvTcocrl fiev aKovcraL Trdvv evXoya, w avBp€<; 
BiKaaTaiy rj avv7Jyopo<; el'pTjKCv virep t^9 Me^?;?, 
Tjv'^ Be Ka/uLOv /jlct evvoia<i aKovarjTe, el'aea-de ox; 
ovBev avTYjv ^BlxTj/ca. 

Tov yap UoXefJLCova tovtov, 6v (pTjcriv eavT7j<: 
oiKeTrjv elvai, Trecjiv/coTa ov ^auX«9 ovBe kuto, ttjv 

^ b du Soul ; not in MSS. ' fjv Fritzsche : et MSS. 



had garlands of flowers on his head. That this is 
true, all the Athenians will testify ; for they never 
saw Polemo sober. But when the unhappy man went 
rollicking to the Academy's door, as he used to go to 
everybody's, she claimed him as her slave, snatched 
him out of the hands of Intemperance by main 
strength, and took him into her house. Then she 
forced him to drink water, taught him to keep sober, 
stripped off his garlands : and when he ought to have 
been drinking at table, she made him study intricate, 
gloomy terms, full of profound thought. So, instead 
of the flush that formerly glowed upon him, the 
poor man has grown pale, and his body is shrivelled ; 
he has forgotten all his songs, and he sometimes sits 
without food or drink till the middle of the evening, 
talking the kind of balderdash that I, the Academy, 
teach people to talk unendingly. What is more, he 
even abuses Intemperance at my instigation and says 
any number of unpleasant things about her. 

I have said about all that there is to say for 
Intemperance. Now I will speak for myself, and 
from this point let the water run for me. 


What in the world will she say in reply to that .'* 
Anyhow, pour in the same amount for her in turn. 


Heard casually, gentlemen of the jury, the plea 
which the advocate has made in behalf of Intemper- 
ance is quite plausible, but if you give an unprejudiced 
hearing to my plea also, you will find out that I have 
done her no wrong at all. 

This man Polemo, who, she says, is her servant, 
was not naturally bad or inclined to Intemperance, 



MiOrjv, aXV olfcelov e/jLol rrjv <^v(tlv, irpoapTrdaaaa 
veov en Koi diraXov ovra (Tvvaya)vi,^o/jL€V7j<; Trj<; 
*ll8ovrj<;, rjirep avrfj ra iroWa vTTOvpyec, Sie(f)0€ip€ 
Tov olOXlov T0i9 K(OfiOL<i Koi ral<i eTaipai^ Trapa- 
a^ovaa exBoTOV, eo? /jLTjSe /juKpov avro) t?}? alSov(; 
VTToXeiiTedOaL. koi a ye virep kavrr)^ XiyeaOai 
fjLLKpov e/jLTTpocrOev wero, ravra virep ifiov fjudWov 
elprjadai voixiaare' Trepiyei yap ecoOev 6 ad\io<; 
iaT€cf)av(o/jLevo<;, KpacTraXcov, Slo, tt}? ayopa^ fiearj^i 
/caravXov/JL6vo<;, ovBeTrore vi](f)cov, KWfid^cop inl 
7rdvTa<;, v/3pL^ rcov Trpoyovcov koI rrjf; jroXecof; 
6Xr)(; Koi yeXco<; rot? f ei^ot?. 

*E7ret jxevTOi ye irap i/ie rJKev, iyo) fxev erv^ov, 
cocTTrep etcoOa iroielv, dvaTreTrra/jieucov rcov Ovpwv 
7rpo<; 70v<; irapovra^ riav eraipcov Xoyov<; rivd^; 
Trepl dperrj^; koi aaxppoavvr]^; Sie^tovaa' 6 Be fiera 
TOV avXov Koi Twv crrecpdvcop eTTicrra? ra fiev 
TTpcora efioa Koi Gvy^elv ruiwv eireipaTO rr}v 
ovvovaiav €7riTapd^a<; rfj ^ofj- eirel Be ovBev 
rjfjLeLfi €7re^povTLKeL/jLev avrov, Kar oXLyov — ov yap 
reXeov rjv BLd^po-)(0'i rfj M.e07j — dv€PTj(f)e tt/jo? tov<; 
X6yov(} Kal d(f)7)peLT0 tov<; arecpdvov^; Kal rrjv 
avXrirplBa KarecndiTra Kal eirl rfj TropcfivpiBi rjaxv- 
vero, Kal ioairep e^ vttvov ^a6eo<i dveypofievo<^ 
eavTov re ecopa ottco^; BieKeiro Kal tov irdXat ^iov 
KaTeyiyvocKJKev. Kal to /jlev epvdrjfia to €k t^? 
M 6^779 dirrjvOei Kal ^(jyavi^eTO, ypvOpla Be KaT 
alBco T(x)v Bpcofievcov' Kal reXo? diroBpaf; axjirep 
elx^v TlvTOiioXrjcrev irap ifie, ovTe iiriKaXeaa/jLevrj^; 
ovTe l3taaap,evT)^, &>? avTTj'^ cprjaLV, €/jlov, dXX' 
eK^bv auT09 dfielvco raura elvai viroXa/xlSdvcap. 

^ avTT} Fr. : avrrf MSS. 


but had a nature like mine. But while he was still 
young and impressionable she preempted him, with 
the assistance of Pleasure, who usually helps her, and 
corrupted the poor fellow, surrendering him un- 
conditionally to dissipation and to light women, so 
that he had not the slightest remnant of shame. In 
fact, what she thought was said on her behalf a 
moment ago, you should consider said on my behalf. 
The poor fellow went about from early to late with 
garlands on his head, flushed with wine, attended by 
music right through the public square, never sober, 
making roisterous calls upon everybody, a disgrace to 
his ancestors and to the whole city and a laughing- 
stock to strangers. 

But when he came to my house, it chanced that, 
as usual, the doors were wide open and I was 
discoursing about virtue and temperance to such of 
my friends as were there. Coming in upon us with 
his flute and his garlands, first of all he began to shout 
and tried to break up our meeting by disturbing it 
with his noise. But we paid no attention to him, and 
as he was not entirely sodden with Intem[)erance, 
little by little he grew sober under the influence of 
our discourses, took off his garlands, silenced his 
flute-player, became ashamed of his purple mantle, 
and, awaking, as it were, from profound sleep, saw his 
own condition and condemned his past life. The flush 
that came from Intemperance faded and vanished, 
and he flushed for shame at what he was doing. At 
length he abandoned her then and there, and took up 
with me, not because I either invited or constrained 
him, as this person says, but voluntarily, because he 
believed the conditions here were better. 



Kal /jLOi TjBrj KoXei avrov, ottox; Kara/jLddrjre ov 
rpoirov hicLKeiTai 7rpo<i i/jLov. — tovtov, co dvBp€<; 
ZiKaaraiy TrapaXa/Sovcra 7eXota)? e^ovra, jjLrjre 
<j}(ovr}v d(j)i6vaL jjbrjre eardvaL viro rod d/cpdrov 
hwdfjuevov, virearpey^a Kal dvevrjyjra koI dvrl 
dvhpairohov Kocrpuiov dvBpa koI <T(o(j)pova Kal 
TToWov a^Lov 70L<i ' EtWijaiv direBei^a' Kal fwi 
auTo? T€ x^P^^ olSev eVt tovtoi,<; Kal ol irpoai]- 
Kovre<; virep avrov. 

FjiprjKa' vfxeh Be rjBrj (TKOirelre irbrepa rjficov 
dfiecvov Tjv avro) avvelvai. 


18 "Aye Brj, firj /juiXXere, ^jnjcpo^opijcraTe, dvdarrjre' 
Kal dXXoi<; XPV BiKu^eiv. 


TldaaL<; rj ^AKaBrjfieta Kparei TrXrjv p,id<;, 


UapdBo^ov ovBev, elvai riva Kal rfj MeOrj 

19 TiOeiievov. Kadlaare ol rfj Xroa tt/jo? rrjv'HBovrjv 
XaxovT6<; Trepl rov ipaarov BiKd^eLV eyKi^VTai to 
vBcop. r) KaTdypa<^o<i rj to, iroLKiXa av r)Br) Xiye. 


20 OvK dyvoo) fiiv, w dvBpe^; BiKaarai, «<? tt/oo? 
evirpbawTTov jxoi, rrjv dvriBcKOv 6 X070? eo-rat,, 
dXXd Kal vfiMV tou? 7roXXov<; opco irpo<; /lev eKeivqv 
d7ro^X€7rovTa<; Kal fieLBta)VTa<; tt/jo? avrrjv, ifiov 
Be KaTa<l)povovvTa<;, on iv %pa) KCKap/jiai Kal 
dppevcoTTOv ySXeTTft) Kal CKvOpwirr] BokS). o/jlq)<; Be, 

^ An allusion to the famous frescoes of the Painted Porch ; 
Polyguotus' Taking of Troy^ Theseus and the Amatons, and 



^ Please summon him now, that you may see how he 
has fared at my hands. . . . Taking this man, 
gentlemen of the jury, when he was in a ridiculous 
plight, unable either to talk or to stand on account 
of his potations, I converted him and sobered him 
and made him from a slave into a well-behaved, 
temperate man, very valuable to the Greeks ; and he 
himself is grateful to me for it, as are also his 
relatives on his account. 

I have done. It is for you now to consider which 
of us it was better for him to associate with. 


Come, now, do not delay ; cast your ballots and get 
up ; others must have their hearing. 


The Academy wins by every vote but one. 


It is not at all surprising that there should be 
one man to vote for Intemperance. Take your seats, 
you who have been drawn to hear Stoa v. Pleasure 
in re a lover. The clock is filled. You with the 
paint upon you and the gaudy colours, make your 
plea now.^ 


I am not unaware, gentlemen of the jury, that I 
shall have to speak against an attractive opponent ; 
indeed, I see that most of you are gazing at her and 
smiling at her, contemptuous of me because my head 
is close-clipped, my glance is masculine, and I seem 
dour. Nevertheless, if you are willing to hear me 

Battle of Marathon. Lucian brings in a bit of fun by 
deliberately using language which suggests a painted face and 
a gay dress and is in this sense so incongruous as to be 




rjv eOekrjO-YjTe a/covcrai, /jlov Xeyovaiji;, Oappoj ttoXv 
BiKaiorepa Tavrrj^ epelv. 

ToOto fydp TOi Kol TO irapov eyKXrj/jid iaTiv, ore 
ouTft)? €TaipiKa)'i iaK€vaafjL€vr} rw iTraycoyo) t% 
o-^/rco)? €paaTr)V i/xop avSpa rore aoo^pova top 
Aiovvaiov ipevaKLcracra 7rpo9 iavTrjv irepieaTraarev, 
Kal rjv ye ol irpo v/jlcov BUrfv iBUacrav ttj 'A/ca- 
Brjfieia KaX ttj ^eOrj, dB€\<f)r} t^? TrapoixTrj^ BiKrjf; 
iaTiv i^STa^eTaL yap iv tco irapovTC TroTcpa 
y^oipwv BiKTjv KaTco vevevKora^ r^BofJuevov^; yprj 
0LOVV firjBev pLeya\6(j)pov eiTLvoovvTa^; r) iv BevTepw 
Tov fca\(o<i 6%01'TO? rjy7)aa/jL€vov<; to TSpirvov iXev- 
Oepov<; i\ev9ep(ii<; (ftiXoaocpelv, pLrjTe to akyetvov 
0)9 dfiaxov 8e8iOTa9 /jl'^t€ to '^Bv dvBpa7roBcL>B(o<; 
7rpoaipov/jL€vov<; Kal ttjv evBat/jLoviav ^7jTovvTa<; iv 
T(p p^iXcTL fcal Tat9 Icr^daiv. ra TOiavTa yap 
avTrj BeXeuTa T0t9 dvor]TOL<i irpoTeivovaa Kal 

flOp/jLoXvTTOfJLeVT) T(p TTOVCd TTpOGayeTai aVTOdV TOl'9 

7roXXou9, iv ol^ kuI tov BeiXaiov iKelvov d^rjvid- 
aai r)p,(ov TreiroirjKev, voaovvTa Trjpijaada' ov yap 
dv vyiaivwv iroTe irpocrrjKaTO tov<; irapd TavTr]<; 

KuLTOi TL dv eycoye dyavaKToirjv KaT avTr)<^, 
OTTOV /jLTjBe TMv Ocojv ^clBeTaL, dXXd ttjv eVi/^e- 
Xeiav avTCOv Bia^dXXei; co(TT6 el aco^povelTe, Kal 
da€^€La<; dv Blkt^v Xd^oiTe irap avT7]<;. aKOVco ^ 
Be 670)76 C09 ovBe avTrj TrapecTKevaaTai TroLtjcracrOai 
TOl'9 Xoyov^, dXXd tov ^KiriKOvpov dva^i^daeTai 

^ ijKOVOV /S. 

^ In this debate the word Tr6vos sometimes means "pain," 
as here, sometimes "toil," and sometimes both; thus 



speak, I am confident that my plea will be far more 
just than hers. 

As a matter of fact, the present charge is that by 
getting herself up in this courtesan style she 
beguiled my lover, Dionysius, a respectable man until 
then, by the seductiveness of her appearance, and 
drew him to herself. Furthermore, the suit which 
your predecessors decided between the Academy and 
Intemperance was the twin-sister of the present suit. 
For the point at issue now is whether we should 
live like swine with our noses to the ground in the 
enjoyment of pleasure, without a single noble 
thought, or whether, considering what is enjoyable 
secondary to what is right, we should follow 
philosophy in a free spirit like free men, neither 
fearing pain as invincible nor giving preference to 
pleasure in a servile spirit and seeking happiness in 
honey and in figs. By holding out such bait to silly 
people and by making a bogey out of pain,^ my 
opponent wins over the greater part of them, and 
this poor man is one ; she made him run away from 
me by keeping an eye upon him until he was ill, for 
while he was well he would never have accepted her 

After all, why should / be indignant at her ? For- 
sooth, she does not even let the gods alone, but 
slanders their management of affairs ! If you are 
wise, then, you will give her a sentence for impiety 
also. I hear, too, that she is not even prepared to 
plead in person, but will have Epicurus appear as her 

illustrating the point that Cicero makes in the Tuscnlans 
(ii. 15) : Haec duo {i.e. laborem et dolorem) Graeci illi, 
quorum copiosior est lingua quam nostra, uno nomine ap- 
pellant ... verborum inops interdum, quibus abundare te 
semper putas, Graccia ! 



avvayopevaovTa' oi/ro)? ivrpv^a rm hiKaarriplw. 
7r\r)v aWa ifcelvd yc avrrjv epwrare, olfov; av 
oterai 'yeveorOai top 'HpaxXea kov top v/Merepov 
^Tjcria, el irpoaOevTe^^ rfj tjBovt} ec^vyov tov<; 
7r6i'ov<;' ovSev yap av eKooXvev fiearrjv dSiKLa<i 
elvai rrjv yrjp, eKeivwv /jlt] irovrjaavrcov. 

Tavra elirov ov ttclvv roh fiaKpoL^; tcov Xoycov 
'X^aipovora. el Si ye ideXrjaeie Kara fiiKpov 
aTTOKplvaaOai jjlol (Twepcorco/jLevr), Td)(^L(TTa av 
yvcoaOeiT) to firjBev ova a. 7r\r]p dXXd v/jLel'i ye 
Tov opKOV /jLvrj/jLOvev(TavTe<; '^rjcfiLaaade rjhrj ra 
evopKa jXT) TTiareixjavref; ^RTriKOvpo) Xeyovri fjn^Sev 
eiTLC KOTrelv tcov Trap" rj/jLcv yiyvo/juevcov tou9 6eov^. 


MeracTTT/^t. 6 ^K7rLKOvpo<; virep t^? 'HSovt}? 


21 Ol* fiaKpd, CO dvBpe^ hLKacrrai, irpo^ v/id^; ipco' 
Bel yap ovSe ttoXXcov pboi rcov Xoycov. 

'AW' el fiev e'TTcphal<^ riaiv rj (f)apjjL(iKoi<; 6v <f>r]- 
(TLV epacTTTjv eavTr)<^ rj ^rod tov Alovvo-lov kutt}- 
vdyfcaaev TavTrj<; /jLev dTrex^ordac, 7rp09 eavTrjv Be 
dTTO^Xeireiv rj 'HBov^, (f)apfiaKl<; dv et/coTO)? eBo^ev 
Kal dBt/cecv eKeKpiTO eirl T0v<i dXXoTpiov^ epacTTa'^ 
fjbayyavevovcra. el Be Tt? iXevdepo<; ev eXevOepa 
TTJ TToXei, fir] dirayopevovTcov tcov vo/jlcov, ttjv irapd 
TavTrj^ drjBiav /juvcra'^^Oeh fcal vjv (j^rjac KecfydXaiov^ 
TO)V irovcov TTJV evBaifJLOviav Trapayiyvea-dai Xrjpov 
olr)6eL<;, tou? p-ev dyKvXov; eKeivov<; Xoyov^ Kal 
XajSvplvdoi^ ofjLOLOv^ d'Trecpvye, tt/jo? Be ttjv 'HBovrjv 
d(TfjLevo<; iBpaireTevaev wairep Beapbd Tiva Bia'c6'\jra9 



advocate, such contempt does she show the court ! 
But see here — ask her what kind of men she thinks 
Heracles and your own^ Theseus would have been if 
they had allied themselves to Pleasure and had 
shirked pain and toil. Nothing would hinder the 
earth from being full of wrong-doing if they had 
not toiled painfully. 

This is all I have to say, for I am not at all fond 
of long speeches. But if she should consent to let 
me put questions and to give a brief reply to each, it 
would very soon be evident that she amounts to 
nothing. However, remember your oath and vote in 
accordance with it now, putting no faith in Epicurus, 
who says that the gods take no note of what happens 
among us. 


Stand aside. Epicurus, speak for Pleasure. 


I shall not address you at length, gentlemen of the 
jury, for I myself do not need many words. 

If Pleasure had used charms or philtres to con- 
strain Dionysius, whom Stoa claims to be her lover, 
to desert Stoa and to centre his regard upon her, she 
might fairly have been held a sorceress and might 
have been found guilty of using undue influence upon 
the lovers of others. But suppose a free man in a 
free city, unstopped by the laws, hating the tedium 
of life with her and thinking that the hap{)iness 
which comes, she says, as the consummation of pain 
is stuff and nonsense, made his escape from her 
thorny, labyrinthine reasonings and ran away to 
Pleasure of his own free will, cutting the meshes of 

* Athenian. 



Ta? Tcov \6ya)v 7r\€KTdva<;, dvdpcoinpa koX ov 
fi\aK(i)Srj <ppovrjaa<; koI tov fiev irovov, oirep earl, 
irovqpov, r^helav he rrjv rjBovrjv olrjdei^, diroKKeieLv 
iXPW ciVTov, cocTTrep €K vavaylov Xifievi irpoave- 
ovra KoX yaXrjVT]^ einOvfxovvra dwcodovvTa^ iirl 
K6(j)a\r]v et9 rov irovovt koX ckBotov rov ddXiov 
irape'xeLV Tat<; diropiai^, koX ravra oicrTrep iKerTjv 
irrrl tov tov ^EXeov ficofjubv iirl ttjv 'HBovrjv KUTa- 
<f>evyovTa, iva ttjv TroXvOpvXrjTOv dpcTrjv BijXaSrj 
iirl TO opdiov IBpcoTi TToWoi dveXdwv lBtj KcuTa BC 
oXov TTOvrjaa^i tov filov evBaifiovrja-r} fiCTa tov 

KaiTOL Tt9 av KptTrj<; BiKaLOTSpo^i Bo^eiev avTOv 
ifcelvov, 09 TO, irapa Trj<; ^Tod^ elBco<;, el Kai Tt9 
dXXo^y Kol fJLovov Te(o<; to KaXov dyaOov ol6fJLevo<; 
elvai, fxeTafxaOoov &)9 kukov 6 irovo^i rjv, to jSeXTiov 
ef d/jLcjyolv BoKLfxdcra^; eiXeTo; ecopa ydp, ol/juai, 
TovTov<i Trepl tov KapTepelv fcal dvex^o-OaL tov<; 
7r6vov<; TToXXd Bte^LOVTU^i, IBia Be ttjv 'HBovrjv 
depairevovTas, kol fie^pi tov Xoyov veavievofievov^, 

OLKOi Be KUTO, T0U9 T^9 'H.BoV7J<i VOfJLOV^ /3i,ovvTa<;, 

al(7X^vofievov<; fiev el (j)avovvTai ;(;a\wi/Te9 tov 
Tovov Koi irpoBiBovTe^ to Boy/xa, 7r€7rovd6Ta<; Be 
dOXiov^ TO TOV ^avTaXov, /cat evOa dv Xr}(jeLv Koi 
da(j)aX(o<; irapavofirjcreLV eXTriawaiV, x^^^Bbv e^TTL/jL- 
7rXa/jL€vov<; tov 978609. el yovv Tt9 avT0i<; tov 
TOV Tvyov BafCTvXiov eBcoKev, od<; TrepiOefievovi /jlyj 
opdcrOai, rj ttjv tov "Ai5o9 Kvvfjv, ev olS* oti jjuaxpa 


her logic as if they were bonds, because he had the 
spirit of a human being, not of a clod, and thought 
pain painful, as indeed it is, and pleasure pleasant, 
in that case would it have been right to bar him out, 
plunging him head over ears into a sea of pain when 
he was swimming from a wreck to a haven and 
yearned for calm water — to put the poor fellow at the 
mercy of her dilemmas in spite of the fact that he 
was seeking asylum with Pleasure like a suppliant at 
the Altar of Mercy — in order that he might climb 
*^the steep" with copious sweat, cast eyes upon 
that famous Virtue,^ and then, after toiling painfully 
his whole life long, be happy when life is over ? 

Who should be considered a better judge than this 
man himself, who knew the teachings of Stoa if ever 
a man did, and formerly thought that only what was 
right was good, but now has learnt that pain is bad, 
and so has chosen what he has determined to be the 
better ? He saw, no doubt, that her set make a 
great deal of talk about fortitude and endurance 
of pain, but privately pay court to Pleasure ; that 
they are bold as brass in the lecture-room, but live 
under the laws of Pleasure at home ; that they 
are ashamed, of course, to let themselves be seen 
" lowering their pitch " and playing false to their 
tenets, but suffer the tortures of Tantalus, poor 
fellows, so that wherever they think they will be un- 
observed and can transgress their laws with safety, 
they eagerly glut themselves with pleasure. In fact, 
if they should be given the ring of Gyges, so that 
they could put it on and be unseen, or the Cap of 
Darkness, without a doubt they would bid good-bye 

^ For the Hill of Virtue, see Hesiod, Works and Days, 
289 flF., and Simonides, 41. 



'XalpeLV TOL<; irovoi^ (ppd(7avr€<; eVt rrjv ^HBovrjv 
odOovvto av /cat i/jLi/jLOvvro aTravTe<; top Alovuctiov, 
09 I^^XP^ /^^^ '^V^ voaov 7]\7n^€v aKpeXtjaeiv tl 
avTov Toix; irepl rrjq Kaprepia<; \6yov^' iirel Be 
rfKy-qaev koI evoo-r^aev kol 6 'jt6vo<; aXrjOearepofi 
avTov KaOlfcero, IBodv to (roj/na to kavrov avricpt,- 
\ocro(f)ovp TT) 'Eroa kol ravavrla Boyfiarl^op, avrw 
fjidWov rj rovTOi<; eiriaTevaep koX eypo) dp6po)7TO<; 
OOP Kal dpOpcoTTOv aodfxa e^cop, kol BLereXeaep ov^ 
o)? dphpLcLPTL avTM ')(^pQ)/jL€Po<;, etSo)? OTi 09 av 
a\XaJ9 Xeyrj Kal 'liBopi}<; Karrjyopfj, 

Xoyoiac 'x^aipeu, top Be povp eKela e%6t. 
lEt^prjKa' t'/x€t9 3' eVl T0UT0t9 ^r]^o(f)op^(TaT€. 


22 Mr]Bafi(t)<;, aX)C okiya fioi avvepajTrjaac eVt- 


^Eipa)T7]<T0V' diTOKpLvovfjLaL yap, 


Ka/coi^ 7)777 Toi' TTOPOP; 




Ti]P rjBovrjv Be dyad op; 


Tldpv fiep ovp. 


Tl Be; olaOa ri Bid^opov xal dBid(l)opop Kal 
irporjyfiepop Kal diroTT porjy/nepop ; 

^ Euripides, Phoenissae 360. 

2 Stoic technical terms : see vol. ii, p. 488. Stoa intends 



to pain for ever and would go crowding after 
Pleasure, one and all, imitating Dionysius who, until 
he was ill, expected to get some benefit from their 
discourses about fortitude, but when he encountered 
suffering and illness, and pain came closer home to 
him, he perceived that his body was contradicting 
Stoa and maintaining the opposite side. So he put 
more trust in it than in her set, decided that he was 
a man, with the body of a man, and thenceforward 
treated it otherwise than as if it were a statue, well 
aware that whoever maintains any other view and 
accuses Pleasure 

" Doth like to talk, but thinks as others do ! " ^ 

I have done. Cast your ballots with this under- 
standing of the case. 


No, no ! Let me cross-question him a little 


Put your questions : I will answer them. 


Do you consider pain bad ? 




And pleasure good .'' 




Well, do you know the meaning of "material " and 
" immaterial," of " approved " and " disapproved " ? ^ 

to prove that pleasure and pain are alike " immaterial," and 
neither "approved " nor "disapproved," because they neither 
help nor hinder the effort to attain Virtue. 






Ov ^aaiv, (a %Tod, avpievat ol hiKaaral ra 
BiavWaffa ravra epconjfxara' wcrre rjav^i'^^ 
ayere. '^r]<^o^opovaL yap. 


Kat iJLr]V eKpoLTTjaa av, el avprjpcoTrjaa iv T(d 
Tpirw T(f)V avairoheiKTWv axv/^an. 


Tt? virepea'Xi^v; 


^K<f>Lr)jJLL eVl TOP A [a. 


^^XV "^V ^y^^V' ^^ ^^ a\Xov<; KoXei. 


23 Ylepl ^ApLa-TLTTTrov 'Aperrj koI Tpv<f>i], /cal 
^AplarLTTTro^ Se auro? irapearw. 


Uporepav e'yu-e ')(pr} ttjv ^Aperrjv Xeyeiv e/xo? yap 
eanv 'AptcrriTTTro?, 0)9 ByXovaiv ol \6yoL Ka\ ra 


Ov fX€V ovv, aXX^ ifie rrjv Tpv<f>rjV' i/jLO<; yap 6 
av7]p, o)? 6(JTiV opav airo rcov are^dvcdv Ka\ Trj<; 
TTop^vplSof; /cal rcov /juvpcov. 

1 The five " indemonstrables " of Chrysippus, so called 
because they are self-evident and require no proof, were all 
hypothetical or disjunctive syllogisms ; examples are : (1) 
" if it is day, it is light ; it is light, .*. it is day " ; (2) *' if it 






Stoa, the jurors say they can't understand these 
dissyllabic questions, so be silent ; they are voting. 


I should have won if I had put him a question in 
the form of the " third indemonstrable." ^ 


Who won ? 


Pleasure, unanimously. 


I appeal to Zeus ! 


Good luck to you ! Hermes, call another case. 


Virtue v. High-living, in re Aristippus. Let Aris- 
tippus appear in person. 


I ought to speak first ; I am Virtue, and Aristippus 
belongs to me, as his words and his deeds indicate. 


No, indeed ; I ought to speak first ; I am High- 
living, and the man is mine, as you can see from his 
garlands, his purple cloak and his perfumes. 

is day, it is light ; it is dark, .•. it is not day " ; (3) " Plato 
is not both dead and alive ; he is dead, .'. he is not alive " ; 

(4) " it is either day or night ; it is day, .'. it is not night" ; 

(5) "it is either day or night ; it is not night, .*. it is day." 
Cf. Diog. Laert. ViU Phil. 7, 1, 49; Sext. Emp. adv. 
Math. 7. 



M^ (ptXov€LK€CT€' v7repK€L(T6TaL jap Kol avTrj 
7] hiicr) ear av 6 Zeu? Bi/cdcrr} irepl rov ALOvvalov 
rrapa7r\r}(Tiov yap tl koX tovto eoiKev elvai. wo-t' 
iav fiev rj 'HSovr} Kparrjarj, koX top *ApL(TrL7r7rov 
efei rj Tpvcf)r]' vLKC0(Tr]<; Be av r^? 'Erod'^, koI ovto^ 
earac t^? ^Ap€Trj<; K€Kpi/ji€vo<;. coare dWoL irape- 
arcocrav. to Setva fxevTOL, /jlt) Xap^^avircoaav 
ovTOL TO htKaariKov ahiKaaro^ yap rj Blkt] fiep^e- 
vr)Kev auTOfc?. 


M.dT7jv ovv dve\7j\v06T€<i coat, yepovT€<; avBpe<; 
ovTW fiaKpav rrjv dvd^aaiv; 


*\Kav6vy el rptrrj/jLopiov Xd^oiev. dinTe, /jltj 
dyavaKT6LT€, avOif; BiKdaere, 


24 ^Loyevrj Xivcoirea Trapelvat Kaip6<;, xal av rj 
^ Apyvpa/JLOL^iKT) \ey€. 


Kat /uLTjv dv ye firj iravarjrai ivo)(\ovaa, a) 
Alktj, 0VK6TL Bpua/JLOV BiKdaerai poi, dXka ttoWmp 
Kal ^aOecov rpavfidrcov iyo) yap avrUa /xdXa 
Trard^a^^ rq> ^vXrp — 


Tt TOVTO ; ire^evyev r] ^Apyvpa/j^oijSc/c^, 6 Be 
BicoKei i7rr)pp,evo^ to fidKrpov. ov fxeTpiov ti 
Katcov r) ddXia eot-Ke Xrj-^eaOai. top Yivppwva 


* iroTo|« 7. 




Do not wrangle ; this case will stand over until 
Zeus decides the case of Dionysius, for this seems to 
be similar. Consequently, if Pleasure wins. High- 
living shall have Aristippus, but if Stoa prevails, he 
shall be adjudged to Virtue. So let others appear. 
Look here, though — these jurors are not to get the 
fee, for their case has not come to trial. 


Then are they to have come up here for nothing, 
old as they are, and the hill so high ? 


It will be enough if they get a third. Go your 
ways ; don't be angry, you shall serve another day. 


It is time for Diogenes of Sinope to appear. Make 
your complaint. Banking. 


I protest, if she does not stop bothering me, 
Justice, it will not be running away that she will 
have me up for, but aggravated assault and battery, 
for I shall mighty soon take my staff and. . . . 


What have we here ? Banking has run away, and 
he is making after her with his stick raised. The 
poor creature is likely to catch it pretty badly ! Call 




25 *AX,X* 77 fiev Vpa(f>LKr] irdpearLv, w AtKr}, 6 
Tlvpp(ov Be ovBe ttjv ap')(r]v avek'qkvdev, Koi iwKet 
TOVTO TTpd^eiv. 

Ata Tt, 0) ^Rpfirj; 


"On ovBep riyeiTai fcpiTjjpiov dXrjOe'; elvai, 


Totyapovv iprj/jLrjv avrou KaTaBcKaa-drcoa-av, 
Tov \oyoypd(f)ov rfBif /cdXei rov ^vpov. Kalroc 
7rpa>7]v dirr^ve'xPr^aav Kar avrov al ypa(f)ai, koL 
ovBev rjireiyev rjBr) KeKpiaOai. jrXrjv dXX* eVel 
eBo^ev, TTporipav eladyaye Trj<; 'I'r}Topt.K7J<; rrjv 
BiKTjv. 0al3aL, oorot (TvvekTfKvOaaLV eVl rrjv 


EtVoTft)9, (t) Alkt)' to re yap fjLrj ecoXov elvai 
TTjv KpicTLV, dWd Kaivrjv koX ^ivrjv,^ %^e9, axTTrep 
e^ri<i, eTrrjyyeX/jLevijv,^ koI to iXiri^eLV aKoixreaOai 
'PrjTopi/ci]^ fxev koi AiaXoyov ev tw /lepei KaTqyo- 
povvTcov, diToXoyov fiivov Be tt/jo? dficporepov; tov 
Xvpov, TOVTO 7roXXov<; eirrjyaye tw BiKaaT7)pi(p, 
irXrjv dXXa dp^ai Trore, w 'PrjTOpLKrj, tmv Xoycov, 


26 UpayTOV julcv, cj dvBp€<; ^Adrjvalot, tol<; deoh 
evxofictt irdcTL koX irdaai^, oarjv evvoiav exovaa 
BiaTcXo) Tjj re iroXei fcal Trda-Lv vpuv, roaavTrjv 
virdp^ai fjLOi irap v/jlcov el<; tovtovI tov dywva^ 
eireiO' oirep eVrt fidXiCTa BuKaiov, tovto Trapa- 
(TTTJaaL Tot'9 Oeov^ v/jlIv, tov fiev avTuBifcov (TKOirdv 

^ Koi ^4yr]v not in y. ^ x^" — iirr]yye\fx4vr\v not in jS. 



Painting is here. Justice, but Pyrrho has not come 
up at all. It might have been expected that he 
would do this. 


Why, Hermes ? 


Because he does not believe there is any true 
standard of judgment. 


Then let them bring in a verdict by default 
against him. Now call the speech-writer, the Syrian. 
After all, it was only recently that the writs were 
lodged against him, and there was no pressing need 
to have tried the cases now. However, since that 
point has been decided, introduce the suit of Oratory 
first. Heavens, what a crowd has come together for 
the hearing ! 


Naturally, Justice. The case is not stale, but new 
and unfamiliar, having been entered only yesterday, 
as you said, and they hope to hear Oratory and 
Dialogue bringing charges in turn and the Syrian 
defending himself against both ; this has brought 
crowds to court. But do begin your speech. Oratory. 


In the first place, men of Athens, I pray the 
gods and goddesses one and all that as much good 
will as I steadily entertain toward the city and 
toward all of you may be shown me by you in this 
case, and secondly that the gods may move you to do 
what is above all the just thing to do — to bid my 



KeKeveiv, i/ik Be eo? TrpoyprjfjiaL Koi ffeffovXrjfiai 
rrjv Karrjyopiav iaaai iroirjaaaOai. ov^l he ravra 
irapiaraTai /not, yiypcoaKeiv orav re €t9 a ireiTovda 
dTro^Xiyjra) kol orav eh Tov<i Xoyov^ ov<i olkovco' 
Tou? fiep yap X6yov<; a)9 6/j,oi,ordTov<; rot? e'yLtot? 
OUT09 ipel 7r/309 vfidf;, ra Be Trpdyfiara et9 tovto 
TrporjKovTa oyjrecrde wo-re 07rft)9 firj ')(^elp6v ri irel- 
aojiai irpo^i avrov o-KeyfracrOat heov. dXXa yhp 
Xva /jLTf jxaKpa Trpoot/jLtd^co/jbai rov vBaTO<; wdXai 
sIky) peovro^i, dp^ofiai rrj^ Karvfyopia^i. 
27 'E760 ydp, CO avBpe^i BiKacTTai, tovtovX ko/jliBtj 
fieipdKLOV ovra, ^dp^apov en rrjv (fxtyvrjv Kal 
fiovovov^l KdvBvv evBeBv/cora eh rov ^Acraupiov 
rpoTTOv, rrepl rrjv ^Icoviav evpovcra TrXa^o/ievov ert 
fcal 6 ri ')(^prj(TaLro eavra> ovk elBora irapaXa^ovaa 
eiralBevaa. Kal eTreiBr) eBoxeL fioi evp,aOr)<; elvai 
Ka\ dreve^ opdv eh ifie — vTreirrrja-ae yap rore Kal 
idepdrrevev Kal fi6vr)v eOaufMa^ev — diroXiirovaa 
roij<; dXXov<; oiroaoi e/nvijarevov fie rrXovaioi Kal 
KaXol Kal Xa/jLTTpol rd rrpoyoviKd, rw d^aplcrrq) 
rovrcp ep.avrr)v eveyyvrjaa irevrjri Kal d<l)avel Kal 
via) TTpoLKa ov fiLKpav eireveyKapuevt^ 7roXXov<; Kal 
Oav/jLaaiov<; X6yov<;. elra dyayovaa avrov eh 
T0U9 (l>vXira^ toi'9 ifiov^; Trapeveypayjra Kal dcrrov 
d'iTe(f>r)vat coare toi'9 Btafjiapr6vra<; ^ T779 eyyvrjf; 
AiroiTViyeaOaL. Bo^av Be avrw Trepivoaretv em- 
Sei^opevw rov yd/xov rrjv evTror/nlav, ovBe rore 

* a/iaprdyoyras y. 


opponent hold his tongue and to let me make the 
complaint in the way that I have preferred and 
chosen. I cannot come to the same conclusion when 
I contemplate my own experiences and the speeches 
that I hear, for the speeches that he will make to 
you will be as like as can be to mine, but his 
actions, as you shall see, have gone so far that 
measures must be taken to prevent my experiencing 
worse injury at his hands ^ . . . But not to prolong 
my introduction when the water has been running 
freely this long time, I will begin my complaint. 

When this man was a mere boy, gentlemen of the 
jury, still speaking with a foreign accent and I might 
almost say wearing a caftan in the Syrian style, I 
found him still wandering about in Ionia, not 
knowing what to do with himself ; so I took him in 
hand and gave him an education. As it seemed to 
me that he was an apt pupil and paid strict attention 
to me — for he was subservient to me in those days 
and paid court to me and admired none but me — I 
turned my back upon all the others who were suing 
for my hand, although they were rich and good- 
looking and of splendid ancestry, and plighted myself 
to this ingrate, who was poor and insignificant and 
young, bringing him a considerable dowry consisting 
in many marvellous speeches. Then, after we were 
married, I got him irregularly registered among my 
own clansmen and made him a citizen, so that those 
who had failed to secure my hand in marriage choked 
with envy. When he decided to go travelling in 
order to show how happily married he was, I did not 

^ Oratory, more concerned about form than content, 
borrows her prooemium from Demosthenes, adding the first 
sentence of the Third Olynthiac to the first sentence of the 
oration on the Crown, and adapting both as best she can. 


aireXei^drjv, aWa Travraxov €7ro/jbevr} dvoy Kal Kara) 
irepiTjyofirjv Kal Kkeivov avrov icai aoihifiovi'iroiovv 
KaraKoa/xouaa fcal TrepuTTeWovcra. kol ra jxev 
iiTL rrj<; 'EWaSo? Kal rrj<; 'Icovla^; /J^erpia, eh Be 
T7]v ^IraXtav diroBrj/jLTJa-ai OeXrjaavTL avrat rov 
'loviov avvBieTrXevaa Kal ra reXevrata i^expi rr}? 
l^eXTLKTj^ crvvaTrdpaa-a eviropelaOai iiroLijaa. 

Kal P'€)(pt fiev TToXXov irdvTa fiot eTreiOeTo Kal 
(Tvvrjv del, fiTjBe/jLLav vvKra <yiyv6/jL6vo<; diroKOiro^ 
28 irap^ rjficov. eVet Be iKavM^ eTreaLTLaaro Kal rd 
7rpo9 evBo^iav ev e')(eLv avrw vireXa/Sev, Td<; ocfypv^; 
€7rdpa<; Kal fiiya (f)povj]aa<; i/jLov fiev rj/jLeXTjaev, 
fjLaXXov Be reXeov eiaaev, avTo<; Be rov yev€i7]Tr)v 
€K€Lvov, rov dirb rov a'^ijfiaro'i, rov AidXoyov, 
^iXoao(pLa<; vlov elvat Xeyo/Jievov, VTrepayairrjaa^ 
fjAXa €pG)riKcb<; irpeafivrepov avrov ovra, rovra 
(Tvv€<Tri,v. Kal ovK alaxifverai rrjv fxev eXevOepiav 
Kal TO dverov rcov ev i/jLol Xoycov a-vvrepLcov, eh 
/jLLKpd Be Kal Ko/jL/juariKa^ epwri^piara KaraKXeL(Ta<i 
eavrov, Kal dvrl rov Xeyeiv 6 re ^ovXerai fieydXr) 
rj] (f)(ovfj ^pa^€i<; riva<; Xoyov^i dvairXeKajv Kal 
avXXa^L^cjv, dcf)' o)V d6p6o<i fiev erraivo'^ t) Kp6ro<; 
TToXu? OVK dv diravr-^aeiev avrw, /jLeiBiafia Bk 
nrapd rcov dKovovrcov koI to emaelcraL rrjv ^ei/ja 
evro^ r(ov opcov Kal fiiKpd CTTLvevaai rrj Ke^aXfj 
Kal eiTLarevd^aL roh Xeyo/jbevoi^. rotovrcov rjpdadr] 
6 yevvatof; e/jLov Kara(f)povrjaa<;. <^aalv Be avrov 
fjLTjBe irpo^i rov epdy/jbevov rovrov elp^vrjv dyeiv^ 
dXXd 6/jLoca ^ Kal eKelvov v^pi^etv. 

^ K'cafjLiKd /3. 

2 g/xoto Fritzsche : olfiai MSS. (Fritzsche writes ri Hfioia, 
but the article is not necessary : Salt. 63.) 



desert him even then, but trailed up and down after 
him everywhere and made him famous and renowned 
by giving him finery and dressing him out. On our 
travels in Greece and in Ionia I do not lay so much 
emphasis ; but when he took a fancy to go to Italy, 
I crossed the Adriatic with him, and at length I 
journeyed with him as far as Gaul, where I made 
him rich. 

For a long time he took my advice in everything 
and lived with me constantly, never spending a 
single night away from home : but when he had laid 
in plenty of the sinews of war and thought that he 
was well off for reputation, he became supercilious 
and vain and neglected me, or rather deserted 
me completely. Having conceived an inordinate 
affection for that bearded man in the mantle. 
Dialogue, who is said to be the son of Philosophy 
and is older than he is, he lives with him. Showing 
no sense of shame, he has curtailed the freedom and 
the range of my speeches and has confined himself 
to brief, disjointed questions : and instead of saying 
whatever he wishes in a powerful voice, he fits 
together and spells out short paragraphs, for which 
he cannot get hearty praise or great applause from 
his hearers, but only a smile, or a restrained gesture 
of the hand, an inclination of the head, or a sigh to 
point his periods. That is the sort of thing this 
gallant gentleman fell in love with, despising me ! 
They say, too, that he is not at peace with this 
favourite, either, but insults him in the same way. 



29 IIw? ovv ovK a'X^dpLaro^ ovto<; koX €vo^o<; tol^ 
irepl T% KaK(oae(o<i v6/ioi<;, 09 rrjv fiev vofiw 
ryafierrjv Trap" 779 roaavra etkrj^ev koX hi rjv 
€v8o^6<; 6(TTLV ovTco^i aTt/Aa)9 aTTekiirev, Katvoiv he 
^pkyOf) TTpayfjidTcov, /cal ravra vvv ottotc fiovrjv 
ifjbe davjid^ovcnv Kal €7nypdcpovraL d7ravT€<; irpo- 
arcLTLV kavTOiv; aX}C iyoo /juev avre^o) roaovrcov 
fXvrjarevovTWV, koI Koirrovcnv avrol<; rr)v Ovpav 
Kal Tovvofxa €'in^o(OfxevoL<i fieyakr) rfj (f)a)vfj ovre 
dvoiyeLv 0VT6 VTTaKOvecv ^ovXo/JLar opco yap avTov<i 
ovhev TrXeov rrjf; fior]<; KOfii^ovTa^. 0UT09 he ovBe 
oi/Ta)9 i7n(TTp6(j)eTai 7r/)09 ifie, dWa 7r/)09 top 
ipcofievov fiXeirei, tl, (o Oeoi, ')(^pri(TTOv Trap avrov 
Xrj-^eaOaL TrpoaBo/ccov, ov olSe tov TpL^a)VO<i ovBev 
irXeov e^ovra; 

WipYjKa, 0) dvSp€<; SiKaaral, vfiel^; 5e, rfv 6t9 
TOV i/JLov TpoTTOV Tcov Xoyodv diTokoyelaO at 6e\rj, 
TOVTO fiev fir) eirnpeirere, — dyvco/jiov yap in ifie 
rrjv ifirjv fjid^aipap aKOvav — Kara he tov avTOv 
€p(*)/jL6vov TOV AidXoyov ovT(o<; diroXoyeLadco, tjv 


ToOto jJLev diTldavov' ov yap olov re, w 'Ptyro- 
pLKT), fxovov avTov diToXoyeldOai KaTou (T')(r]pLa tov 
AiaXoyov, dXXd prjaiv Kal auT09 elirdTO). 


30 'Evrel Kal tovto, w dvhpe<; BiKaaTai, rj dvTLBiKo<; 
r)yavdKT7](T€V, el fiaKpw ')(^pr]aop,av tw Xoyco, Kal 
TavTa TO hvvaaOai Xeyeiv irap eKeivr]^ Xa/Scov, 
iroXXd /jL€V OVK epco 7rpb<i v/j,d<i, ra Ke(f)dXaia Be 
avrd d7roXvad/JLevo<i ^ tmv KaTr]yopr]6evT(ov vjilv 

^ aiTo\v<Taix(vos Herwerden : iiriKvaaixevos MSS. 


Is he not, then, ungrateful and subject to punish- 
ment under the laws that concern desertion, inasmuch 
as he so disgracefully abandoned his lawful wife, 
from whom he received so much and through whom 
he is famous, and sought a new arrangement, now 
of all times, when I alone am admired and claimed 
as patroness by everyone ? For my part I hold out 
against all those who court me, and when they 
knock at my door and call my name at the top 
of their lungs, I have no desire either to open or to 
reply, for I see that they bring with them nothing 
but their voices. But this man even then does not 
come back to me : no, he keeps his eyes upon his 
favourite. Ye gods, what good does he expect to 
get from him, knowing that he has nothing but his 
short cloak ? 

I have finished, gentlemen of the jury. But I beg 
you, if he wishes to make his defence in my style 
of speaking, do not permit that, for it would be 
unkind to turn my own weapon against me ; let 
him defend himself, if he can, in the style of his 
favourite, Dialogue. 


That is unreasonable. It is not possible, Oratory, 
for him, all by himself, to make his defence after 
Dialogue's manner. Let him make a speech as 
you did. 


Gentlemen of the jury, as my opponent was 
indignant at the thought of my using a long 
speech when I acquired my power of speaking from 
her, I shall not say much to you, but shall simply 
answer the main points of her complaint and then 



airoXel-^w a-KOTrelv irepl airdvTWV. iravra yap 
OTToaa hir^yrjaaro irepl €/jlov aXrjOrj ovra Strjyij- 
aaro' kol yap iiraiSevaev Kal (7Vva7reBr]iJLr](T€v 
Kal et? TOi'9 ''RXXr]va<; iveypa^jrev, Kal Kara ye 
TOVTO %a/)tz^ av eiSe(,7]v rw yd/j,(p. 8l a? Be alria<i 
diroXLiroav avrrjv iirl tovtovI top AidXoyov erpa- 
Tro/jLTjv, cLKOvaare, o) avBp€<; BcKaarai, kul fie fir]Bev 
Tov ')(^prjaL/jLov eveKa yfrevBeaOac viroXd^rjTe. 

31 '£70) yap opoov ravrrjv ovfcen awcppovovcrav 
ovBe fievovaav iirl rod Koajxiov a'x^jj/j.aro'; olov 
TTore eV;\;77yaaT^cr/iei^7;i^ avrrjv 6 IlaiavLev<; eKelvo<^ 
rjydyero, Koo/jLOV/JLevrjv Be Kal Ta9 T/3t%a9 euderi- 
^ovaav el<; to eraipiKov Kal (J)vklov evrpL^o/ievrjv 
Kal Ta)cj}0aX/MOD vTroypacpofievrjv, vTTcoirTevov evdv^ 
Kal '7Tape<f)vXaTTov oiroi tov ocpdaX/iov ^epei. Kal 
TCL fiev dXXa ew' Kad^ eKdaTrjv Be rr}V vvKTa 6 fiev 
o-Tev(07ro<; tj/jlcov eveirlfJiTrXaTO fxeOvovTCDV epa<TTO)V 
Kcofxa^ovToyv eV avTrjv Kal kotttoptcov rrjv dvpav, 
evLcov Be Kal ela-^id^eaOai crvv ovBevl Koa-fKp 
ToXfid)VT(i)V. avTT} Be eyeXa Kal rjBero rot? Bpo)- 
fievoi<i Kol ra iroXXa rj irapeKViTTev diro tov 
Teyov<; aBovTcov aKOvouaa Tpa'yeia Trj (f)(ovfj oJ3a? 
Tcva<i epayTiKCL^ rj Kal rrapavolyovaa ra? OvplBa'^ 
ifie olofievrj XavOdvetv rjaeXyaive Kal efjiovxevero 
irpo^ avTcov. oirep iyo) firj ^epcov ypd-yjraaOaL fiev 
avTr)v fioL')(eia<; ovk eBoKifia^ov, ev yeiTovwv Be 
oIkovvti tcS AiaXoyw irpoa-eXOoov rj^iovv Kara- 
Bex^V^cLi VTT avTOv. 

32 TaOra ecmv a ttjv 'PrjropiKrjv iyco fieydXa 
r)BlK7]Ka. KaiTOt el Kal fiTjBev avrfj tolovto iire- 
TrpaKTO, KaX(o<; el)(€ fiot dvBpl yBrj leTTapdKOVTa 
eTTj (T')(eBov yeyovoTi 0opv/3ct)v fiev eKelvcov Kal 


leave it to you to weigh the whole question. In all 
that she told about me she told the truth. She 
gave me an education and went abroad with me and 
had me enfranchized as a Greek, and on this 
account, at least, I am grateful to her for marrying 
me. Why I left her and took to my friend here. 
Dialogue, listen, gentlemen of the jury, and you 
shall hear ; and do not imagine tliat I am telling 
any falsehood for the sake of advantage. 

Seeing that she was no longer modest and did not 
continue to clothe herself in the respectable way 
that she did once when Demosthenes took her to 
wife, but made herself up, arranged her hair like a 
courtesan, put on rouge, and darkened her eyes 
underneath, I became suspicious at once and secretly 
took note where she directed her glances. I pass 
over everything else, but every night our street was 
full of maudlin lovers coming to serenade her, 
knocking at the door, and sometimes even 
venturing to force an entrance in disorderly fashion. 
She herself laughed and enjoyed these performances, 
and generally, when she heard them singing love- 
songs in a hoarse voice, she either peeped over the 
edge of the roof or else even slyly opened the 
windows, thinking that I would not notice it, and 
then wantoned and intrigued with them. I could 
not stand this, and as I did not think it best to 
bring an action for divorce against her on the ground 
of adultery, I went to Dialogue, who lived near by, 
and requested him to take me in. 

That is the great injustice that I have done 
Oratory. After all, even if she had not acted as she 
did, it would have been proper that I, a man already 
about forty years of age, should take my leave of her 



BiKCJV a'TTTjWdxOcLi' fcal tov<; avhpa^ tov<; 8LKaara<; 
arpefjielv eav, rvpdvvwv Kariryoplaf; Koi dpiarecov 
iiTaivov<i eKifivyovra, et? ^6 rrjv ^ AKah-qfieiav rj etV 
TO KvKSLOv iXdovra rcG ^eXriarcp tovtw AtaXoyo) 
avfiTrepLTrarelv '^pi/j.a SiaXeyo/iivov^;, t(ov eiralvwv 
fcal /cpoTcov ov Beo/jL€Pov(i. 

HoXXa €X(*^v elirelv yBrj rravao/iaL. vfxeU Be 
evopKOv rr]v '\jrr](f)ov eveyKare, 


Tt9 Kparel; 


Ilacat? 6 Xvpo<; irX-qv pLLa<^» 


^VrjTcop Tt? eoLKev elvai 6 rrjv ivavriav Oep-evofi, 
33 o AidXoyo'; eirl twv avTcov Xeye. vfiel^ he Trepi- 
fieivare, BiirXdcnov aTTOLaofxevoL top fiLaOov in* 
d/j,(f)OT€pai<; rai? BiicaLf;. 

'Eyo) hiy w dvBpe^ BiKaarai, /juaxpov'^ fiev dirO' 
relvetv tov<; X6yov<; ovk av i/SovXo/jLrjv 7rpo<i vfid<i, 
dXXd Kara fitfcpov wairep el'wOa, ofico<; Be o)? 
v6/jL0<; ev TOL<; BiKacrTrjpioi^, ovrco TTOu^aofjuaL rrjv 
Karijyopiav lBtcoTr)<; iravrdiTaaiv koX dr€-)(yo<; tc!)v 
TOLOvrwv wv Kal fiot tovto earco 7r/0O9 t'/xa? to 


'^A Be rjBiKTjiJLai /cal Trepiv/SpKr/iaL TTyoo? rovrov, 
ravrd icrrtv, on, fie ae/nvov Tea)? opra kol 6eo)v re 
TTepi Kal (j)va€(o^ Kal t?}? tcov oXcov irepLoBov gko- 
irovfjievov, vyjryXbv dvco irov rcov v€<^oiv depojSa- 



stormy scenes and lawsuits^ should let the gentlemen 
of the jury rest in peace, refraining from accusations 
of tyrants and laudations of princes, and should 
betake myself to the Academy or the Lyceum to 
walk about with this excellent person Dialogue 
while we converse quietly without feeling any need 
of praise and applause. 

Though I have much to say, I will stop now. 
Cast your vote in accordance with your oath. 
{The votes are counted.) 


Who is the winner ? 


The Syrian, with every vote but one. 


Very likely it was a public speaker who cast the 
vote against him. Let Dialogue plead before the 
same jury. {To the Jurors) Wait, and you shall get 
double pay for the two cases. 


For my part, gentlemen of the jury, I should prefer 
not to make you a long speech, but to discuss the 
matter a little at a time, as is my wont. Neverthe- 
less I will make my complaint in the way that is 
customary in courts of law, although I am completely 
uninformed and inexperienced in such matters. Please 
consider this my introduction. 

The wrongs done me and the insults put upon me 
by this man are these. I was formerly dignified, and 
pondered upon the gods and nature and the cycle of 

I the universe, treading the air ^ high up above the 
^ In the Clouds of Aristophanes (225) Socrates says: *'I 
tread the air and contemplate the sun." 


Tovvra, evda 6 /jL€ya<; iv ovpavu) Zei;? tttijvov apfia 
eXavvcov (peperai, Karaarrdaa^ avro^ rjBi] Kara rrjv 
dyfrlSa Trerofievov koI dva^aivovra virep rd vcora 
Tov ovpavov Kol rd irrepd avvrpi'\^a'^ laohiairov 
T0t9 TToXXot? eTroirjorev, koI to pbev rpayiKov eKslvo 
Kol acocppoviKov TTpocrcoTretov dcpeTXe /jlov, kw/hikov 
Be Koi crarvptKov dWo iireOr^Ke /loi koX fjbiKpov 
heiv yeXoLOv. elrd jjuol eU to avTo (pepcov avy/ca- 
Oelp^ev TO (TKoyjxiJLa koI tov tapbjBov kol Kvvta/iov 

KOL tov ^VlToXiV KOI TOV ^ ApiaTO^dvTTjy h€lVOV<^ 

dvBpa<; iTTiKepTOpLrjo-ai ra cre/jivd kol ^Xevdaai ra 
6pOco(y e^ovTa. TekevTalov Be kol ^eviirirov Tiva 
Tciyv TTokaLoyv kvvcov fidXa vXuktikov co? Bokcl 
Kal Kapxci'pov dvopv^a^, Koi tovtov eTreiarjyayev 
/jLOi <f>o^€p6v TLva CO? dXrjdcoii Kvva kol to Brjy/ia 
XaOpalov, 6(T(p Kal 7eXwi/ d/ia eBuKvev. 

IIco? ovv ov Becvd v^piafiai firjKeT iirl tov 
oIk€lov Bca/ceL/iievo<;,^ dWd KWfxwBodv Kal yeXcDTO- 
iroiojv Kal V7ro0ea€t<; dWoKOTov^ viroKpivopbevo^ 
avTw; TO yap iravTiov aToirooTaTOv, Kpdaiv Tiva 
irapdBo^ov KeKpapLaL Kal out€ Tre^o? cI/jll ovt€ 
ivl T03V /jL€Tp(i)v ^6^r}Ka, dWd liTTroKevTavpov 
BiKijv avvdcTov Ti Kal ^evov (pda/JLa toI<; dKovovau 



34 Tt ovv irpo^ raOra e/oet?, w '^vpe; 

^ATTpoaBoKijTOV, ft) dvBpe'i BiKaaTait tov dywva 
TOVTOV dycovitofiai Trap^ vpuv irdvTa yovv p,d\' 



clouds where "great Zeus in heaven driving his 
winged car "^ sweeps on ; but he dragged me down 
when I was already soaring above the zenith and 
mounting on " heaven's back/'^ and broke my wings, 
putting me on the same level as the common herd. 
Moreover, he took away from me the respectable 
tragic mask that I had, and put another upon me that 
is comic, satyr-like, and almost ridiculous. Then he 
unceremoniously penned me up with Jest and Satire 
and Cynicism and Eupolis and Aristophanes, terrible 
men for mocking all that is holy and scoffing at all 
that is right. At last he even dug up and thrust in 
upon me Menippus, a prehistoric dog,^ with a very 
loud bark, it seems, and sharp fangs, a really dreadful 
dog who bites unexpectedly because he grins when 
he bites. 

Have 1 not been dreadfully maltreated, when I no 
longer occupy my proper role but play the comedian 
and the buffoon and act out extraordinary plots for 
him ? What is most monstrous of all, I have been 
turned into a surprising blend, for I am neither afoot 
nor ahorseback, neither prose nor verse, but seem 
to my hearers a strange phenomenon made up of 
different elements, like a Centaur.* 


What are you going to say to this. Master Syrian ? 


Gentlemen of the jury, the suit that I am contest- 
ing now before you is unexpected. In fact, I should 

^ Plato, Phaedrus 246 e. 

2 Plato, Phaedrus 247 b. ^ Cynic. 

* This refers to the practice of mingling verse and prose, 
borrowed by Lucian from Menippus. For good illustrations 
^seethe beginning of Zetis Hants amd ol The Double Indictment. 



\ov av rjXinaa t) top AidXoyov roiavra epelv 
irepX ifxoVi ov irapdXa^cov iyco aKvdpcoirov en 

TOL^ TToWol^ BoKOVPra KOl VTTO TMV aVV6)(^a)V ipco- 

TYjcrewv /careaKXrjKora, /cal ravrrj alSeacfiop fxev 
elvai SoKOvvra, ov iravTrj Be rjBvv ovSe rol<; TrXrj- 
Oecrc Ke-^apiafjuevov, irpcorov fxev avrov iirl yrj<i 
fiaiveiv eldiaa €t? tov dvOpcoinvov tovtov rpoiroVy 
fiera he rov av)(/jLOV tov itoXvv diroTrXvva^ koI jjuei- 
Bidv KaravayKaaa^ rjSioy tol<; opcoai irapecrKevaaa, 
eirl TrdaL 8e rrjv KcofKpBiav uvtm Trape^eu^a, koI 
Kara tovto TToXkrjv at fir))(^av(a/x€V0<; rrjv evvoiav 
irapd T(ov dKOv6vT(ov, ot reo)? ra? dKdv9a<i Td<^ iv 
avr(p hehiore^; axrirep top e-)(lpop eh ra? ')(^elpa^ 
Xa^elv avTOP ecpvXdrTOvro. 

'AW' e7ft) oZ8' oirep fidXiara Xviret avTov, on 
fiT) TCL yXiaxpa eKslpa Kal Xeirrd KaOrj/jbaL 7rpo<; 
avTOP a/jLiKpoXoyov/jL€PO<;, el d6dvaT0<; 77 '^^XV> 
Kal TToaa^; KOTvXa<; 6 6eo<; ottotc top Koafiov 
elpydaaro tt}? d/jLiyov<; Kal Kara ravTa i'^ovaij^ 
ovaia<i epex^ep eh top KpaTrjpa ep cS ra ndpTa 
eKepdppvTO, Kal el rj 'VrjToptKtj ttoXltlkti^ fjuopiov 
ecBcoXop, KoXaKela<i to reTaprov. %atyO€t yap ovk 
olh)' 07raj9 TCL ToiavTa XeirToXoycop KaOdrrep 01 
Tr)P '\jroi)pap r)Seco<; KPcofiepoL, Kal to <j)p6pTia/ia 
TjSv avTW hoKel Kal jjueya (ppopet rjp Xeyrjrai, &)? ov 
TravTOf; dphp6<; e'crri avptSelp a irepl twp ISecop 

TavTa BrjXaBr) Kal Trap* e/xov diraiTel Kal to, 
TTTepd eKecpa ^i]T€l Kal dpw fiXeirei ra irpb toIv 


have looked for anything else in the world sooner than 
that Dialogue should say such things about me. 
When I took him in hand, he was still dour, as 
most people thought, and had been reduced to a 
skeleton through continual questions. In that guise 
he seemed awe-inspiring, to be sure, but not in 
any way attractive or agreeable to the public. So 
first of all I got him into the way of walking on the 
ground like a human being ; afterwards by washing 
off all his accumulated grime and forcing him to 
smile, I made him more agreeable to those who saw 
him : and on top of all that, I paired him with 
Comedy, and in this way too procured him great 
favour from his hearers, who formerly feared his 
prickles and avoided taking hold of him as if he 
were a sea-urchin, 

I know, however, what hurts him most. It is 
that I do not sit and quibble with him about those 
obscure, subtle themes of his, like "whether the soul 
is immortal," and " when God made the world, how 
many pints of pure, changeless substance he poured 
into the vessel in which he concocted the universe," ^ 
and " whether rhetoric is the false counterpart of a 
subdivision of political science, the fourth form of 
parasitic occupation." ^ Somehow he delights in 
dissecting such problems, just as people like to scratch 
where it itches. Reflection is sweet to him, and he 
sets great store by himself if they say that not every- 
one can grasp his penetrating speculations about 
" ideas." 

That is what he expects of me, naturally ; and he 
demands those wings of his and gazes on high without 

1 Cf. Plato, Timaeus 35 a and 41 d. 

2 Cf . Plato, Gorgias 463 b, d, 465 c. 



TToBoLV OVX Opcbv. CTTel TMV y€ aWwV 6V€Ka OVK 

av OL/iai fxefi-y^airo jxoi, co? Ool/idrLov rovro to 
^EXXrjvLfcov TT€pLa7rd(Ta<; avTov ^apfiapiKov ri 
fiereviBvaa, koX ravra ^dpfiapo<; avTO<; elvai 
BoKMV rjSiKOVV yap av rd roiavra eh avrov 
irapavofiMU Kal rrjv Trdrpiov eaOrjja XcottoBvtcov. 

^A7To\€\6yr)/jLai o)? Bvvarov ifioC' vixei<i Se 
ojjLoiav rfj irdXat rrjv ^^rrj^ov iveyKare. 


35 Ba^al, BcKa 6\aL<; KpareU' 6 yap avTo<; €K€l- 
1/09 o TTokaL ovSe vvv 6/i6'yjrrj<f>6<; icrrtv. d/jueXei 
TOVTO e6o<i iajiv, Kal irdcn rrjv TerpVTrrj/jievrjv 
ovTOf; ipepei' Kal fjur) TravaaiTo <I>Oov(op tol<; dpia- 
TOt?. aXV vfjLel^ fiev dTTire dyadfj tvxtj, avptov 
Be ra? \onrd<i BiKdaofiev, 



seeing what lies at his feet. As far as the rest of 
it goes, he cannot complain, I am sure, that I have 
stripped him of that Greek mantle and shifted him 
into a foreign one, even though I myself am con- 
sidered foreign. Indeed I should be doing wrong to 
transgress in that way against him and to steal away 
his native costume. 

I have made the best defence that I can. Please 
cast the same ballot as before. 

{The votes are counted.) 


Well, well ! You win by all of ten votes ! The 
same one who voted against you before will not 
vote as the rest even now. Without doubt it is a 
habit, and the man always casts the ballot that has a 
hole in it.^ I hope he will keep on envying men of 
standing. Well, go your ways, and good luck to you. 
To-morrow we shall try the rest of the cases. 

^ Each juror was given two ballots of metal shaped like a 
Japanese top, a flat circular disk, pierced perpendicularly at 
its centre by a cylindrical axis, whioh in the one for acquittal 
was solid, in the other, tubular. 




In ttiatter and manner, this little skit approximates ver>f 
closely to the C^-nic diatribe as exemplified in the fragments 
of Teles and in some portions of Epictetus. 

It has a counterpart in the piece, On Funerals, so close 
that one is tempted to believe them both parts of the same 
screed, although they now stand some distance apart in 
Lucian's works ; it may be, however, that this is simply a 
pendant to the other. They certainly belong together in 
some sense. 

VOL. 111. 


nEPi ©TSmN 

1 "^A /JL€V yap iv TaL<; 6v(TLai<; ol fidraiot irpdr- 
TOVCTL Kol rat? kopTal<i koX 7rpoa68oi<; twv decov 
KoX a alrovai koX a evxovrai, xal a yiyvcoafcovai 
irepl avTMp, ovk olha et rt? ovt(o<; Karrjcprj^ ean 
Kol \e\v7rr)iiivo<; 6aTL<^ ov yeXdaerat ttjv d^e\- 
repiav €7ri^\6yjra<i rojv Spco/jLevcov. fcal ttoXv ye, 
olfiai, TTporepov rov yekav tt/oo? eavrov i^erdaei 
TTorepov evae/Sel^ avTov<i ')(pr} fcaXelv rj Tovvavriov 
6eol<; €x^pov<i koI KaKohaijJLova^, oX ye ovtcd ra- 
ireivov /cal dyevve<i to Oelov v7reL\7]<paatv axrre 
elvai dvOpoiTTwv eVSee? kol Ko\aKevbp,evov r]hea6ai 
KoiX dyavaKjelv dfJLeXovfJievov. 

Ta yovv AlrcoXi/cd TrdOrj xal Ta<; tcov KdXv- 
hwviwv (JVfjL<i>opa<i kol rov^; ro(Tovrov<; <f)6vov(; Kal 
Tr)v MeXedypov SiaXvacv, rravra ravra epya 
(f>acrli^ elvai r?}? ^ Kprepuho'^ fjLe/jiyfnp^oipovarji; on 
fiT] TrapeXtjcpOr) tt/oo? rrjv Oualav vtto rov OtVeo)?* 
ouTft)? dpa fia6€co<i KaOUero avTrj<; 77 t(ov lepeiwv 
hia^opd} Kai fioi Sokm opdv avrrjp ev rw ov- 
pav(h Tore /jlovtjp tmv dXXcov Oeojv eh OiVeo)? 
7re7ropev/jL€vo)v, Beivd iroLOvaav Kal a-)(^eTXid- 
^ovaav oJ'a? eopTrj<i d7roXet(f>0^(TeraL. 
Available in photographs : rN. 
^ Upeiwv dia<f>opd y : UptHy Siafiapria j3 ; iepeiuv Siafiaprta edd. 


In view of what the dolts do at their sacrifices and 
their feasts and processions in honour of the gods, 
what they pray for and vow, and what opinions they 
hold about the gods, I doubt if anyone is so gloomy 
and woe-begone that he will not laugh to see the 
idiocy of their actions. Indeed, long before he 
laughs, I think, he will ask himself whether he 
should call them devout or, on the contrary, 
irreligious and pestilent, inasmuch as they have 
taken it for granted that the gods are so low and 
mean as to stand in need of men and to enjoy being 
flattered and to get angry when they are slighted. 

Anyhow, the Aetolian incidents — the hardships of 
the Calydonians, all the violent deaths, and the dis- 
solution of Meleager — were all due, they say, to 
Artemis, who held a grudge because she had not 
been included in Oeneus' invitation to his sacrifice ; 
so deeply was she impressed by the superiority of 
his victims ! Methinks I can see her in Heaven 
then, left all by herself when the other gods and 
goddesses had gone to the house of Oeneus, fussing 
and scolding about being left out of such a feast ! 



I Tou9 3* av KWioira^ xal iiaKapiov<; koI rpKrev- 
BaL/jLova(; eXirot Tt<; av, et ye cLTTOfivrj/iovevei rrjv 
X^^P^^ civroi<! 6 Zev? tjv^ Trpo? avrov eTrehei^avTo 
hcvScKa e^rj<; rjfjLepa^ ecmdaavTe';, fcal ravra €7Tay6- 
fievov Koi TOv<^ aXXov^ Oeoix;. 

Gi/Tft)? ovheu, ft)9 eoLKev, d/jLicrSl ttolovctlv wv 
iroiovaiv, dWd ircoXovaLV rot? dp0pco7roL<; rdyaOdf 
Kol evecTTL irpiaadai irap avroyv to fxev vyiaiveiv, 
el Tvyoii polhlov, TO he irXovrelv ^ocop rerrdpoov, 
TO Be ISaaiKeveiv efcaT6fjL/3y]<;, to Be acjov eiraveX- 
Selv e^ *l\iou eh UvXov ravpwv evvea, koI to Ik 
T/")? KvXlBo^ eh ^iXtov BtanXevaai wapOevov 
^aaiXiKYj^;. rj /nev yap EjKd/Sr] to /j,j] dXcovat Tr]v 
TToXiv Tore eirpiaTo irapd tt}? ^A6r]vd<i ^ocov 
BooBefca KOI iriirXov. eiKa^eiv Be xph ^roXXd elvai 
dXeKTpv6vo<; Kal cne<^dvov Kal Xi^apoorov fiovov 
Trap avToh wvia, 

Tavrd ye, olfiat, Kal 6 XptxTTj^ eTnardfjievo^ 
are lepev^ a)v Kal yepcov Kal tcl Oela (To<j)6<;, eireiBr) 
dirpaKTO'; dir-pec irapd rod ^ Ay afie/uvovo^;, ot)9 av 
Kal 7rpoBaveiaa<; rw ^ ATroXXoyvt rrjv xdpiv BiKaio- 
Xoyelrai Kal aTrairel rrjv dp,ot^r)V Kal fiovov ovk 
oveiBl^ei Xeywv, "^H ^eXnare^'ATroXXov, 670) fiev 
<Tov Tov vecov Teco? dare(f)dvQ)Tov ovra TroXXdvif; 
iare^dvcoaa, Kal roaavrd gol fjuripia raupwv re 
Kal alyojv eKavaa eVt rcov ^cofjLMV, av Be dfieXe2<=; 
fiov TOtavra ireirovOoTo^; Kal irap ovBev TiOecrai 
TOV evepyeTTjv.^^ Toiyapovv ovtco KaTeBvawir-qcev 
avTov eK Twv Xoycov, coaTe dp7ra(Td/jLevo<; to, To^a 

^ MSS. add (before ^v in 7, after V in /3) iv apxfi ttjs 
'O/xiipov iroiiiaews, bracketed by Schmieder and subsequent 



The Ethiopians, on the other hand, may well be 
called happy and thrice-blessed, if Zeus is really 
paying them back for the kindness that they showed 
him in dining him for twelve days running, and 
that too when he brought along the other gods ! 

So nothing, it seems, that they do is done without 
compensation. They sell men their blessings, and one 
can buy from them health, it may be, for a calf, 
wealth for four oxen, a royal throne for a hundred, 
a safe return from Troy to Pylos for nine bulls, and 
a fair voyage from Aulis to Troy for a king's 
daughter ! Hecuba, you know, purchased temporary 
immunity for Troy from Athena for twelve oxen and 
a frock. One may imagine, too, that they have many 
things on sale for the price of a cock or a wreath or 
nothing more than incense. 

Chryses knew this, I suppose, being a priest and an 
old man and wise in the ways of the gods ; so when 
he came away from Agamemnon unsuccessful, it was 
just as if he had loaned his good works to Apollo ; 
he took him to task, demanded his due, and all 
but insulted him, saying : " My good Apollo, I 
have often dressed your temple with wreaths when 
it lacked them before, and have burned in your 
honour all those thighs of bulls and goats upon your 
altars, but you neglect me when I am in such straits 
and take no account of your benefactor." ^ Conse- 
quently, he so discomfited Apollo by his talk that he 

1 Iliad 1, 33 ff: 



Koi iirl Tou vavardd/jLov KaOiaa<^ eavrov Karero- 
^evae tco Xol/jLO) toi;? 'A^atou? avTaL<; ■^fii6voi<; 
Kol Kvaiv. 

4 'ETrel 3e aira^ rod 'AttoXXwi/o? i/jLvijaOrjv, fiov- 
Xo/JLUL Kol ra aWa elirelv, a irepi avTov ol ao(f)ol 
TMV dv6pMTT0)v Xejovaiv, ou% oaa irepi tov<s 
€po)ra<i ihv(TTV)(r]aev ovBe rov ^TaKLvdov rov 
<f)6vov ovBe T^9 Ad(f)V7j<; t7]V vTrepoyjriav, dXX' ore 
KaX KaTayv(0(T6el<; iirl rw ro)v K.VKXa)7T(ov Oavdr^ 
Koi e^oaTpaKiadel^ Bid tovto ix rov ovpavov, 
€7r€/jL(l)6r] et? rrjv <yi]V dv6 pwirivr} ')(pr](T6/JLevo<i rjj 
rvxij' ore Br) koi iO^revaev iv SerraXla irapd 
^AB/jlijto) koX iv ^pvyia irapd Aao/jbeBovri,, irapd 
TOVTM fjbiv ye ov fiovo^i dXXd jxerd rov HoaeLBcovoq, 
dfMcporepoi, irXivdevovrefi vir diropia^; Kal epya^ofie- 
VOL TO rely^ofi' Kal ovBe ivreXr} rov /jLiaObv eKOfjuL- 
aavTO irapd rov ^pvyo^, dXXd irpoacocfyeLXev avTOL<; 
irXiov rj rpidKovra, cpaal, Bpa)(^/jid<; Tp(OLKd<;. 

5 *H yap OV ravra crefivoXoyovaLV ol iroirjral 
irepl TMV Oecov Kal iroXij rovrcov lepdyrepa irepi re 
'H(f)aiaTov Kal Tlpo/jLr]6eQ)<; Kal Kpovov Kal ^Pea? 
Kal (T')(^e.Bov 0X779 T779 ToO Aio? olKia^;; Kal ravra 
irapaKaXeaavre^ rd<; Mov(Ta<; o-vvwBov^ iv dpxy 
rwv iirwv, v<f)^ a)v Brj evOeoi yevo/iievoL, o)? to sIko^, 
aBovciv CO? o iJLev Kp6vo<i iireiBrj rd)(^L(Tra i^erefie 
rov irarepa rov Ovpavov, ijSaaiXevaev re iv 
avrw Kal ra reKva Karrjadtev wcnrep o '' Kpyelo^ 
Svecrrrjf; varepov 6 Be Zei/? ^ KXairel<; viro rrj<! 
'Pea? v7rol3aXo/jLevr)<; rov XlOov eh rr]v Kpr^rrjv 
iKreOel^i vir alyo<s dverpd<prj KaOdrrep 6 TrjXecpo^; 

* ©vetTTTjs' varepov 5e 6 Zehs y. 



caught up his bow and arrows, sat himself down 
above the ships, and shot down the Achaeans with the 
plague, even to their mules and dogs. 

Having once alluded to Apollo, I wish to mention 
something else that gifted men say about him, not 
his misfortunes in love, such as the slaying of 
Hyacinthus and the superciliousness of Daphne, but 
that when he was found guilty of killing the Cyclopes 
and was banished from Heaven on account of it, he 
was sent to earth to try the lot of a mortal. On this 
occasion he actually became a serf in Thessaly under 
Admetus and in Phrygia under Laomedon, where, to 
be sure, he was not alone, but had Poseidon with 
hira ; and both of them were so poor that they had 
to make bricks and work upon the wall ; ^ what is 
more, they did not even get full pay from the 
Phrygian, who owed them, it is said, a balance of 
more than thirty Trojan drachmas ! 

Is it not tme that the poets gravely tell these 
tales about the gods, and others, too, far more 
hallowed than these, about Hephaestus, Prometheus, 
Cronus, Rhea and almost the whole family of Zeus? 
Yet, in beginning their poems, they invite the 
Muses to join their song ! Inspired, no doubt, by 
the Muses, they sing that as soon as Cronus had 
castrated his father Heaven, he became king there 
and devoured his own children, like the Argive 
Thyestes in later time ; that Zeus, stolen away by 
Rhea, who put the stone in his place, and abandoned 
in Crete, was nursed by a nanny-goat (just as 

1 Of Troy. 



VTTO e\d(^ov Kol IleyDcr/;? KOyoo? 6 irporepo'^ vtto 
T?}9 Kvv6<;, elr e^ekdaa<^ tov irarepa koI 6i9 ro 
BecTfjucoT^piov Kara^aXcov avTb<^ ^cr%€ rrjv dpj(rjV' 
€yrjjjL€ Be TroWa? pev koI aWw;, v<ndTr]v Be 
TTjv dheXcjirjv^ fcard Tov<i Ylepawv Koi^ ^ Aaavplayv 
vop^ov^' ipcoTLKo<; Be mv Kal 6i9 rd d^poBiaia ck- 
/ce^u/xeVo? ^ paBL(i)<; eveirXr^ae iralBwv tov ovpavov, 
TOi)? p^ev i^ opLOTip^wv TTOLrjadpevof;, eviov^ Be 
v60ov<; eK TOV Ovtjtov kol eTnyelov yevov<iy dprt 
fiev 6 yevvdBa<^ yev6p,evo<; "x^pvao^;, dprt Be ravpo'^ 
rj KVKvo<^ rf deTo^, kol oXco? 7roiKi\d)T€po<; avrov 
Ilp(OT€(t}<;' p,6v7jv Be Tr]V ^AOrjvdv 6(f)vaev efc t^9 
eavrov Ke^aXr)<^ vtt* avrov are^^^i^w? rov ejKe- 
(paXov avXXa^cov tov p,ev yap Aiovvaov r^piTeXr}, 
(paaiv, eK Trj<; p.7]Tpo<; €tl KaLop,evr}<; dp7rdaa<i ev 
Tft) P'VP^ (f)epa)v KaToopv^e Kara i^erefiev T7J<; 
coStvo? evardarj^;. 
6 "OpiOLa Be TOVToi^ kol irepl Tr]<;''}r[pa<; aBovcrtv, 
av€v Trj<; irpcx; tov dvBpa 6p,iXLa<; VTTTjvepLov avTrjv 
TralBa yevvrjaat tov ''H^atcxToi/, ov p,dXa evTV')(fj 
TOVTOV, dXXd ^dvavaov Kal yoKKea Kal TrvpLTijv, 
ev Kairvw to ttolv jSiovvra Kal aTTivOtjpcov dvd- 
irXecov ola By] KapLLvevTrjv, Kal ovBe dpTiovTO) TroBe' 
XdyXevOrjvai yap avTov aTTO tov TTTcoyLtaro?, ottotc 
ippLcfirj V7T0 TOV Afo? ef ovpavov, Kal et ye p.r) ol 
ArjpLVLOi KaXw<^ '7roLovvTe<; €TL (f>6p6p,evov avrov 
vTreBe^avro, Kav ereOviqKei rfplv o "H(j)aiaro<; 
axTirep 6 *AaTvdva^ dno tov irvpyov Kara- 

^ tV "iipav r^iv aSeXcpriy /3. 
^ TO {/TO Kal /3. 

' iKK^X^I^^^os Cobet : Kcx^l^^^ot, MSS. 


Telephus was nursed by a doe and the Persian, Cyrus 
the Elder, by a bitch) and then drove his father out, 
threw him into prison, and held the sovereignty 
himself; that, in addition to many other wives, he at 
last married his sister, following the laws of the 
Persians and the Assyrians ; that, being passionate 
and prone to the pleasures of love, he soon filled 
Heaven with children, some of whom he got by his 
equals in station and some illegitimately of mortal, 
earthly stock, now turning into gold, this gallant 
squire, now into a bull or a swan or an eagle, and in 
short, showing himself more changeable than even 
Proteus ; and that Athena was the only one to be 
born of his head, conceived at the very root of his 
brain, for as to Dionysus, they say, Zeus took him 
prematurely from his mother while she was still 
ablaze, implanted him hastily in his own thigh, and 
cut him out when labour came on. 

Their rhapsodies about Hera are of similar tenor, 
that without intercourse with her husband she 
became the mother of a wind-child, Hephaestus, who, 
however, is not in great luck, but works at the black- 
smith's trade over a fire, living in smoke most of the 
time and covered with cinders, as is natural with a 
forge-tender ; moreover, he is not even straight- 
limbed, as he was lamed by his fall when Zeus threw 
him out of Heaven. In fact, if the Lemnians had 
not obligingly caught him while he was still in the 
air, we should have had our Hephaestus killed just 
like Astyanax when he fell from the battlements.^ 

^ The notion that the Lemnians caught Hephaestus as he 
fell is Lucian's own contribution. He expects his audience 
to be aware that he is giving them a sly misinterpretation of 
Homer's &<pap KO/xicavTo weaofra {Iliad, 1, 594). 



J^alroi ra fxev 'Hcjialarov fxerpia' rov 8e Upo- 
/jLijOia TL<; ovK olhev ola eiradev, Bloti kuO^ virep- 
fioXrjv (pLXdvdpcoTTO^ rjv; koX jap av koI tovtov 
eh rrjv ^Kvdiav ajayoiv 6 Z€v<; dvearavpwaev 
iirl Tov K.av/cdaou, rov derov avrcp irapaKara- 
(TTrjaa^s rb qirap ocrrjp^epai KoXdyjrovra. 

7 OvT0<; fJL€v ovv i^ereXeae ryv KaraSi/crjv. rj 
'Pea ^e — ^/or/ yap to- ox? Kal ravra elirelv — ttw? 
OVK daxVH'Ovel fcal Beivd iroLel, ypav^; pev 7)Brf Kal 
€^(i)po<; ovaa Kal roaovroyp pLrjjrjp dewv, TraiSepa- 
arovaa he en Kal ^TjXorvTrovo-a Kal top "Kttlv eirl 
roiv XeovTcov 7rept(f)epovo-a, Kal ravra p^rjKert 
')(^pr)(TLpLOv elvai Bvvdpevov; cjare ttw? av en /nep,- 
(fyoLTO Tt9 7] rfi ^A(j)poBiTrj on p,oi')(^eveTaL, rj rrj 
^eXijvrj TT/oo? TOV ^EtvBvp,L(ova Kanovar] iroXXdKi^; 
€K p,€ar)<; tt}? oBov; 

8 ^epe Be i^Brj tovtcov d(^ep,evoL rcov Xoycov eh 
avrov dveXdcop,ev rov ovpavbv iroirjrtKco^; dvairrd- 
p.evot Kara rrjv avrrjv 'Op^TjpM Kal 'HatoBo) oBov 
Kal Oeaacop^eOa ottco^ BiaKeKoa pLT^raL rd dvco. Kal 
on p,ev ')(aXKov<; ecrnv rd e^co, Kal rrpo rjpoov rov 
*OpLrjpov Xeyovro<; r}Kovaap.ev' virep^dvn Be Kal 
dvaKvyfravn pbtKpov et? ro dvco Kal dre-xyo)^ 
eirl rov vcorov yevopevo) ^w? re Xapurporepov 
^aiverai Kal tjXlo^; KaOapcorepo<; Kal dcrrpa 
Btavyearepa Kal rb irdv rjpbepa Kal 'X^pvaovv rb 
BdireBov, elaLovrcov Be Trpcora puev oIkovctlv at 
*flpar irvXwpovcn ydp' eiretra 3' rj '\pi<; Kal 6 
*Epp,7]<; ovre^ vrrr^perai Kal dyyeXiacfyopoL rov 
Ato9, efrj? Be rov 'H^aiorrov rb ')(^aXKelov dvd- 
p^earov dirdcrr}^ re')(vr]^, puerd Be at rcov Oeayv 



But Hephaestus came off quite well beside Prome- 
theus. Who does not know what happened to him 
because he was too philanthropic ? Taking him to 
Scythia, Zeus pegged him out on the Caucasus and 
posted an eagle at his side to peck at his liver every 

Prometheus, then, received a sentence and served 
it out, but what about Rhea ? One must surely speak 
of this also. Does not she misconduct herself and 
behave dreadfully ? Although she is an old woman, 
past her best years, the mother of so many gods, 
nevertheless she still has a love affair with a boy and 
is jealous, and she takes Attis about with her behind 
her lions, in spite of the fact that he cannot be of 
any use to her now. So how can one find fault with 
Aphrodite for being unfaithful to her husband, or 
with Selene for going down to visit Endymion time 
and again in the middle of her journey? 

Come, dismissing this topic, let us go up to Heaven 
itself, soaring up poet-fashion by the same route as 
Homer and Hesiod, and let us see how they have 
arranged things on high. That it is bronze on the 
outside we learned from Homer, who anticipated us 
in saying so. But when one climbs over the edge, 
puts up one's head a little way into the world above, 
and really gets up on the " back," ^ the light is 
brighter, the sun is clearer, the stars are shinier, 
it is day everywhere, and the ground is of gold. 
As you go in, the Hours live in the first house, for 
they are the warders of the gate ; then come Iris 
and Hermes, who are attendants and messengers of 
Zeus ; next, there is the smithy of Hephaestus, filled 
with works of art of every kind, and after that, 

1 Plato, Phaedrus 247 b. Cf. p. 147. 



OiKiai Koi Tov Aio^ ra /SaauXeta, ravra rrdvra 
TrepiKaWrj tov 'H(f}aL(TTov Karaa/cevdaavro^;. 
9 '* 01 Be Oeol Trap Zijvl KaOrjiievoL^^ — irpeirei yap, 
ol/xai, av(o opra fieyaXrjyopetv — dirocrKOTrova-iv 
eh TTjv yrjv fcal iravrr] Trepc^Xeirova-iv irriKVTrrov- 
re? €L TToOev oy^ovrai irvp dvaTrrofJbevov rj dva- 
(f)€po/jLevriv Kvlcrav " eXLaaofievTjv irepl KairvchT 
Kav fiev dvT] Ti9, eiJ(t3')(ovvTai iravre^ €'mK€j(r]v6re<i 
TO) Kairvw KOI ro aljia Trivovre^ tol<; l3o)/j,OL<i 
7rpoa')(e6/JLevov ^ coarrep at jivlar tjv he olKoatTw- 
aiv, veKTUp Kol afx^poaia ro helirvov. irdXai 
jxev ovv KOi dvOpcdiroi avveiarLcovro kol avveirivov 
avToh, 6 'l^Lcou KOL 6 TdvTaXo<;' eVel Be rjaav 
v/Spicrral /cal XdXoL, eKelvoi fxev eVt Koi vtv KoXd- 
^ovrai, d^aTO<i Be rw Optjrw yevei /cal d7r6pp7jTO<i 
6 ovpav6<;. 
10 ToiovTo<; 6 /Sio? r(it)v Oecov. roiyapovv Kal ol 
avOpcoiTOi crvvayBa tovtol^ Kal aKoXovOa irepl ra? 
6p7]<jK€ia^ iiTiTT^BevovcTLV. Kal TTpoiTOV fiev uXa? 
direrefjiovro koi oprj dvedeaav Kal opvea KaOiepw- 
aav Kal (purd €7re(f)^fiLaav eKdaro) dew. /xerd Be 
veifid/jievoL Kara eOvrj ae^ovai Kal 7roXLTa<; avrayv 
aTTo^aivovaiv, 6 fxev AeX^o? tov AttoXXco Kal 6 
Ar]Xio^, 6 Be ^AOrjvato<; ttjv 'A6r)vdv — /juapTVpelrai 
yovv TTJV oiKeLOTTjTa Tft) ovoixaTL — Kal Trjv "Hpav 
6 'Apyetof; Kal 6 MvyB6vio<; Tr)v 'Veav Kal ttjv 
^A(f)poBLT7]v 6 Udcpio^. ol S' av Kp/^re? cv ye- 
veadai ivap avToh ovBe Tpa(f)rjvai jxovov tov Ala 
XeyovcTLV, dXXd Kal Td(f)0v avTov BeiKvvovaLv Kal 
rjijLeL<; dpa ToaovTOV rjiraTijfxeOa ')(^p6vov olo/jLevot 

^ Tots ^ee/jLo7s irpoax^ofjiivov : a gloss? mpix^^tJ-^iov CA, 
editors since Dindorf. 



the houses of the gods and the palace of Zeus, all 
very handsomely built by Hephaestus. " The gods, 
assembled in the house of Zeus " ^ — it is in order, 
I take it, to elevate one's diction when one is on 
high — look off at the earth and gaze about in every 
direction, leaning down to see if they can see fire 
being lighted anywhere, or steam drifting up to 
them "about the smoke entwined." ^ If anybody 
sacrifices, they all have a feast, opening their mouths 
for the smoke and drinking the blood that is spilt 
at the altars, just like flies ; but if they dine at 
home, their meal is nectar and ambrosia. In days of 
old, men used to dine and drink with them — Ixion 
and Tantalus — but as they behaved shockingly and 
talked too much, they are still undergoing punish- 
ment to this day, and there is now no admission 
for human beings to Heaven, which is strictly 

That is the way the gods live, and as a result, the 
practices of men in the matter of divine worship are 
harmonious and consistent with all that. First they 
fenced off groves, dedicated mountains, consecrated 
birds and assigned plants to each god. Then they 
divided them up, and now worship them by nations 
and claim them as fellow-countrymen ; the Delphians 
claim Apollo, and so do the Delians, the Athenians 
Athena (in fact, she proves her kinship by her name), 
the Argives Hera, the Mygdonians Rhea, the 
Paphians Aphrodite. As for the Cretans, they not 
only say that Zeus was born and brought up among 
them, but even point out his tomb. We were mis- 
taken all this while, then, in thinking that thunder 

> Iliad 4, I. 2 iiif^d 1, 317. 



Tov Ala ^povrav re kol veiv koX ra aWa irdvra 
iiTLTeXelv, 6 he eXekrjOei irdXat redveoi^ irapa 
Kprjcrl Te6afjLix6vo<i. 

11 "ETretra he vaov^ iy€LpavT€<; Xva avTol^ fivj 
aoiKOL firjhe dvearioi hrjdev wcriv, eiKova^; avTOi<; 
(iTreiKd^ovaiv 7rapaKa\ecravT€<; rj TLpa^treXrjv rf 
JloXv/cXetTov rj ^ethiav, ol he ovk oW ottov ^ 
Ihovre^; dvairXdrrovai yeveiTJrrjv /nev tov Ala, 
iralha he el<i del rov ^ AiroXXwva koI tov ^^pixrjv 
viTy]vrjTr}v kol tov Yloaeihoiiva Kvavo^alTr]v koI 
ryXavKCOTTiv TTjV ^A.07]vdv. o/JLa)<; h' ovv ol irapi- 
6vT€^ et? TOV V60DV 0VT6 TOV 6^ ^lvho}v cXicpavTa 
CTt oiovTai, opdv ovT€ TO eK T% Spa/cT]'^ fieTaX- 
Xevdev 'x^pvdlov dXX^ avTov tov Kpovov koI 'Pea?, 
eh Trjv yrjv viro ^eihlou fjLeTWKiapievov Koi Tf]v 
llicraloyv eprjpilav iincrKOTretv Ke/ceXevafievov, dya- 
TTOiVTa el hid rrevTe oXcov ctmv Ovaei rt? avTO) 
irdpepyov ^OXv/jLTrlayv. 

12 Sefievoi he ^(Ofiou^ Koi 7rpoppi]a€L<; koX Trepip- 
pavTrjpia irpocrdyovai Td<^ Ovala<;, ^ovv puev dpo- 
TTjpa 6 ye(opy6<;, dpva he 6 Troi/ayv koi alya 6 
alnoXof;, 6 he ti<; Xt^avcoTOv rj iroiravov, 6 he 
TreV?;? IXdaaTO tov Oeov /cvaa<; ^ jjlovov Trjv eauTov 
he^idv.^ aXV ot ye OvovTe<; — eV €fcelvov<; yap 
eTTaveifiL — (TTe(f)avci)aavTe(; to ^wov fcal ttoXv ye 
irpoTepov e^eTdaavTe^ el evTeXe<i elrj, Lva fiyjhe twv 
d\prj(TT(DV Ti fcaTaacfydTTCoaLV, Trpoadyovcrt tm 
^(opLw Kal (povevovaiv ev 6(f)0aXp,oL(; tov Oeov 
yoepov Ti /uLVKco/jievov kol «? to cIko'^ €V(f)r}fj,ovv 
Kal rj/jLl(f)covov '^ht] Trj Ovala eTravXovv. rt? ovfc 

^ UncDS y. ^ Kvcras Cobet : tretVos y, (pi\r}(ras fi. 

' r^i> avrov Sf^idv /3. 



and rain and everything else comes from Zeus ; if we 
had but known it, he has been dead and buried in 
Crete this long time ! 

Then too they erect temples, in order that the 
gods may not be houseless and hearthless, of course ; 
and they fashion images in their likeness, sending for 
a Praxiteles or a Polycleitus or a Phidias, who have 
caught sight of them somewhere and represent Zeus 
as a bearded man, Apollo as a perennial boy, Hermes 
with his first moustaclie, Poseidon with sea-blue hair 
and Athena with green eyes ! In spite of all, those 
who enter the temple think that what they behold is 
not now ivory from India nor gold mined in Thrace, 
but the very son of Cronus and Rhea, transported to 
earth by Phidias and bidden to be overlord of de- 
serted Pisa, thinking himself lucky if he gets a 
sacrifice once in four long years as an incident to 
the Olympic games. 

When they have established altars and formulae 
and lustral rites, they present their sacrifices, the 
farmer an ox from the plough, the shepherd a lamb, 
the goatherd a goat, someone else incense or a cake ; 
the poor man, however, propitiates the god by just 
kissing his own hand.^ But those who offer victims 
(to come back to them) deck the animal with gar- 
lands, after finding out far in advance whether it is 
perfect or not, in order that they may not kill some- 
thing that is of no use to them; then they bring it to 
the altar and slaughter it under the god's eyes, while 
it bellows plaintively — making, we must suppose, 
auspicious sounds, and fluting low music to accom- 
pany the sacrifice ! Who would not suppose that 

1 Of. Saltat. 17. 



av €iKd(7€i€v ijBeaOai, ravra opwvra^ tou? Oeov^;; 

1 3 Koi TO fiev irpo'ypaiJiiJL.d (f)rjai fjur) jrapievao eh to 
€1(70} rSiv irepippavTrjpiajv 6(ni<^ /jltj Ka6ap6<; eariv 
Ta<; x^lpa^i' 6 5e Upevf; avro<; e<jr7)K6v rjiiayixevo^ 
Kol wairep 6 KvKXcoyjr iKeLvo<; dvarefivcov koX rd 
ejKara i^atpSiv koX KapSwvXKcov Koi to al/jua tm 
fiay/iia) irepfx^ewv koi tl yap ovk evaejSh iiTLTeXCiv; 
iirl IT dab he nrvp dvaKavaa^ i7TeOr)K€ (pepcov avTrj 
hopd Tr}v alya koX avTOL<; ipiot<i to TTp6j3aTov' 77 
he fcvlaa deaireaio^; koI lepo7rpe7rr]<; %w/3et dvw koi 
el<s avTov TOP ovpavov rjpefia BiaaKiSvaTat. 

O jj-ev ye Xkv07j<; Tracra? Td<; Ovcyia^ dc^el^ koI 
Tjyrjad/jLevo^i raTreim? avTOv<; tov<; dvOpcoTTOV^ ttj 
^ApTe/jLtSi TrapiaTfjai kol ovtox; ttolcov dpeaKei 
Trjv Oeov. 

14 TavTa fiev Brj Xaw<i jxeTpia koX to, vtt'' ^ Act- 
avpLcov yiyvofxeva Koi vtto ^pvySiv koX AvScov, 
r)v S* 6t9 Tr)v AiyvTrTOV eXOrjf;, Tore hrj Tore oy^ret 
TToWd Ta aefivd kol &)? d\r)9o3<; d^ia tov ovpavov, 
KpioTrpocTcoTTov fiev TOV Ala, KWOTrpoacoTTOv Be tov 
^ekTLCTTOv ^Epfirjv Kal tov TLdva oXov Tpdyov koI 
IfSiv Tiva Kol KpoKoheiXov eTepov /cal ttlBt^kov. 

el S* €6eXei<; Kal TavTa harjixevai, 6<f}p'' ev et^^?, 

aKOVcrr] ttoXXcov ao(f)LaT(ov Kal ypapL/jLaTecov Kal 
7rpo(f)r]T(ov e^vprj/JLevcov hLtjyovfievcov, — rrpoTepov 
Be, <f>r}(T}v 6 X0709, ** 6vpa<i S* eTriOeade ^e^rjXoL^^ 



the gods like to see all this? And although the 
notice says that no one is to be allowed within the 
holy-water who has not clean hands^ the priest 
himself stands there all bloody, just like the Cyclops 
of old, cutting up the victim, removing the entrails, 
plucking out the heart, pouring the blood about the 
altar, and doing everything possible in the way of 
piety. To crown it all, he lights a fire and puts upon 
it the goat, skin and all, and the sheep, wool and all ; 
and the smoke, divine and holy, mounts upward and 
gradually dissipates into Heaven itself. 

The Scythians, indeed, reject all the sacrificial 
animals and think them too mean ; they actually 
offer men to Artemis and by so doing gratify the 
goddess ! 

These practices are all very well, no doubt, and 
also those of the Assyrians and those of the Phrygians 
and Lydians ; but if you go to Egypt, then, ah ! then 
you will see much that is venerable and truly in 
keeping with Heaven — Zeus with the head of a ram, 
good Hermes with the head of a dog. Pan com- 
pletely metamorphosed into a goat, some other god 
into an ibis, another into a crocodile, another into a 
monkey ! 

Wouldst thou enquire the cause of these doings in 

order to know it," ^ 

you will hear plenty of men of letters and scribes 

and shaven prophets say — but first of all, as the 

saying goes, " Uninitiate, shut up your doors! ""^ — that 

1 Iliad 6, 150. 

* An oft-quoted tag from a lost Orphic poem. Those who 
have not been initiated in the mysteries are required to go 
into their houses and close the doors, because the emblems 
of Dionysus are going to pass through the streets. 



— &)? apa VTTO rov iroXefMOv^ koX tmv ^yiyavTcov 
Trjv iiravdaraaiv ol Oeol (f)0^rjOevr€<; rjKov eh rrjv 
Atyvrrrov &>? Brj evavOa \7](t6/i€voi tov<; iroXe- 
liLov<^' elO* 6 fiev avTO)v vireSv rpdyov, 6 Be Kpiov 
VTTO Tov Beov<;, 6 Be Orjplov i) opveov Bio Bt) elaeri 
KoX vvv (pvXdrrea-OaL ra? rore fiop(f)a<; roh 9eol<s. 
raura yap a/jueXei ev to2<; dBvTOL<; dTroKetrat ypa- 
(pevra irXelov rj irpo ircov fivpicov. 
15 Ai Be Ova Lai koI irap eK€LVoi<; al avrai, irXifv 
OTL irevO overt, to lepelov /cat KOTTrovrai rrepLardv- 
Te? i]Bri 7re(l)OV€v/jLevov. ol Be koI Odirrovai fjiovov 
dirocrcf) d^avre^. 

'O fiep yap 'Att*?, o jxeyicTTO^ avroU Oeo^, edv 
aTToOdvrjy ti9 ovtw irepX ttoXXov Troietrai Tr)v 
KOfirjv odTK; ovK dire^vprjae /cal yfriXov - eTrt tt}? 
Ke(PaXy)<; to irevOo^i eTreBei^aro, kclv rov ^lctov 
e\r) TrXoKafJiOv rov irop^vpovv; ecm Be 6 ^Atti^ 
€^ dy€X7]<; ^eo?, trrl rw irporepw ')(eLporovovfievo'^ 
G)9 TToXu koXXlcov Kal a€/Mv6repo<; rwv IBioircov 

Tavra ovrco yiyvo^ieva Kal viro ro)v iroXXayv 
TTLarevofjieva BelaOai fioL BoKei rod fiev eTTirifjL'q- 
aovro<; ovBev6<;, 'HpaKXeurov Be rivo<; rj L^rjfio- 
Kpirov, rov p,ev yeXaaofievov rijv dyvoiav avroiv, 
rov Be rrjv dvotav oBvpovfievov. 

* Twv iroXiixiov y. ^ v\^/ri\hy /8. 



on the eve of the war, the revolt of the giants, the 
gods were panic-stricken and came to Egypt, thinking 
that surely there they could hide from their enemies ; 
and then one of them in his terror entered into a 
goat, another into a ram, and others into other 
beasts or birds ; so of course the gods still keep the 
forms they took then. All this, naturally, is on 
record in the temples, having been committed to 
writing more than ten thousand years ago ! 

Sacrifices are the same there as with us, except 
that they mourn over the victim, standing about it 
and beating their breasts after it has been slain. In 
some cases they even bury it after simply cutting its 

And if Apis, the greatest of their gods, dies, who 
is there who thinks so much of his hair that he does 
not shave it off and baldly show his mourning on 
his head, even if he has the purple tress of Nisus ? ^ 
But Apis is a god out of the herd, chosen to succeed 
the former Apis on the ground that he is far more 
handsome and majestic than the run of cattle ' 

Actions and beliefs like these on the part of the 
public seem to me to require, not someone to cen- 
sure them, but a Heracleitus or a Democritus, the 
one to laugh at their ignorance, the other to bewail 
their folly. 

^ Nisus, king of Megara, had something in common with 
Samson, for as long as the purple tress remained where it 
belonged, his city was safe. Ovid {Metam. 8, 1-151) tells 
how his daughter robbed him of it, and became Scylla. 



This too is a diatribe, an excellent illustration of that sort 
of diatribe which made the word to us moderns synonymous 
with invective. It is far from a school exercise, but was 
directed against a real person, a Syrian (§19), evidently well 
enough known to Lucian's auditors. A scholiast (probably 
Bishop Arethas, who was himself a book-collector) remarks : 
" If I may guess, Lucian, you asked him for the loan of a 
book, and when you did not get it, requited him with this 
handsome token of your esteem ! " [t was written after the 
death of Peregrinus Proteus and during the reign of Marcus 
Aurelius, about 170 a.d. 


1 Kal /JLTjv ivavTiov iarlv ov e'^eXet? o vvv Tro/et?. 
ol'et /JL€V yap iv 'jraiSela kol avTO<; elvai ri<^ ho^eLV 
aTTOvBfj avva)vovfjL€vo<; ra KdWiara rcov /3i/3\l(i)v' 
TO Be croi irepl ra Kara) ')(^copel, Kal eXejxo^ yiyve- 
rai Tr}(; oLTraiBevala^; tto)? tovto. ftakiaTa he 
ovhe ra fcdWiara cdi^tj, dWa iTL(7Tevei<i rot? 0)9 
6TV')(ev iiraivovai xal epfiaiov el tmv rd roiavra 
eiTL'^evhoiievcdv roL<; ^c/3\loi,<; Ka\ Orjaavpo^ eroifio^ 
TOi? KaTTr)XoL<; avrcov. rj iroOev ydp aoi Stayvcovai 
Bvvarop, TLva fMCV TraXacd Kal ttoWov d^ia, riva 
he (f>av\a Kal aWo)? aairpd, el firj rm hia/Se- 
PpwadaL Kal KaraKeKocfydac avrd reK/iialpoio Kal 
o-fyLtySouXou? TO 1)9 o-ea9 eVl rrjv i^eracnv irapa- 
\a/jLfidvoi<;; ^ iirel rod dKpi^ov<i ?') d(r(f)a\ov<; ev 
avroi<i Tt9 rj rroia hidyvwaL^^; 

2 "\va he aoi hw avrd cKelva KeKpLKevai, oaa 6 
KaXXt^'09 €49 /faX,Xo9 y) o dolhi/jLO'^ ^ArriKo<; avv 
iTn/ieXeia rfj Trdarj eypayjrav,^ (toI ri o</)€Xo9, w 

Available in photographs : rPN. 

^ Trapa\aiJL$dvois Guyet : TrapaKafx^aveis MSS. 
* %ypay\/av Hervverden : ypa\\iaiiv MSS. 



Truly, what you are now doing is the reverse of 
what you are aiming to do. You expect to get a 
reputation for learning by zealously buying u}) the 
finest books^ but the thing goes by opposites and in 
a way becomes proof of your ignorance. Indeed, 
you do not buy the finest ; you rely upon men who 
bestow their praise hit-and-miss, you are a god- 
send to the people that tell such lies about books, 
and a treasure-trove ready to hand to those who 
traffic in them. Why, how can you tell what books 
are old and highly valuable, and what are worthless 
and simply in wretched repair^ — unless you judge 
them by the extent to which they are eaten into and 
cut up, calling the book-worms into counsel to settle 
the question } As to their correctness and freedom 
from mistakes, what judgement have you, and what 
is it worth ? 

Yet suppose I grant you that you have selected the 
very editions de hue that were prepared by Callinus 
or by the famous Atticus with the utmost care.^ 

^ Not old, though they look old. 

' Both Atticus and Callinus are mentioned again as scribes 
in this piece (24) ; Callinus is not elsewhere mentioned, but 
Atticus is supposed to be the "publisher" of the Atticiana, 
editions which had great repute in antiquity. It is hardly 
likely that he is Cicero's friend. 


Oav/jbdaie, rod KTrj/jLaTO<; ovre elBorc to Kd\\o<i 
avTMV ovre •^^prjao/jLeua) Trore ovBev fjuaXkov 77 
TU<^Xo? dp Ti? uTToXavaeLe KdWov^ irathiKOdV ; 
(TV he dvew'yiJievoi'^ jxev rol^ 6<pOa\^ol<; 6pa<; rd 
^iffKia, Kol V7) Aia KaraKopco^;, Kal dpajLyvd)- 
aK€L<i evia irdw eV^T/oe^o)!^, (^Odvovro^ rod o^OaX- 
fjLOV TO aro/jua' ovSeTrco Be tovto /jloi, l/cavov, rfv 
/uLTj elBfj(; r)]V dperrjv Kal KaKiav cKdarov rwv 
eyye'ypafxjJLivodV kol (Tvvir}<s 6(7ri<i p,ev 6 vov<; avpL- 
iraaiv, Tt? Be 77 rd^t^; rcov ovo/judrcov, ocra re 7r/3o? 
Tov opOov fcavova rw avyypacpel dTrrj/cpt^wTai, xal 
oaa Ki^BrjXa Kal voOa Kal TrapaKeKOjJip.eva. 
3 Tt ovv; ^r)<; Kal ravrd^ fjurj pLaOodvrjpZv elBevai; 
iroOev, el [mtj irore irapd rcov MovaMV KXcjva 
Bd(f)vr}<; KaOdirep 6 iroijxrjv €K€ivo<; 'Xa/Scov; 'EXt- 
KMva fJLev ydpy Xva BLarpl/Secv al Oeal Xeyovrai, 
ovBe dKr}Koa<i olfjuai rrore, ovBe rd<; avrd*; ^ Biarpi- 
ySa? r]pA,v ev Tratalv eirotov' aol Kal /jLe/jLvrjaOai 
Moucrcoiv dvoaLOV. eKeivai yap Troi/xevi puev ovk 
dv wKvrjaav (pavrjvai, <TKXr)p(p dvBpl Kal Bacrel Kal 
TToXvv TOV tjXlov IttI tw ad)fiaTi ep^alvovTL, oiw 
Be crol — Kal fioL 7rpo<; r^? Ai^avLTLBof; a^e? ev Ta> 
TrapovTc TO /jltj crvfirravTa (racfico^ elirelv — ovBe 
€771)9 yeveaOai ttot dv ev olB' otc rj^lwaav, dXTC 
dvrl T^9 Bd<f)vri<; fivpplvy dv rj Kal fiaXd^V^ <l>vXXoL<i 
fiaa-Tiyovcrai diri^XXa^av dv tcov tolovtcov, C09 /irj 

^ raura Naber : tovto MSS. 

^ ras avras Marcilius : TOJOuToy MSS. 



What good^ you strange person, will it do you to own 
them, when you do not understand their beauty and 
will never make use of it one whit more than a blind 
man would enjoy beauty in favourites ? To be sure you 
look at your books with your eyes open and quite as 
much as you like, and you read some of them aloud 
with great fluency, keeping your eyes in advance of 
your lips ; but I do not consider that enough, unless 
you know the merits and defects of each passage in 
their contents, unless you understand what every 
sentence means, how to construe the words, what 
expressions have been accurately turned by the 
writer in accordance with the canon of good use, and 
what are false, illegitimate, and counterfeit. 

Come now, do you maintain that without in- 
struction you know as much as we ? How can you, 
unless, like the shepherd of old,^ you once received a 
branch of laurel from the Muses ? Helicon, which the 
goddesses are said to haunt, you never even heard of, 
I take it, and your haunts in your boyhood were not 
the same as ours. That you should even mention 
tiie Muses is impious. They would not have shrunk 
from showing themselves to a shepherd, a hard- 
bitten, hairy man displaying rich tan on his body, 
but as for the like of you — in the name of your lady 
of Lebanon ^ dispense me for the present from giving 
a full description of you in plain language ! — they 
would never have deigned, I am sure, to come near 
you, but instead of giving you laurel they would have 
scourged you with myrtle or sprays of mallow and 
would have made you keep your distance from those 

^ Hesiod : see the Theogony 29 fF, 

' Aphrodite, perhaps, or Astarte ; in later times there 
was a notorious cult of Aphrodite on Lebanon : Eusebius, 
Vit. Const ant ini 3, 53. 



fiidvat fi^re rbv ^OXfietov fit'-jre rrjv rov "linTov 
KprjV7]V, airep t) 7roi/iVLOi<; BLyjrwcriv rj Troi/jLevcop 
aTOfjLacFL Ka6apol<^ iroTLfxa, 

KatTOi ovhk, el koI ttcivv avai<T')(yvTO<^ el koX 
dvSpelof; ra roiavra, roXfiria-eia^ civ irore elirelv 
ft)? e7raihev67]<; rj efieXi^ae aoL ttcottotg tt}? ev 'x^pw 
7rp6<; ra /Si^Xla (Tvvov(jia<; r) &)? Bi.8daKa\6<i aoi 
4 6 helva rj tm Beipt avpe(f)OLTa<;. dW* evl tovtm 
/jLovo) rrdvTa etcelva dvahpapLeladai, vvv e\7rL^eL<;, 
ra) KTaaOai iroWa ^i^Xia. Kara 8r) ravra, 
eKelva e%e avXXaficov ra rov At} /jlo a Oevov^; oaa 
rfi xeupl rfj avrov 6 prjrwp eypa^jre, Kal ra rov 
SovkvSlBov oaa rrapa rov Arj/jboadevov; Kal avra 
0KrdKL<^ IJbera<yeypaiiixeva evpedrj, Kal oXoj? ^ dirav- 
ra eKelva oaa 6 XvXXa<i ' AO^vrjOev eh 'IraXiav 
e^eTre/xyfre' ri av irXeov eK rovrov eh rraihuav 
Krrjaaio, kolv viroPaXofjuevo'; avra eirLKaOevhr)'^ rj 
avyKoXXriaa'i Kal 7repL^aX6/jLevo<; 7repLvoary<; ; 
TTiOrjKO^ yap 6 wiOrjKO^i, rj irapoLfiLa cftrjal, kuv 
Xpvaea e^V av/ji/SoXa. Kal av roivvv ^l^Xlov 
fiev e^et? ev rfj %6£yot Kal dvayiyvoia Kei's del, rwv 
Be dvajiyvwaKOfjLevwv olada ovBev, dXX* ova's 
Xvpa<^ dKovei^ klvo)v ra wra. 

'Cl<i et ye ro KeKrrjaOai ra ^ijSXla Kal TreTrac- 
Bevfievov direcpaive rov e^ovra, iroXXov dv 009 
dXrjda)^; ro Krr}fJLa rjv d^iov Kal /jlovcov v/jlcov rS)V 
rrXovaiwVy el oyairep e^ dyopd'^ rjv irpcdaOai roix; 

^ evp4dr}, Kol o\a)s A.M.H.: evpfdr] KaKws MSS. ; fvptGi} 
Ka\us, Kal Bekker, Dindorf. 

^ Of the copies of his own works and those of Thucydides 
written by Demosthenes we have no other notice ; Sulla 




regions, so as not to pollute either Olmeios or 
Hippocrene, whose waters only thirsty flocks or the 
clean lips of shepherds may drink. 

No matter how shameless you are and how 
courageous in such matters, you would never dare to 
say that you have had an education, or that you ever 
troubled yourself to associate intimately with books, 
or that So-and-so was your teacher and you went to 
school with So-and-so. You expect to make up for 
all that now by one single expedient — by getting 
many books. On that theory, collect and keep all 
those manuscripts of Demosthenes that the orator 
wrote with his own hand, and those of Thucydides 
that were found to have been copied, likewise by 
Demosthenes, eight times over, and even all the 
books that Sulla sent from Athens to Italy.^ What 
would you gain by it in the way of learning, even if 
you should put them under your pillow and sleep 
on them or should glue them together and walk 
about dressed in them ? " A monkey is always a 
monkey," says the proverb, "even if he has birth- 
tokens of gold." 2 Although you have a book in 
your hand and read all the time, you do not under- 
stand a single thing that you read, but you are like 
the donkey that listens to the lyre and wags his ears. 

If possessing books made their owner learned, they 
would indeed be a possession of great price, and only 
rich men like you would have them, since you could 
buy them at auction, as it were, outbidding us poor 

took to Italy what M'as reported to have been the library of 
Aristotle : Plut. Snlla 26. 

2 These were trinkets put in the cradle or the clothing of a 
child when it was abandoned, as proof of good birth and as a 
possible means of identification later. Hyginus (187) calls 
them insignia ingenuitatis. 



Trevrjra^; rjixa^i vTr€p(3d\\ovTa<^. rt? he rot? ifi- 
TTopoL^; Koi TOL<; fiL/3\iOKa7rrj\oL^ rjpiaev av irepl 
TTaiheia^i Toaavra I3ij3\ia e^ovai. /cal 'TTcoXovaiv^ 
aXX €L <y€ 8i€\iy)(€LP e'^eXe^?, oylrei /irjS^ €KeLvov<i 
TToXv aov ra et? iraiSelav aixeivov^, aWa /3ap- 
/3dpov(; fiev rrjv cfxovrjv cjairep av, d^uverov^ Be 
rfj yvcocrei, oXov<; €iKo<; elvau rot'? fir]B6v rcov KaXoiV 
Kal aLa')(^poiv KaOewpaKOTa^i. Kanoi av fiev hvo 
Tj Tpia irap avrcov eKeivwv 7rpi.d/jL€vo<} e^eu^, ol he 
vvfCTcop Kal fieB" rj/juepav Bca 'X^eLpo'; exovaiv avrd. 
rLvo<; Qvv dyaOov wpfj ravra, el fir) koX ra? diro- 
6i]Ka<; avrdf; tojv /Bc/SXlcop rjjfj TreTraiBevaOai 
ToaavTa 7r€piexovaa<^ TrakaiMV dvBpojv avyypdfi- 

Ka£ /jLOL, el BoKei, diroKpLvar fiaWov Be, errel 
Tovro aoi dBvvarov, eirivevaov yovv tj dvdvevaov 
TTpo^ TO, epwTMfieva. eX rf? avXelv firj e7riaTd/i€vo<i 
KTrjaaiTO tov<; Tt/jLodeov avXov^ rj tov<; ^la/jLr)VLOV, 
ou? €71 ra raXavrcov 6'Ia/jLr]VLa<; ev KoplvOo) e-Trpiaro, 
ap av Bid Tovro Kal avXelv BvvaiTO, rj ovBev 
6<f)6Xo<; avrcp rov KTrjp^aTO^ ovk eirLaTafxevai XPV~ 
aaaOai Kara rrjv rexyrjv; ev <ye dvevevaa^' ovBe 
yap TOL/? ^lapavov rj 'OXvpuirov KTrjadp,evo^ avXrj- 
aeiev av fir) fiaOcov. ri S' el ti<; Tov'HpaKXeov; rd 
ro^a KTijaaLTO /jltj ^LXoKTi]Tr]<; cjv co? BvvaaOai 
evTeivaaOai re avrd Kal eTriaKOira ro^evaai; tl 
aoL Kal ovro<i BoKel; dp* av eiTLBei^aaOai tl epyov 
To^orov d^LOv; uvevevaa<; Kal tovto. Kard ravrd 
Brj Kal 6 Kv^epvdv ovk €IBgd<; Kal lirTrevetv /jLT) 
fi€fieX€T7jKQ)<; el 6 fiev vavv KaXXlarrjv irapaXd^oi, 
Tot? irdai, KaX eU KdXXo^ Kal el<i dacpdXeiav koX- 



men. In that case, however, who could rival the 
dealers and booksellers for learning, who possess and 
sell so many books ? But if you care to look into 
the matter, you will see that they are not much 
superior to you in that point ; they are barbarous of 
speech and obtuse in mind like you — ^just what one 
would expect people to be who have no conception 
of what is good and bad. Yet you have only two or 
three books which they themselves have sold you, 
while they handle books night and day. What good, 
then, does it do you to buy them — unless you think 
that even the book-cases are learned because they 
contain so many of the works of the ancients ! 

Answer me this question, if you will — or better, 
as you are unable to answer, nod or shake your 
head in reply. If a man who did not know how to 
play the flute should buy the instrument of Timotheus 
or that of Ismenias,^ for which Ismenias paid seven 
talents in Corinth, would that make him able to play, 
or would it do him no good to own it since he did 
not know how to use it as a musician would ? You 
did well to shake your head. Even if he obtained the 
flute of Marsyas or Olympus, he could not play with- 
out previous instruction. And what if a man should 
get the bow of Heracles without being a Philoctetes 
so as to be able to draw it and shoot straight ? What 
do you think about him ? That he would make any 
showing worthy of an archer ? You shake your head 
at this, too. So, of course, with a man who does not 
know how to steer, and one who has not practised 
riding; if the one should take the helm of a fine 
vessel, finely constructed in every detail both for 
beauty and for seaworthiness, and the other should 

^ Famous Theban flute-players of the fourth century B.C. ; 
for Timotheus, see also Lucian's Harmonidts. 



Xicrra e^eLpyacr/jiivTjv, 6 Be Ittttov KTrjaairo Mr)8oi/ 
rj Kevravpihrivri KOTnracpopov, iXeyx^iro av, oI/jlul, 
6Kdr€po<; ovK etSo)? o rt, 'X^prjcratro e/carepo). iiri- 
V6V€L<; Koi rovTo; ttelOov Stj koI tovto fjioi eTrivevaov 
eX T«9 axjirep av airaihevTOf; o)v cdvolto iroXka ^t- 
PXia, ov afCM/jL/jLara ovto<; eh aTraiheva-iav KaS^ 
eavrov eKcbepoi; ri oKvel^ kol tovto imvevetv; 
eXejxo^ yap, olfiai,, aacprj^; ovTo^,Ka\ tcov opcovTcov 
€KaaTO<; €v6v<; to Trpo^cLpoTaTov eKelvo iiTKpOey- 
ycTai, " TL Kvvl KOL ^aXavei(p;^^ 

6 Kai iyevcTo ti<; ov irpo rroXXov ev 'Actlcl ttXov- 
<TL0<i avrjp i/c av/xcpopd^ a7roT/jLr]0eh tov<; iroBa^ 
afi(f>OT€pov<;y CLTTO Kpvov^y olfiai, airoaaTTevTa^ 
CTreLSr] ttotc Slo, ')(^l6vo<; oSoLiroprjaai, avve^rj avTa>. 
OUT09 Toivvv TOVTO fJLev iXeeivov eireirovdei, koX 
Oepairevodv t7]v hvaTV')(^iav ^vXivov<; 7r6Ba<; vre- 

7r0L7}T0, KoX T0VT0V<i VTroSoVfl€VO<; €^dSl^€P ilTL- 

CTT) pL^6lJi€vo<^ dfia Tot? oiVeTtti?. eKelvo he yeXolov 
eiroiei, Kpr)7rtBa<; yap KaXXiaTa^ ecoveLTO veoT/bLJ]- 
TOV<i del, KOL TTjv TrXelaTTjv rrpaypLaTeiav irepX 
ravTa<; el')(ev, co? KaXX[crToi<; vTroBij/juaai KCKoa- 
fMTjfiepa eXrf avTcp to, ^vXa.^ ov tuvtcl ovv koi av 
iTOLel'^ 'X^odXrjv fiev exwv kol avKivrjv Trjp yvco/jLTjv, 
wvovfievo^ 8e ')(^pvaov<i. ejipaTa^, ol? fioXt^i dv ti<; 
Kal dpTL7Tov<; efMirepLiraTrjaeLev ; 

7 ^E.7rel he ev rot? dXXoi<; kol top '^Ofirjpop eirpio) 
TToXXdKif;, dpaypcoTw aoi rt? avTOv Xa^oov ttjp 
SevTepap t^? 'iXtaSo? pa^^rwhiaPy 97? tcl /lep uXXa 

^ TCI |uAa, 01 TToSfs S-n MSS. : 01 ir6Ses S-h excised bj' Headlam. 

^ The "Centaur" horses probably came from Thessaly, 
the home of the Centaurs and a land of good horses. The 



get an Arab or a "Centaur " or a " Koppa-brand/' ^ 
each would give proof, I have no doubt, that he did 
not know what to do with his property. Do you 
assent to this ? Take my advice, now, and assent to 
this also ; if an ignorant man like you should buy 
many books, would he not give rise to gibes at him- 
self for his ignorance ? Why do you shrink from 
assenting to this also? To do so is a clear give- 
away, I maintain, and everybody who sees it at once 
quotes that very obvious proverb : " What has a dog 
to do with a bath ? " 

Not long ago there was a rich man in Asia, both of 
whose feet had been amputated in consequence of 
an accident ; they were frozen, I gather, when he 
had to make a journey through snow. Well, this of 
course was pitiable, and to remedy the mischance he 
had had wooden feet made for him, which he used to 
lace on, and in that way made shift to walk, leaning 
upon his servants as he did so. But he did one thing 
that was ridiculous : he used always to buy very 
handsome sandals of the latest cut and went to the 
utmost trouble in regard to them, in order that his 
timber toes might be adorned with the most beauti- 
ful footwear ! Now are not you doing just the same 
thing? Is it not true that although you have a 
crippled, fig-wood ^ understanding, you are buying 
gilt buskins which even a normal man could hardly 
get about in ? 

As you have often bought Homer among your 
other books, have someone take the second book of 
his Iliad and read it to you. Do not bother about 

"Koppa-brand" were marked 9. which in the alphabet of 
Corinth corresponded to K, and was used (on coins, for 
instance) as the abbreviation for Korinthos. 
2 The most worthless sort of wood. 



fjLT} e^erd^eiv ovSeu yap avTMV Tryao? ai' ireiroir)- 
rai he Tt9 uvtm Brj/uirjyopwv irayyeXoio^ avOpwiro^, 
Si.d(TTpo(f)o<; TO (TOijxa koX \e\w^r]iJLevo<^. iK€Lvo<; 
roivvv 6 S6p(7iTr](; 6 TotovTO<; el \dl3ot rrjv 'Ap^iX- 
\€co<; TravoTrXiav, ohi on avrUa Bia rovro koI 
KaX6<; djia kol la-xvpo^ av yivoiro, koX virep- 
7n]Bi](T€TaL fiev rov Trorafiov, €7rido\a>a6i Be avrov 
TO pelOpov T(p (povcp TO)v ^pvjcjv, aTTOKTevel Be 
Tov" ^KTopa Kol irpo avTOv tov Av/cdova koI top 
^AaTepoTTolov, /jurjBe (f>epeiv eirl tmv mijlcov Tr]v 
/jLeXlav Bvvdfievo^; ovk av el'noL<^' dWd Kal ye- 
XcoTa av 6(f)XiaKdvoi ^(wXevwv viro Trj dcnrLBt Kal 

€TtI (TTOfia /CaTaTTllTTCOV VTTO TOV ffdp0V<; Kal VTTO 

T(p Kpdvei oTTOTe dvavevaeie BecKvix; tov<; irapa- 
ySXwTra? eKeLvov<; avTOv 6(f>6aX/jLov<; Kal tov 
OcopaKa eTraipcov t& tov fJueTa^pevov KvpTco/xaTi 
Kal Ta9 Kvr^fjuBa^ €7rL(Tvp6fjLevo<;, Kal oX&)? ala'X^v- 
V(t)V d/i<f)OT€pov(;, Kal tov Br]/xLOVpyov avTcov Kal 
TOV BeanoTTjv. to avTo Brj Kal av 7rd(T)(^cov ov^ 
6pa<^, oiTOTav TO fiev /3i/3Xi,ov ev Trj %e£pt exj)'^ 
TrdyKaXov, irop<f)Vpav fiev e)(^ov ttjv BL<f)depav, 
y^pvdovv Be tov 6/jL(f)aX6v, dvayiyv(t)aKr}<; Be avTO 
0apl3apL^o)v Kal KaTaua'xyvwv Kal BcaaTpe(f>cov, 
VTTO fxev Twv ireTTaiBeviievwv KaTayeXcofievo^, virb 
Be T(x)v avvovTcov aoi KoXdKwv €7raLvov/Jievo<;, ot 
Kal avTol 7r/30? dXXi]Xov<i eiricTTpeipo/jievoL yeXcocri 
TO, TToXXd; 
8 ©eX&) yovv <tol BiijyijaacrOal tl IIv6ol yevo- 
fievov. TapavTivof; ^vdyyeXo<; Tovvofia tcjv ovk 
d<pavcov iv tm TdpavTi eireOvfjuriaev viKrjo-ai 
UvOia. TCL fiev ovv Trj<; yvfivij^; dya)vla<; avTiKa 
iBoKec avTa> dBvvaTov elvai firjTe irpo'i ia^vv fiijTe 


the rest of the book, for none of it applies to you ; 
but lie has a description of a man making a speech, 
an utterly ridiculous fellow, warped and deformed 
in body.^ Now then, if that man, Thersites, should 
get the armour of Achilles, do you suppose that he 
would thereby at once become both handsome and 
strong ; that he would leap the river, redden its stream 
with Trojan gore, and kill Hector — yes, and before 
Hector, kill Lycaon and Asteropaeus — when he can- 
not even carry the "ash tree" on his shoulders P^ 
You will hardly say so. No, he would make himself 
a laughing-stock, limping under the shield, falling on 
his face beneath the weight of it, showing those 
squint eyes of his under the helmet every time he 
looked up, making the corselet buckle up with the 
hump on his back, trailing the greaves on the ground 
— disgracing, in short, both the maker of the arms 
and their proper owner. Do not you see that the 
same thing happens in your case, when the roll that 
you hold in your hands is very beautiful, with a slip- 
cover of purple vellum and a gilt knob, but in 
reading it you barbarize its language, spoil its beauty 
and warp its meaning? Men of learning laugh at 
you, while the toadies who live with you praise you 
— and they themselves for the most part turn to one 
another and laugh ! 

I should like to tell you of an incident that took 
place at Delphi. A man of Tarentum, Evangelus 
by name, a person of some distinction in Tarentum, 
desired to obtain a victory in the Pythian games. As 
far as the athletic competition was concerned, at the 
very outset that seemed to him to be impossible, as 

^ Iliad 2, 212. » Cf. Iliad 19, 387 ff. 
VOL. III. G 185 


TT/OO? ODKVTrjTa €V TTeCpVKOTL, KlddpO, hi KOL mBtj 

pahiw<; Kparrjaeiv iireiaOr] viro Karapdrcov dv- 
OpcoiTwv ou? el-)(€ irepl avrov iiratvovvrayv Kal 
/3oo)VTO)v oTTore /cal to (T/jLt/cporaTov €K€lvo<; dva- 
KpovaaiTo. rjKev ovv et? tou? AeXcpov'i rol^ re 
a\XoL<; \ap,7rpo<; kol Brj koX io-Orjra y^pvaoiraaTov 
7roL7)(Td/jLevo<i Kal arecpavov Bd(pvr}<; ')(^pvarj<; /cdX- 
Xiarov, CO? dvrl Kapiroif rr}<; Bd(j>V7]<i o-/iapdyBov<; 
elvai lao/ieyeOet^; rw Kapirw' rrjv fiiv j€ KiOdpav 
avrrjv, V7r€p(f)ve9 tl ^^pij/ia et? KdWo<i kol ttoXv- 
reXeiav, 'Xpvcrov piev rod aKrjpdrov Trdaav, 
a(f)payLaL 8e Kal \i6oL<; ttolklKol'^ KaraKeKoapLrj- 
/jL€vr)v, ^ovacjv fiera^v Kal 'AttoWwi/o? Kal 
^Op(p6(t)<i ivreropvevpuevwv, Oavpua pieya roU 
9 'Evrel 8' ovv irore Kal r)K€v rj rov dyS)VO<i r/piipa, 
Tyoet? pL€v rjaav, eXa^^v Be pLeao<; avrcov 6 F^vdj- 
7eXo9 aheiv Kal puerd ^eainv rov (&r]/3atov ov 
<PavXco'i dycoviadpLevov el(jep')(eTai 6Xo<; irepiXapL- 
7r6pL€vo^ tS) ')(^pva(p Kal rol^ apbapdyhoL^ Kal 
^rjpvXXoi-<; Kal vaKivOoL^' Kal rj Trop^vpa Be ive- 
TTpeire r?}? iaOrJTO^, fj pLera^v rov xp^^^^ Siecpau- 
vero. TOVTOL<i drraat it poeKTTXrj^a^ to dearpov 
Kal OavpLacTTTjii eXiriho^ €pL7rX7]o-a<; tou9 Oeard^;, 
CTTeiBt] irore Kal aaau Kal KLOapiaau 7rdvT(o<; eBei, 
dvaKpoverat pL€V dvdppLoarov ri Kal dauvraKTOv, 
dTTOppyjyvvat Be rpeU dpLa %o/o5a9 acjyoBporepov 
Tov BeovTO^ epiTreaoDv rfj Kiddpa, aBeiv Be dpx^Tai 
aTTopLOuaov tl Kal Xerrrrov, ware yeXcora piev irapd 
irdvTcov yeveaOat rcov Oearcov, tou? ddXoOera^ Bk 
dyavaKTTjaavTa^i enrl rfj roXpLy pLaarcycoaavTafi 
avTov eK^aXelv tov Oedrpov oreirep Kal yeXoLo- 



he was not well endowed by nature either for 
strength or for speed ; but in playing the lyre and 
singing he became convinced that he would win 
easily, thanks to detestable fellows whom he had 
about him, who applauded and shouted whenever he 
made the slightest sound in striking up. So he came 
to Delphi resplendent in every way ; in particular, 
he had provided himself with a gold-embroidered 
robe and a very beautiful laurel-wreath of gold, 
which for berries had emeralds as large as berries. 
The lyre itself was something extraordinary for 
beauty and costliness, all of pure gold, ornamented 
with graven gems and many-coloured jewels, with 
the Muses and Apollo and Orpheus represented 
upon it in relief — a great marvel to all who saw it.^ 

When the day of the competition at last came, 
there were three of them, and Evangelus drew 
second place on the programme. So, after Thespis 
of Thebes had made a good showing, he came in all 
ablaze with gold and emeralds and beryls and sap- 
phires. The purple of his robe also became him 
well, gleaming beside the gold. With all this he 
bedazzled the audience in advance and filled his 
hearers with wonderful expectations ; but when at 
length he had to sing and play whether he would or 
no, he struck up a discordant, jarring prelude, break- 
ing three strings at once by coming down upon the 
lyre harder than he ought, and began to sing in an 
unmusical, thin voice, so that a burst of laughter 
came from the whole audience, and the judges of the 
competition, indignant at his presumption, scourged 
him and turned him out of the theatre. Then indeed 

^ Compare the version of this story given in the Rhetorica 
ad Hereiinium 4, 47. 



rarof; oj(f)Or) BaKpvoyv 6 y^pvaoi)'^ JLvdyyeXo^ koI 
VTTO rb)V iiiaarLjo<p6p(ov avpofievo'^ Bia /niarjf; rrjf; 
aKr)V7](; kclI ra o-KeXr) KaOr)/jLaro)/jLevo<; e'/c roou 
/laaTiycov kol avWiycov 'xajxaOev t?}? Kt0dpa<^ 
Ta? acjipaylSa^;' i^eTreTrrcoKeaav yap KaKeivq^ 
(TV/jb/j.aaTiyovfxevrjf; avrw. 

10 i^liKpov Be iirLa^cov fxer avrov Eu/i'^Xo? ri? 
^H\eLo<; elaepx^rai, KiOdpav fxev iraXaLav €)(^(ov, 
^vXlvov^ he KoXXoTraf; iTriKei/jLeprjv, ecrdrjTa Be 
fjLoyi^ avv Tft) aT€(f)dvq) Bexa Bpa')^/jLO)v d^lav 
dXX' ouTo? ye aaa<i Be^i(o<; Koi Kidapiaa^ Kara 
TOP vofiov rrj^ '^^X^^'^ eKpdrei Kol dveKrjpvrreTO 
KOI rov EvayyiXov KareyeXa fidrrjv ifiTroinrev- 
aavro^ rfj KiOdpa /cat rat? crcppaylcriv eKeLvaL<;. 
Kol elirelv ye Xeyerat tt/jo? avrov **'n EvdyyeXe, 
(TV fxev xpvarjv Bd<j)vr}v TrepiKeiaai, irXovret^; yap, 
eyco Be o 7r€vr)<; rrjv AeX<pLK7]v. ttXtjv tovto ye 
fxovov oovrjao rrj<; aKevi]<;, on fiijBe iXeovfM€vo<; eirl 
rfj iJTTrj aTrepxij, dXXa fjutaov/ievo^ Trpoaen Bca 
rrjv dre-y^vov aov ravTrjv rpvcjiijv" Trepl iroBa Brj 
&0L Kal Kvdyy€Xo<; ovro^, nap oaov aoi ye ovK 
oXiyov fxeXei rov yeXo)To<i rcov Oearcjv. 

11 Ov/c aKaipov S' av yevoiro Kal Aea^iov /jlvOov 
TLva Bn)yy]aaa6aL aoi irdXai yevofievov. ore top 
'Op^ea Bteairdaavjo al Sparrai, (paal rrjv 
Ks^haXi^v avrov avv rfj Xvpa eh rov '^R^pov e/n- 
rrecrovaav €K/3XrjdP]vai. et? rov fieXava koXttov, 
Kal eirLirXeXv ye rrjv KecpaXrjv rfj Xvpa, rrjv fiev 
aBovaav OpPjvov riva errrl r& ^Opcpel, ft)? X6yo<;,^ 

^ 'Op<pe7, ws \6yos P : 'Opc^xicf \6ytf> other MSS. Eekker's 
conjecture 'Opcpd^ jxoptf is anticipated rather than confirmed 
by a correction in ■*■. 



that precious simpleton ^ Evangelus cut a comical 
figure with his tears as he was chivvied across the 
stage by the scourgers, his legs all bloody from their 
whips, gathering up the gems of the lyre — for they 
had dropped out when it shared his flogging. 

After a moment's delay, a man named Eumelus, 
from Elis, came on, who had an old lyre, fitted with 
wooden pegs, and a costume that, including the 
wreath, was hardly worth ten drachmas ; but as he 
sang well and played skilfully, he had the best of it 
and was proclaimed victor, so that he could laugii at 
Evangelus for the empty display that he had made 
with his lyre and his gems. Indeed, the story goes 
that he said to him : " Evangelus, you wear golden 
laurel, being rich ; but I am poor and I wear the 
laurel of Delphi ! However, you got at least this 
much by your outfit : you are going away not only 
unpitied for your defeat but hated into the bargain 
because of this inartistic lavishness of yours." There 
you have your own living image in Evangelus, except 
that you are not at all put out by the laughter of 
the audience. 

It would not be out of place to tell you another 
story about something that happened in Lesbos 
long ago. They say that when the women of Thrace 
tore Orpheus to pieces, his head and his lyre fell 
into the Hebrus, and were carried out into the 
Aegean Sea ; and that the head floated along on the 
lyre, singing a dirge (so the story goes) over Orpheus, 

^ The word xp^^^o^^i applied to a person, means "simple- 
ton " {Lapstis 1). Here, of course, it also has a punning turn. 



T^z^ \vpav he avTr}v v-Trr]')^elv tcov avifjicov i/jLTmr- 
rovTwv rat? ')(opBal<;, koI ovtco fier coSt)? irpoa- 
evex^V^cti rfj AecrySft), KaKeivov<i aveXofievov^ 
TTjv fxev K6(f>a\r)p KaraOdyjraL 'ivairep vvv to 
^aK^^lov auTOt? i(7TLy TTjv \vpav he avaOelvai et? 
Tov 'AttoXXcdi^o? to lepov, kol iirl ttoXv ye o'O)- 
1 2 ^eaOai avTr)v, xpovw he vGTepov ^eavOov tov tov 
HiTTaKOv tov Tvpdvvov TavTa virep t^9 Xvpa<; 
TTwOavoixevov, 009 eKrjXeL jiev Orjpia kol (jiVTa kol 
\i6ov^, ejjL€\a)heL he fcal fieTa Trjv tov 'Oyo^eo)? 
avfjL(f>opav firjhevo^ clttto fievov , eh ^ epcoTa tov kti]- 
fiUTO^ ejJLTreaelv /col hiacpdelpavTa tov lepea fie- 
yd\oL<; XP^f^^^'' TrelaaL viroOevTa eTepav ofioiav 
Xvpav hovvai avTw Trjv tov ^Op(f)eco<;. XajBovTa he 
fie6' r)/jLepav fiev iv ttj iroXei ^PV^^^^ ^^f^ d(T^aXe<^ 
oiecrdaL elvai, vv/CTcop he viro koXttov e^ovTa fio- 
vov irpoeXOelv eh to TrpodaTeiov kol Trpox^ipicrd- 
fjLevov Kpoveiv koI avvTapdTTeiv tcl^ x^pha'; 
aTe^^ov KOL d/jLovaov veavlaKov, eXTrl^ovTa /jieXr] 
TLvd Oeairecna vTrrj^^jaeiv ttjv Xvpav uc^' cjv 
irdvTa^ KaTaOeX^eiv koX KrjXrjcreiv, fcal oXo)? 
fia/cdpiov eaeo-Oai KXrjpovofi7]aavTa tt}? '0/3<^€a)9 
/jLOV(TiKrj(;' axpi hrj avveXdovTa^i tol'9 Kuva^; 7rp09 
TOV rjx^^ — TToXXol he rjaav avTodi — hiaairdaa- 
aOat avTov, 0)9 tovto yovv ofioiov tw ^Op(f)el iraOelv 
KOL fxovovf; e(p' eavTov avyKaXeaai tol'9 Kvva^. 
oTeirep koI aa(f)ecrTaTa M(j)6r] &)9 ov^ V X^/o<^ V^ 
deXyovaa yv, dXXa rj Te^v^ '^cu> V ^hrj, a fiova 
i^aipeTa tw ^Opcpec irapd Trj<i firjTpo^ VTrrjpxev* 
rj Xvpa he dXXco<i KTrj/jia rjv, ovhev dfieivov tS)v 
dXXcov /Sap^LToyv. 

1 €i'$ Cobet : irphs MSS. 
« il Halm : not in MSS. 


while the lyre itself gave out sweet sounds as the 
winds struck the strings. In that manner they came 
ashore at Lesbos to the sound of music, and the 
people there took them up, burying the head where 
their temple of Dionysus now stands and hanging 
up the lyre in the temple of Apollo, where it was 
long preserved. In after time, however, Neanthus, 
the son of Pittacus the tyrant, heard how the lyre 
charmed animals and plants and stones, and made 
music even after the death of Orpheus without any- 
one's touching it ; so he fell in love with the thing, 
tampered with the priest, and by means of a generous 
bribe prevailed upon him to substitute another similar 
lyre, and give him the one of Orpheus. After 
securing it, he did not think it safe to play it in the 
city by day, but went out into the suburbs at night 
with it under his cloak, and then, taking it in hand, 
struckand jangled the strings, untrained and unmusical 
lad that he was, expecting that under his touch the 
lyre would make wonderful music with which he 
could charm and enchant everybody, and indeed that 
he would become immortal, inheriting the musical 
genius of Orpheus. At length the dogs (there were 
many of them there), brought together by the noise, 
tore him to pieces ; so his fate, at least, was like 
that of Orpheus, and only the dogs answered his 
call. By that it became very apparent that it was 
not the lyre which had wrought the spell, but the 
skill and the singing of Orpheus, the only distinctive 
gifts that he had from his mother ; while the lyre 
was just a piece of property, no better than any 
other stringed instrument. 



13 Kal Tt (JOL Tov ^Op(f)ea rj rov ^eavdov Xeyco, 
OTTOV Koi Kad^ 7)1X0.'; avTOv<i iyevero ri<; koI en 
iaTLV, olfxat, 09 tov ^FaTTlkt^jtov \v)(yov tov 
Xtcolkov /c€pa/jL€ovv ovTa TpL(j')(^iXiwv Spax/^ojp 
iirpiaTo; r^Xiri^^ev yap ol/jbai KUKelvo^, el tmv 
vvKTwv viT^ eKeiv(p toj \v')(y(p avayiyvooGKOi, 
avTiKa pLoXa koi ttjv ^EiiTLKTrjTOv ao(f)iav ovap 
eTTLKTrjcreaOaL^ kol 6p.oio<; eaeaOac tw Oavp^aaTw 

14 eKeivw yepovTi. yOe^ ^e koX irpwr^v aWo<; rt? ttjv 

TlpCOT€0)<; TOV K.VVIKOV ^UKT^jplaV, Tjlf /cuTaOi- 

/jL€po<; }]\aTo eh to irvp, toXcIvtov KaKelvo^ 
eirpiaTO, koX €%et fiev to Kei/n^Xcov tovto kol 
BeiKvvaiv o)? TeyeaTai tov KaXvBcoviov uo?^ to 
Seppa Koi Srj^aloL to, oaTa tov Tijpvovov koi 
Me/x0iTat T?}? "Icr^8o9 tou? TrXoKap^ov^;' avTO<; he 6 
TOV OavpbacTTov KT^jpuaTO^; ^eo-Trorr;? Kal avTov ae 
Ty airaLhevaia Kal ^SeXvpla vrreprjKovTLaev. 6pa<; 
oirco^i KaKoBaipLovoif; hiaKeLTai, PaKT7]pia<; eU ttjv 
Ke<t>a\T]V ot)9 a\rjOa)<; he6pL€vo<^. 

15 AeyeTaL Be Kal Aiovvaiov TpaywSlav iroLelv 
^auXo)? Trdvv Kal ye\oico<;, wcrre tov ^iXo^evov 
7roXXa/ct9 Bl avTrjv €t9 Ta9 XaTopia^ epLireaelv ov 
BvvcipLevov KaTe^^iv tov yeXcoTa. ovto<^ to'lvvv 
TTvOopLcvof; 0)9 iyyeXcLTut, to Alaj^vXov ttv^lov eh 
o eKelvo<; eypa(f>e avv iroXXrj aTrovBfj KTrjadpuevof; 
Kal ctt'T09^ wero evOeo^ eaeadai Kal KaToxo^ eK 
TOV iTv^iov aXX* oyLt&)9 ev avTW eKeivcp p,aKpa> 
yeXoLOTepa eypacpev, olov KUKelvo to* 

Aft)yoi9 TeOvrjKev^ rj Acovvcrlov yvv^» 

^ iTTiKT-lia-fadai Roeper : eVto-TTjo-eo-flot MSS. 
2 {,hs Cobet : not in MSS. 
^ KOI avrhs Jacobs : aiirb MSS. 

* Awpls ridvriKiv C. F. Hermann : AwpiK6v' ^Kiv MSS. 


But why do I talk to you of Orpheus and Nean- 
thus, when even in our own time there w^as and still 
is, I think, a man who paid three thousand drachmas 
for the earthenware lamp of Epictetus the Stoic? 
He thought, I suppose, that if he should read by 
that lamp at night, he would forthwith acquire the 
wisdom of Epictetus in his dreams and would be just 
like that marvellous old man. And only a day or 
two ago another man paid a talent for the staff which 
Proteus the Cynic laid aside before leaping into the 
fire ; ^ and he keeps this treasure and displays it just 
as the Tegeans do the skin of the Calydonian boar, 
the Thebans the bones of Geryon, and the Mem- 
phites the tresses of Isis. Yet the original owner 
of this marvellous possession surpassed even you 
yourself in ignorance and indecency. You see what 
a wretched state the collector is in : in all conscience 
he needs a staff — on his pate. 

They say that Dionysius ^ used to write tragedy in 
a very feeble and ridiculous style, so that Philoxenus ^ 
was often thrown into the quarries on account of it, 
not being able to control his laughter. Well, when 
he discovered that he was being laughed at, he took 
great pains to procure the wax-tablets on which 
Aeschylus used to write, thinking that he too would 
be inspired and possessed with divine frenzy in virtue 
of the tablets. But for all that, what he wrote on 
those very tablets was far more ridiculous than what 
he had written before : for example, 

Doris, the wife of Dionysius, 
Is dead — 

^ Peregrinus ; nicknamed Proteus because he changed his 
faith so readily. Tlie story of his life and his voluntary 
death at Olympia is related in Lucian's Peregrinus. 

2 The Elder, Tyrant of Syracuse (431-3G7 B.C.). 

• A contemporary poet. 



Kcd irakLV 

otjjLOL, ^vvaiKa y^pr^aijMTjv aircoXeaa. 

Koi Tovro yap ix tov ttv^Iov, koX t6' 

avTolf; yap i/nrai^ovatv ol ficopol fipoTcov, 

TovTO fJL€V ye irpo^ ere fiaXLara evarro'x^co'^ av 
elprjixevov etrj t& Aiovv(tlw, koI Sl avrb ^pucraio-at 

16 avrov eSei eKelvo to rrv^iov. riva yap iXiriha 
Kal auTo? e%a)j' et9 ^ to, /Si^Xla /cal dvaTv\lTT6i<; 
ael Kal BLaKoX\.a<; Kal irepiKOTrrei'; Kal a\et0€t9 
T&> KpoKW Kal ry KeSpcp Kal Bicpdepaf; 7r6pt,l3dWeL<; 
Kal 6fKJ)aXov<; evridrj^, o)? Br] n diroXavcrwv av- 
TOiv ; Trdvv yovv rjBr) ^eXricov yeyevqaai Bia rrjv 
wvrjv, 09 roiavra jxev (pOiyyrj — jjloXXov Be to)v 
l^Ovcov d^wvoTepo^ el — piol<^ Be o)? ovB^ elnrelv 
KaXov, fitao^ Be dypiov, (f)acrl, irapd iravroDv e^ec'^ 
iirl rfi ^BeXvpla' o)? el tocovtov^ direipyd^eTo rd 
^L^Xia, (f>vyfj (^evKreov av r)v on Troppcordrco 

1 7 an avToyv. Bvolv Be ovtolv arr' av irapd rSiv 
iraXaLOiV Ti<i Krijaairo, Xeyeiv re BifvaaOai Kal 
Trpdrreiv rd Beovra ^rjXw rcov dpLcrrcov Kal (fiuyrj 
Tcjv ')(eLp6v(jdV, orav pL-qre CKelva fiijre ravra cfyai- 
vrjral tl<; Trap* avrcdv a}(f)eXov/jL€vo<;, ri dXXo rj 
TOt? fival BuarpL^d^ oovelrai Kal rac^ TiX<^aL<; 
olK7]crei<; Kal irXrjyd^ o)? dfJLeXovai rol<; OLKeraL^ ; 

18 Tla)<i Be ov KaKelvo alcrxpov, et Tt<; ev rfj X^^P*- 
e^ovrd ere fii/SXlov IBwv — del Be ti Trai^ro)? exea 

* <^uA.aTT>€iJ? A.M.H. 

^ The few extant fragments of Dionysius' plays are given 
by Nauck, Trag. Graec. Fragm. pp. 793-796. Tzetzes 



and again, 

Alackaday, a right good wife I've lost ! 
— for that came from the tablet ; and so did this : 
'Tis of themselves alone that fools make sport.^ 

The last line Dionysius might have addressed to 
you with especial fitness, and those tablets of his 
should have been gilded for it. For what expecta- 
tion do you base upon your books that you are 
always unrolling them and rolling them up, glueing 
them, trimming them, smearing them with saffron and 
oil of cedar, putting slip-covers on them, and fitting 
them with knobs, just as if you were going to derive 
some profit from them ? Ah yes, already you have 
been improved beyond measure by their purchase, 
when you talk as you do — but no, you are more dumb 
than any fish ! — and live in a way that cannot even 
be mentioned with decency, and have incurred every- 
body's savage hatred, as the phrase goes, for your 
beastliness ! If books made men like that, they 
ought to be given as wide a berth as possible. Two 
things can be acquired from the ancients, the ability 
to speak and to act as one ought, by emulating the 
best models and shunning the worst ; and when a 
man clearly fails to benefit from them either in the 
one way or in the other, what else is he doing but 
buying haunts for mice and lodgings for worms, and 
excuses to thrash his servants for negligence? 

Furthermore, would it not be discreditable if some- 
one, on seeing you with a book in your hand (you always 

{Chil. 5, 180) says that he repeatedly took second and third 
place in the competitions at Athens, and first with the 
Ransom of Hector. Amusing examples of his frigidity are 
given by Athenaeus (iii. p. 98 d). 



— epoLTo ovTivo<; r) p7]Topo<; rj (Tvyypa(f>eo)<; rj 
iroLTjTov iart, av Be ifc t?}? iiriypaipr]^ elBax; 
iTpaw^ eLTTOL^ TOVTO >y€' elra, co9 (/)tXet ra Toiavra 
ev avvovala 7rpo)(o)p6LV el<; fJirjKO<i Xoycov, 6 fiev 
iiraivol ri r) alriwro tcov iyyeypa/jup^evcov, av Be 
diropoLrjf; kol fxrjhev e-xpi^ elirelv; ovk eu^r} rore 
'X^avelv aoi rrjv yrjv, Kara aeavrov 6 BeX-Xepo- 

(pOVTf]^ 7r6pL(f)6pQ)V TO ^L^XlOV ,' 

19 Ar}/ji7]TpLo^ Be 6 K.vvLKo<; IBcov ev }^opiv6(p airai- 
BevTov riva ffi^Xiov KaWiarov avayiyvaxTKOVTa 
— Ta9 BaA:;^a9 olfiai, tov ^vpLiriBov, Kara rov 
ayyeXov Be rjv rov Birjyov/jLevov ra rov IlevOea}<; 
irdOr) Kal ro rfj<i ^Ayavrj^; epyov — dpirdcra'^ Bie- 
(TTraaev avro elTTcov, "^Afieivov eari rw UevOel 
dira^ (TTrapa'^drjvat, vii epLOv rj viro aou iroX- 

Zrjrayv Be del tt/jo? ifxavrov ovttco Kal rrj/jLcpov 
evpelv BeBvvrjixai rivo<; eveKa rrjv (TTrovBrjv ravrrjv 
iairovBaKa^ nrepl rr)v a)vr)v rwv /Si/SXicov w<^e- 
Xeia<^ fjbev yap t) ')(^peLa<; r/}? dir avrcov ovB* dv 
olrjOeir] rL<; royv Kal eir eXd-)(^Lar6v ere elBorcov, ov 
fidXXov rj (f)aXaKpo<; dv ri<; irpiairo Kreva<i rj 
KdroTTTpov 6 rv(j)X6<; rj 6 /ca)</)09 avXrjrrjv rj nraX- 
XaKrjv 6 €vvoux,o<i rj 6 r)iTeip(t)rrj<; KMirrjv rj 6 
KvS€pV7]T7](; dporpov. dXXd fir) iTrlBei^LV irXov- 
rov aoi TO Trpdyfia e^ei Kal ^ovXei rovro efxt^ij- 
vai diraatv, on Kal eh rd /jurjBev aot 'X^prjaLjxa 
oyu-o)? eK 7roXXrj<i rr}? Trepiovata^; dvaXlcrKetf;; Kal 
fxr]v oaa ye Kd/ie Xvpov ovra elBevai, el fir) aav- 

^ The letter that Bellerophon carried to the King of Lycia 
contained a request that he be put to death : Iliad 6, 155-195. 



have one, no matter what), should ask what orator 
or historian or poet it was by, and you, knowing from 
the title, should easily answer that question ; and if 
then — for such topics often spin themselves out to 
some length in conversation — he should either com- 
mend or criticise something in its contents, and you 
should be at a loss and have nothing to say ? Would 
you not then pray for the earth to open and swallow 
you for getting yourself into trouble like Bellerophon 
by carrying your book about ? ^ 

When Demetrius, the Cynic, while in Corinth, saw 
an ignorant fellow reading a beautiful book (it was 
the Bacchae of Euripides, I dare say, and he was at 
the place where the messenger reports the fate of 
Pentheus and the deed of Agave),^ he snatched it 
away and tore it up, saying : " It is better for 
Pentheus to be torn to tatters by me once for all 
than by you repeatedly." 

Though I am continually asking myself the 
question, I have never yet been able to discover why 
you have shown so much zeal in the purchase of 
books. Nobody who knows you in the least would 
think that you do it on account of their helpfulness 
or use, any more than a bald man would buy a comb, 
or a bhnd man a mirror, or a deaf-mute a flute-player, 
or an eunuch a concubine, or a landsman an oar, or a 
seaman a plough. But perhaps you regard the matter 
as a display of wealth and wish to show everyone 
that out of your vast surplus you spend money even 
for things of no use to you ? Come now, as far as I 
know — and I too am a Syrian ^ — if you had not 

2 1041 ff. 

' The implication is : ** And therefore ought to know about 
your circumstances, if anyone knows." 



rov <f)€p(ov TaL<; rov yipovrof; i/ceivov hiaOrjKai'^ 
7rapev6ypayjra<;, ttTrwXcoXe^? av viro Xl/xov rjSr) koX 

20 ayopav TrpovriOeL^ tmv ^ifiXicov. Xoiirov ovv Brj 
eKslvo, TreTreKT/jievov vtto t(ov koXcikcov &>? ov 
fjLovov Ka\o<; el koI ipda/jLio^ aWa ao(j)o<; kul 
prjTwp Kal (Tvyypacpeij^; 0I09 ovB^ erepo^, wveladaL 
ra ^iPXla, q)<; a\7]6evoi,<; tou? erraivov^ avrwv. 
^aal he ae Kal \6yov<; eTnSeiKvva-Oat avroL<; 
eVl heiiTV(p Kaiceivov<; xepaaicov ^arpd-^cov Slktjv 
hiy^cavTa^ KeKpayevai, rj fiy iriveLv, rjv /mt] Biap- 
paySyai /3oa)PTe<;. 

Kal yap ovk oIS* 07r&)9 paaro<; e2 tt)? pivo^; eX- 
KecrOai, fcal TnareveLf; avTol<^ dwavra, 09 irore 
KOLKeLVO eTTeiaOr}^, o)^ ^acrtXel tlvl ooixoL(ii6r]<; rrjv 
oyJTLV, KaOdirep 6 yjrevSaXe^avBpof; Kal 6 ^ ^jr€vBo' 
(piXLTTTTOfi eKelvo<; Kva<pev^ Kal 6 Kara rov<; irpo- 
irdropa^ tj/jlcov 'yjrevBovepcov Kal et tc<; dXXo<^ rSyv 

21 viro T(p ylrevBo^ rerayfiev(ov. Kal ri Oav/iaarov 
el TOVTO e'jra6e<i, dvorjTO^ Kal diraiBevro^ dvOpw- 
7ro<;, Kal TrpojjeKi e^vTrrid^cov Kal fjLL/iov/jL€vo<; 
^dBiafia Kal a')(rjp,a Kal ^Xefi/jua eKeivov cS aeav- 
rov eiKd^cov e)(^atpe<;, oirov Kal Uvppov ^aal rov 
^HTreipcoTTjv, rd dXXa davfiaaTov dvBpa, ovt(i)<; 
viTo KoXaKwv eirl rw o/jLOlo) irore Si,a(f>6aprjvai 009 
TTLcneveiv on o/jlolo^ r)v ^ AXe^dvBpco eKeivw; Kai- 


^ d Herwerden : not in MSS. 

' T9J y^evSo Sommerbrodt : rh \p€vdos MSS. 

' fXOVfflKWV TOl 



smuggled yourself into that old man's will with all 
speed, you would be starving to death by now, and 
would be putting up your books at auction ! The 
only remaining reason is that you have been con- 
vinced by your toadies that you are not only hand- 
some and charming but a scholar and an orator and 
a writer without peer, and you buy the books to 
prove their praises true. They say that you hold 
forth to them at dinner, and that they, like stranded 
frogs, make a clamour because they are thirsty, or 
else they get nothing to drink if they do not burst 
themselves shouting. 

To be sure, you are somehow very easy to lead by 
the nose, and believe them in everything ; for once 
you were even persuaded that you resembled a 
certain royal person in looks, like the false Alex- 
ander, the false Philip (the fuller), the false Nero in 
our grandfathers' time, and whoever else has been 
put down under the title " false." ^ And what 
wonder that you, a silly, ignorant fellow, were thus 
imposed upon and appeared in public holding your 
head high and imitating the gait and dress and 
glance of the man whom you delighted to make 
yourself resemble ? Even Pyrrhus of Epirus, a mar- 
vellous man in other ways, was once, they say, so 
spoiled by toadies after the self-same fashion that he 
believed he was like the famous Alexander. Yet (to 
borrow a phrase from the musicians) the discrepancy 

^ Balas, in the second centur}'^ B.C., claimed to be the 
brother of Antiochus V. Eupator on account of a strong 
resemblance in looks, and took the name of Alexander. At 
about the same time, after the defeat of Perses, Andriscus of 
Adramyttium, a fuller, claimed the name of Philip. The 
false Nero cropped up some twenty years after Nero's death, 
and probably in the East, as he had strong support from 
the Parthians, who refused to surrender him to Rome. 



nrpayfjLa rjv elhov yap koI ttjv tov Uvppov eifcova' 
Koi 6/jL(o<; €7r67r€L(TT0 iKiJL6fjLd')(6aL TOV ^ AXe^dvhpov 
rrjv fxop^rjv. aXX eveKa /juev Brj rovrwv v^piarai 
fioL eU TOV Uvppov, oTi a 6 eiKaaa kutcl tovto 
avT(p' TO Be airo tovtov koi irdvv crov Trpeirov av 
etrj. eVel yap ovtco Bt€K€LTO 6 Uvppov Kal TavTa 
virep eavTov eVeVetcrTO, ovBel^ 6aTL<; ov avveTi- 
OsTO fcal (Tvve'Tra(T')(ev avTw, ci)(pt Bij rt? iv 
Aapiarj irpea^VTi^; ^evr] avTw ToXr^de^ elirovcra 
eiravaev avTov r?}? Kopv^r]<;. 6 /lev yap Uvppo^; 
CTTiSetfa? avTTJ eiKova ^lXlttttov kol UepBuKKov 
Kal ^ AXe^dvBpov Kal K.aaadvBpov Kal dWcov 
I3aai\ia)v rjpcTo tIvl OfjLoio^ eh], irdvv rreTreiajULe- 
vo<; eVl TOV 'AXi^avBpov rj^eiv avTrjv, rj Be ttoXvv 
Xpovov eTTia^ovaa, ** ^aTpa-x^lcovi,^^ ecfyr), " tm 
fxayeipw'^^ Kal yap rjv rt? iv ttj Aapiar) BaTpa- 
^twz^ fjidyeipo<i tw Yivppcp 6fioio<;. 
22 Kal crv Brj wtlvl fiev tcov tol<; 6p)(^rj(TTa2<; 
avvovTcov KivaiBwv eoLKa<; ovk av etirotfJiL, otl Be 
fxaviav eppcofjuevriv €tl Kal vvv fiaiveaOaL BoKet^ 
diraciv eir eKelvrj ttj eiKovi, irdw aa(f)a)<; olBa. 
ovKovv davfjiacTTov, el diriOavo'^ outo)? ^(oypd(j)o<; 
oiv Kal TOL<i TrenaiBevfievoL^ i^ofioiovadac iOeXei^;, 
TTicTTevcDV Tot? TO, ToiavTd a€ eiraivovai. 

KaLToi TL^ TavTa X-yjpco; TrpoBrjXo^; yap tj aWia 
T^9 Trepl TO, pL^Xia aTTOvBrj^, el Kal viro vwdeLa<^ 
eyoi fXT] irdXaL KaTelBov ao^ov ydp, oo? yovv oiei, 
TOVT e7nvev67]Ka<i Kal eXTrtSa? ov fjuiKpa^; e^ei^; 
irepl TOV irpdyfxaTO^, el ^aaCXev'^ fidOou raura 
0-0(^0^ dvrjp Kal TraiBelav jxdXiaTa Tip^cov el Be 
TavTa inrep crov eKelvo<; aKova-eiev, to? wvfj ^i^Xia 
^ Kairoi ri Fritzsche : Kal grt (/cai rl) MSS. 


was a matter of two octaves ; for I have seen the 
portrait of Pyrrhus. But in spite of that he had 
acquired the conviction that he was a perfect replica 
of Alexander's beauty. To be sure, I have been un- 
complimentary to Pyrrhus in comparing you with him 
in this matter, but what followed would be quite in 
character with you. When Pyrrhus was in this state 
of mind and had this conviction about himself, every- 
one without exception concurred with him and 
humoured him until an old foreign woman in Larissa 
told him the truth and cured him of drivelling. 
Pyrrhus showed her portraits of Philip, Perdiccas, 
Alexander, Cassander and other kings, and asked her 
whom he resembled, quite certain that she would fix 
upon Alexander ; but, after delaying a good while, 
she said, " Batrachion, the cook " : and as a matter 
of fact there was in Larissa a cook called Batrachion 
who resembled Pyrrhus. 

As for you, I cannot say which of the profligates 
that hang about the actors in the pantomimes you 
resemble ; I do know very well, however, that 
everyone thinks you are still downright daft over 
that likeness. It is no wonder, then, since you are 
such a failure at likenesses, that you want to make 
yourself resemble men of learning, believing those 
who praise you so. 

But why do I talk beside the point ? The reason 
for your craze about books is patent, even if I in my 
blindness failed to see it long ago. It is a bright 
idea on your part (you think so, anyhow), and you 
base no slight expectations upon the thing in case 
the emperor, who is a scholar and holds learning 
in especial esteem, should find out about it ; if he 
should hear that you are buying books and making 



Kal (Tvvdyeif; TroWd, irdvTa iv ^pa'xel irap ah- 
23 Tov eaeadal aoL vofil^eL^. aXV, w Kardirvyov, 
otei ToaovTov /xavBpayopav KaTaK€\va6ai avrov 
o)? ravra fiev uKOveiv, eKelva he /nr) elhevai, olo^; 
fiev (TOV 6 fieO^ r)/ii€pav ySto?, oloi Si aoi ttotoi, 
OTTolaL Be vvKre^ kol o7ot<; Kal rfXiKOi^ avyKaOev- 
Bei<;; ovk olaOa co? cora kol ocpdaXpol ttoWol 
^aaiXecof;; ra Be ad ovrco irepicjiavrj iariv 009 kol 
ru(f)\oL<; elvai /cal K(0(f>OL<; yvcopi/xa' el yap xal 
(j>Oey^aio pbovov, el yap Kal \ov6fievo<; diroBvaaLo, 
fidWov Be /jLT) aTToBvo-rj, el BoKet, ol S' olKerai 
jjLovov Tjv diToBvacovrai aov, ri otei; /jlt) avriKa 
eaeadai irdvra aov TrpoBrjXa ra rr)<; vvkt6<; dirop- 
pijra; elire yovv fxoi Kal roBe, el Batrcro? o v/xe- 
T€po<; €Keivo<^ ao(f)i(TTT]<; rj BdTaXo<i 6 av\r)TT)<s 
Tj 6 KivaiBo^ 'HpiOewv 6 Xv^apirrjf;, 0? toi)? 
6avpaarov<i vfilv v6fxov<; avveypa-y^rev, to? ^/3^ 
XeaiveaOaL ^ Kal irapariWeaOaL Kal 7rda')(^eiv Kal 
iroielv eKelva, — el tovtwv rt? vvvl Xeovrrjv Trept- 
^aX6/j,evo<; Kal poiraXov excov ffaBl^ot, rl otet 
(jiavelaOac ^ tol<; opcbaiv; 'HpaKXea elvau avrov; 
OVK, ei ye /jltj ')(VTpai<i Xr)/x(x)VT€<; Tvy')(^dvoLev. 
fjLVpia ydp earc ra dvrifxaprvpovvra r<p a-)(r)parL, 
^dBiapa Kal ^Xefipa Kal (fxovr) Kal rpd')(7)Xo^ 
iiTLKeKXaapbevo^ Kal \jn/jLvOcov Kal jiaarl'yi-i Kal 
(f)VKO<;, ot? vfxel^ KoafielaOe, Kal 6Xco<; Kara rrjv 
rrapoipiav, ddrrov dv irivre eXecpavra^; vtto fjLdX7]<; 
Kpvyjreia<; 7) eva KivatBov. elra 77 Xeovrrj fiev rov 
TOtovrov OVK dv cKpvyjrev, av 8' otet, Xtjaeiv 

^ Xfalveaeai Markland : fxaivecrOa. MSS. 
* <pat'fia-dat Cobet : <paiv€a6ai MSS. 



a large collection, you think you will soon get all you 
want from him. But do you suppose, you rotter, 
that he is so steeped in mandragora as to hear that 
and yet not know how you pass your time during the 
day, what your drinking bouts are like, how you 
spend your nights, and in whose company ? Do not 
you know that a monarch has many eyes and ears ? 
And your doings are so conspicuous that even the 
blind and the deaf may know of them ; for if you 
but speak, if you but bathe in public — or, if you 
choose, don't even do that — if your servants but 
bathe in public, do you not think that all your 
nocturnal arcana will be known at once? Answer 
me this question : if Bassus, that literary man who 
belonged to your following, or Battalus the flute- 
player, or the cinaedus Hemitheon of Sybaris, 
who wrote those wonderful regulations for you, 
which say that you must use cosmetics and depila- 
tories and so forth — if one of those fellows should 
to-day walk about with a lion's skin on his back and 
a club in his hand, what do you suppose those who 
saw him would think ? That he was Heracles ? Not 
unless they were gravel-blind ; for there are a 
thousand things in their appearance that would give 
the lie to their costume ; the gait, the glance, the 
voice, the thin neck, the white lead and mastich and 
rouge that you beautify yourselves with ; in short, to 
quote the proverb, it would be easier to conceal five 
elephants under your arm than a single cinaedus. 
Then if the lion's skin would not have hidden such 
as they, do you suppose that you will be undetected 



<7K€7r6fi€vo<; ^i/SXlm; a\X ov hvvarov irpohdxTet 
lydp ere /cal aTroKoXvyfrei ra aXXa v/ncov yvcopi- 

24 To 3' oXov ayvoelv /loi SokcU otl Ta<; dyada<; 
iX7rl8a<; ov irapa tmv /St^XtoKaTryXcjv Set ^ijrelp, 
dXXd Trap* avrov koX tov kuO^ rj/juepav fiiov 
XafJL^dveiv. (tv S' o'iei avvjjyopov kolvov koI 
fidpTVpa eaeadai aoi tov ^Attlkov kol Y.aXXlvov 
rov<; ^ipXioypd(^ov<;; ovk, aXX* co/Ltou? Tiva<i 
dvOpaairov; iirLTpi^ovTd<i ae, rfv ol 6eol iOeXaxri, 
Kol 7rpo<; €<T')(^aTov nrevia'^ (TvveXda-ovTa<;' Beov eri, 
vvv awi^povrjcravTa dTvohoaOai, fiev rivi tmv ire- 
TraLBev/ievcov rd ^L^Xia ravra koX gvv avTol<; 
rr)v veoKTLdTOv ravrrjv oiKtav, diroBovvai Se TOL<i 
dvZ pair oho KairrjXoL^; /i€po<; yovv diro ttoXXcov rwv 


25 Kal yap KdKelvw irepl Svo ravra Seiv(t)<; icnrov- 
SaKa<;, /Si^Xlcov re rcov iroXvreXoiv KrrjdLV Kal 
fiecpaKLMv rcov i^copcov Kal 7]8rj Kaprepcov wvtjVj 
Kal ro TTpdyjJbd aoi irdvv airovBd^erac Kal drjpev- 
erai, dBvvarov Se Trevrjra ovra 7rpo<i dfMijxD Siap- 
K€LV. (TKorrei roivvv (w? lepov 'X^prj/ia o-v/jl^ovXi]. 
d^Lco ydp ere d^epLevov rcov /jurjBev irpoar^Kovrwv 
rr]v erepav voaov OepaireveLV Kal roix; V7rr}pera^ 
iKeivov<s covelaOai, ottco^ jjlt) iinXeLTTovrcdv ae rwv 
oiKo6ev pLeracrreXXoLo rLva<q rwv eXevOepwv, 0*9 
dKivhvvov direXOovaLV, tjv pLrj Xd^waiv airavra, 
i^ayopevcrai rd 'iTpa')(9evra vpZv puerd rov irorov, 
ola Kal iTp(£i7]v ata')(^Lara irepl aov hLrjyelro e^eX- 
Ocov 6 TTopvofy, ere Kal Srjypuara e'mheLKvv'^. dXX 
eycoye Kal pLdprvpa<; dv TrapaaxoiP'V^ rov^ rore 
rrapovra'; 0)9 yyavdKrrjaa Kal oXiyov TrXrjydf; 


behind a book ? Impossible : the other earmarks of 
your sort will betray and reveal you. 

You are completely unaware^ it seems to me, that 
good expectations are not to be sought from the 
booksellers but derived from one's self and one's 
daily life. Do you expect to find public advocates 
and character- witnesses in the scribes Atticus and 
Callinus ? No : you will find them heartless fellows, 
bent upon ruining you, if the gods so will it, and 
reducing you to the uttermost depths of poverty. 
Even now you ought to come to your senses, sell 
these books to some learned man, and your new 
house along with them, and then pay the slave 
dealers at least a part of the large sums you owe 

For mark this, you have had a tremendous passion 
for two things, the acquisition of expensive books 
and the purchase of well-grown, vigorous slaves, and 
you are showing great zeal and persistence in the 
thing ; but being poor, you cannot adequately 
manage both. See now what a precious thing 
advice is ! I urge you to drop what does not 
concern you, cultivate your other weakness, and 
buy those menials of yours, so that your household 
may not be depleted and you may not for that 
reason have to send out for free men, who, if they 
do not get all they want, can safely go away and 
tell what you do after your wine. For instance, only 
the other day a vile fellow told a most disgraceful 
story about you when he came away, and even 
showed marks. I can prove by those who were there 
at the time that I was indignant and came near 
giving him a thrashing in my anger on your behalf, 



eveTpLyJra avrw 'X^aXeiraivcov virep aov, koI fiakiaO^ 
ore /cal ciXXov eireKaXeaaTo /idprvpa rcov o/jlolcov 
Kol aWov ravra koX Xoyot^; Bi7jyovfjL€vov<;. tt/jo? 
St] ravra, coyaOe, ra/iLevov rapyvpiov fcal (f>v\arre, 
ft)9 o'lKoi Kal Kara rroW'qv aat^dXeuav ravra iroLelv 
Ka\ irda'X^eLV e^?;?. a>are fxev yap /jirjKiri ipyd- 
^ecrdai rl^ av ixeraireiaeLe are; ovhe yap kvwv 

26 dira^ iravaair av (JKvrorpayelv fiadovaa. ro S' 
erepov pahiov, ro firjKeri oiveladat /3i/3Xia. lKavo)<^ 
Treiraihevaai, dXi,<; aoi rrj(; o-ocfjla^;. /lovov ovk eV 
aKpov rev 'xeiXov^ e%€^? rd TraXaid irdvra. irdaav 
fiev laropiav olaOa, irdaa^ he Xoycov re^vcL^ teal 
KdXXr} avrcov fcal Ka/cia^ xal ovo/xdrcov y^prjaiv 
Twv ^ArriKOJV 'iTdvao<f>6v ri ')(pr}/j,a /cal aKpov ev 
rraiheia yeyevr^aai Bid ro ttXtjOo^ rcov ^l^Xlcov. 
KcoXvec yap ovSev Kafxe croi evSiarpi/Seiv, eTretSr] 
')(aipeL<i e^aiTard>pi€V0^, 

27 'HSea)9 3' dv Kal epoifirjv (T€, rd roaavra ^i/SXla 
eycov ri fidXcara dvayiyvcoaKeif; avrcov; rd II \a- 
rwvo^; rd 'Kvnddevov^; rd ^Ap^iXoxov; ^ rd 
'lirircovaKrof;; rj rovrwv jxev virep^povelf;, pi]rope<i 
Be fidXidrd gov Bid^ x^''P^^> ^^'"^^ A'^** '^^'' AtV;)^t- 
vov rov Kard Ti/jLap^ov Xoyov dvaycyvot)aKei<;; rj 
CKetva ye irdvra olaOa Kal yiyvcoaKeLf; avrcov 
eKaarov, rov Be ^Aptarocpdvrjv Kal rov KviroXiv 
vTToBeBvKa^;; dv€yvo)<; Kal tou? BaTrra?, to Bpdfia 
oXov; elr ovBev aov raKel KaOiKero, ovB^ rjpvdpi- 
a(Ta<i yvcoplaa'i avra; rovro yovv KaL juaXtara 
davixdaeiev dv ri<;, riva irore yjrvxv^^ ^x^ov dirrrj 

^ 'Apx^^^Xo^ Guyet : 'Avti\6xov MSS. 
^ (Toi Sta Jacobitz : aoi tovtwv Sta MSS. 
' TTOTf ^vx^v Gesner : airh yl^vxvs MSS. 



especially when he called upon one after another to 
corroborate his evidence and they all told the same 
story. In view of this, my friend, husband and save 
your money so that you may be able to misconduct 
yourself at home in great security ; for who could 
persuade you now to cliange your ways ? When a 
dog has once learned to gnaw leather, he cannot 
stop.^ The other way is easier, not to buy books any 
longer. You are well enough educated ; you have 
learning to spare ; you have all the works of antiquity 
almost at the tip of your tongue; you know not only 
all history but all the arts of literary composition, its 
merits and defects, and how to use an Attic vocabu- 
lary ; your many books have made you wondrous 
wise, consummate in learning. There is no reason 
whv I should not have my fun with you, since you 
like to be gulled ! 

As you have so many books, I should like to ask 
you what you like best to read ? Plato ? Antisthenes ? 
Archilochus ? Hipponax? Or do you scorn them and 
incline to occupy yourself with the orators ? Tell 
me, do you read the speech of Aeschines against 
Timarchus ? No doubt you know it all and under- 
stand everything in it, but have you dipped into 
Aristophanes and Eupolis ? Have you read the 
Baptae, the whole play ? ^ Then did it have no 
effect upon you, and did you not blush when you saw 
the point of it? Indeed, a man may well wonder 
above all what the state of your soul is when you 

1 Cf. Horace, Satires, ii. 5, 83 : 

ut canis a corio nunquam absterrebitur uncto. 

^ The Baptae of Eupolis appears to have been a satire 
upon the devotees of Cotys (Cotytto), a Thracian goddess 
worshipped with orgiastic rites. 



rodv ^l^Xkov, 6iToiaL<; avra ')(€p(j\v aveKiTTeL^i. 
irore he avayiyvoiaKei^;; fieO^ rj/jbepav; a)OC ovBelg 
€Ct)paK€ Touro TTotovvra. aWa vv/crcop; irorepov 
€7rtT€Tayp.6uo<; r]8rf eKeivoi^ rj irpo tojv Xoycov; 
aWa TT/OO? KoTfo? ^ firj/ciTC firj ro\/ji^crr)<; tolovto 

28 /jLTjBev, a(j)6^ Be ra ^i/SXla koL fjLOva ipyd^ov ra 
aavTOv. KairoL expV^ jxr^Kert firjSe eKelva, alSe- 
aOrjvai Be rrjv rov KvpLTTiBov ^alBpav koX virep 
Twv yvvaiicodv ayavaKTOvaav Kal Xeyovaav, 

ovBe (TKOTOV ^piaaovat top crvvepydrrjv 
repe/jLvd r olkcov /jltj rrore (f)doyyr}V d(f)7J. 

el Be TrdvTox; e/jL/jbevetP rfj ofwia voaw BieyvcoaTai, 
lOc, d)VOV fJL€V ^i/SXca KOL OLKOL KaraKXelaaf} €-)(€ 
Kal Kapirov rrjv Bo^av rcov fcrrjfidTcov. iKavov aoL 
Kal Tovro. Tvpoady^rr) Be fn^Beirore /irjBe dvayv(p<; 
/jiijBe v7Taydyr}<; rrj yXcorrj] iraXaLwv dvBpSiV 
X6yov<; Kai Trotij/jbara firjBev Beivov ae elpyaafieva. 
OlBa ft)? /jLdrrjv ravrd /jlol XeXrjprjTaL Kal Kara 
rrjv irapoifiiav kldioira afirj-^eiv eTrcx^ipcj^ <tv 
yap oDvrjcry Kal XPV^V ^^^ ovBev Kal KarayeXa- 
(tOiJctt} 7r/?09 TMV TreTTaiBev/iievcov, oU uttoxpV 
ot)(f)eXelaOai ovk €k rov /caXXof? rwv ^l/3Xlcov ovB^ 
eK T?;? TToXureXeta? avrwv, aXX' eK rrj<; (f)covrj<^ Kal 

29 T?}? yvd)/jLr)<; rwv y€ypa(j)6rcov. av Be oXei Oepa- 
ireixretv rrjv diraiBevalai' Kal eiTLKaXvy^reiv rij Bo^rf 
ravTTj Kal eKirXrj^eLV rSt irXrjOet rcov /Sv^Xlcop, ovk 
€t5ft)9 on Kal ol dfiaOeararoL rwv larpwv ro avro 
<7ol iTOLOvaiv, eXeipavrivov^ vdpOr)Ka<; Kal cnKva<i 
dpyvpd<; rroiov/jLevoi Kal o-fxiXa^ ;\;/9L'o-OAroXXr;TOi/9* 
OTTorav Be Kal ;Yp7;o-aor^at rovroi<; Ber), ol fxev 

* irphs KoTuos Burmeister : vph <tk6tovs MSS. 


lay hold of your books, and of your hands when you 
open them. When do you do your reading ? In the 
daytime ? Nobody ever saw you doing it. At night, 
then ? When you have already given instructions 
to your henchmen, or before you have talked with 
them ? Come, in the name of Cotys, never again 
dare to do such a thing. Leave the books alone 
and attend to your own affairs exclusively. Yet you 
ought not to do that, either ; you ought to be put 
to shame by Phaedra in Euripides, who is indignant 
at women and says : 

" They shudder not at their accomplice, night. 
Nor chamber- walls, for fear they find a voice." ^ 

But if you have made up your mind to cleave to 
the same infirmity at all costs, go ahead : buy books, 
keep them at home under lock and key, and enjoy 
the fame of your treasures — that is enough for you. 
But never lay hands on them or read them or sully 
with your tongue the prose and poetry of the 
ancients, that has done you no harm. 

I know that in all this I am wasting words, and, as 
the proverb has it, trying to scrub an Ethiop white. 
You will buy them and make no use of them and 
get yourself laughed at by men of learning who are 
satisfied with the gain that they derive, not from the 
beauty of books or their expensiveness, but from the 
language and thought of their author. You expect 
to palliate and conceal your ignorance by getting 
a reputation for this, and to daze people by the 
number of your books, unaware that you are doing 
the same as the most ignorant physicians, who get 
themselves ivory pill-boxes and silver cupping-glasses 
and gold-inlaid scalpels ; when the time comes to use 
* Hippolytus 417 f. 



ovhe OTTO)? %yo^ /jLeraxetpio-aaOai, avra fcraaiv' 
irapeXOoDV Si t^? e/? to fiiaov rcov fJLejjbaOrjKorwv 
i^XefioTOfiov ev fidXa rjKOvrjixevov e^cDi^ lov raWa 
/jLearov a-nrjWa^e Trj<; 68vvr)<; rov voaovvra. Xva 
he Kal jeXoLorepq) rivl ra aa elKdaw, rov<i KOvpea<; 
TouTOf? iiTLa-Keyjrai, Kal oyjrei tol/? /jlcv Te;^2^tTa9 
avTMv ^vpov Kal /jLa^^aLpiBa^i Kal KaTOirrpov av/x- 
fierpov e^ovra^;, tol/? Be d/jLaOeL<; Kal IBidura^ 
irXr)6o<^ fiaxai'PiBcov Trporidevra^ Kal KaroTrrpa 
fjLeydXa, ov p-rjv Xrjaeiv ye Bid ravra ovBep elB6Ta<i, 
dXXd TO yeXoLorarov eKelvo 'irda')(ovaiv, on kcl- 
povrac fiev ol iroXXol irapd roi? yeiroaiv avrcov, 
TT/oo? Be ra cKeLVcov Kdroirrpa iTpoaeX66vTe<^ ra? 
30 Kop.a'^ evdeTL^ovatv. Kal crv roivvv aXXw /jl€v 
BerjOevTi ^/JT/crefa? av rd ^ijBXia, y^priaaaOai Be 
avTo<; oxjK dv Bvvaco. Kairoi ovBe e^pV^^'^ '^^^^ 
fii^Xiov TTcoTTore, dXXd to Tr]<; kvvo<; iroiel^ t^9 ev 
TT) (fidTvrj KaTaK€Lfiev7)<^, t] out€ avTT) Tcoi^ KpiOcov 
eadlei ovTe tw Xttttw Bwafievrp ^ayelv linTpeTreL. 

TavTa TO ye vvv elvai virep fiovcov tmv fii^Xicov 
7rappr)aLa^o/jLaL Trpo? ere, Trepl Be twv dXXcov oaa 
KaTUTTTvaTa Kal eTrovelBiaTa iroLel^, avOi^i aKovay 




them, however, they do not know how to liandle 
them, but someone who has studied his profession 
comes upon the scene with a knife that is thoroughly 
sharp, tliough covered with rust, and frees the patient 
from his pain. But let me compare your case with 
something still more comical. Consider the barbers 
and you will observe that the master-craftsmen 
among them have only a razor and a pair of shears 
and a suitable mirror, while the unskilled, amateurish 
fellows put on view a multitude of shears and huge 
mirrors ; but for all that, they cannot keep their 
ignorance from being found out. In fact, what 
happens to them is as comical as can be — people 
have their hair cut next door and then go to 
their mirrors to brush it. So it is with you : you 
might, to be sure, lend your books to someone else 
who wants them, but you cannot use them yourself. 
But you never lent a book to anyone ; you act like 
the dog in the manger, who neither eats the grain 
herself nor lets the horse eat it, who can. 

I give myself the liberty of saying this much to 
you for the present, just about your books ; about 
your other detestable and ignominious conduct you 
shall often be told in future. 



The Dream contains no hint that a lecture is to follow it, 
but its brevity, its structure — a parable followed by its 
application— and the intimacy of its tone show that it is an 
introduction similar to Dionysus and Amber. Read certainly 
in Syria, and almost certainly in Lucian's native city of 
Samosata, it would seem to have been composed on his first 
return to Syria, after the visit to Gaul that made him rich 
and famous ; probably not long after it, for his return home 
is quite likely to have come soon after his departure from 
Gaul. It reads, too, as if it were written in the first flush 
of success, before his fortieth year. 

Since it gives us a glimpse of his early history, and pro- 
fesses to tell us how he chose his career, it makes a good 
introduction to his works. For that reason it was put first 
in the early editions, and has found a place in a great many 
school readers, so that none of his writings is better known. 

The amount of autobiography in it is not great. Lucian 
names no names, which might have given us valuable inform- 
ation as to his race, and he says nothing about his father 
except that he was not well off in the world. That his 
mother's father and brothers were sculptors, that he evinced 
his inheritance of the gift by his cleverness in modelling, and 
that he was therefore apprenticed to his uncle to learn the 
trade — all this is inherently probable, and interesting 
because it accounts for the seeing eye that made his pen- 
pictures so realistic. As to the dream, and his deliberate 
choice of a literary career on account of it, that is surely 
fiction. From what he does not say here, from what Oratory 
lets drop in the Double Indiclment — that she found him 
wandering up and down Ionia, all but wearing native garb — 
we may guess that distaste for the sculptor's trade led 
him to run away from home without any very definite 
notion where he was going or what he should do, and that 
the dream, plainly inspired less by a tlu-ashing than by the 
famous allegory of the sophist Prodicus, Heracles at the 
Crossways (Xenophon, Memorabilia 2, 1, 21), came to him in 
later years, while he meditated what he should say to those 
at home upon his return to them. 





1 Kpn fJLev €7re7rav/j,r]v eh ra BcSaafcaXeLa ^oltmv 
^8ri rrjv rjXi/cLav irpoarj^o^; wv, o Se Trarrjp icTKO- 
irelro fiera roov ^iXwv 6 ri koX SiSd^airo //€. 
Tot? irkela-TOi^ ovv eho^ev Tratheia fiev /cal irovov 
iroWov Kol 'Xpovov fiaKpov koI hairdvq^ ov fiLKpa^ 
Koi TVXV^ helaOai \a/Jb7rpa<;, rd 8* rj/jierepa fiiKpd 
T€ elvai Kol ra'X^etdv rtva ttjv eTTiKovplav dTraireiv 
el Be TLva rexvrjv rwv ^avavawv rovrcov ifc/idOoi/uLif 
TO fJLev TTpcoTov €v6v<; av auTo? e'X^etv rd dpKovvra 
irapd Trj<; re'^vrj^i Kal jJirjKeT oi/c6aLTO<; elvai rrjXi- 
Kovro^ cdv, ovK eU fiaicpdv he Kal top irarepa 
ev^pavelv dnro^epoav del to tyiyvofjievov,.^ ■ ^(.^f]„ 

2 AeuTepa<; ovv o-Ace-v/rect)? dp')(^T] rrpovTeOij, rt? 
dpuaTrj Twv Te'yvwv Kal pdaTrj eK/xaOelv Kal dvBpl 
eXeuOepo) TrpeTTOvaa Kal irpoyeipov eyovaa ty)v 
'ypprj'yiav Kal BidpKrj top iropov. dXXov toLvvv 
dXXr)v eiraivovvTO^, co? eKadTO^ yvd)fjLr]<; rj e/jLTrei- 
pia<; el')(eVy 6 TraTrjp et? tov Oelov dinScov, — Traprjv 
yap 6 Trpo? /jL7)Tpo<; Oelo^, dpicTTO^; epfioyXv(f)0<; 
elvai BoKoyv^ — " Ov ^e/x,i?," elirev, *' dXXrjv Tex^^rjp 

Available in photographs : rNZ. 

^ MSS. add Kol (not in 7) KtOo^oos iu ro7s fxiXiara cvSokIijlois : 
excised by Schmieder. Cf. 7. 





No sooner had I left off school, being then well 
on in my teens, than my father and his friends 
began to discuss what he should have me taught 
next. Most of them thought that higher education 
required great labour, much time, considerable 
expense, and conspicuous social position, while our 
circumstances were but moderate and demanded 
speedy relief; but that if I were to learn one of 
the handicrafts, in the first place I myself would 
immediately receive my support from the trade 
instead of continuing to share the family table at 
my age ; besides, at no distant day I would delight 
my father by bringing home my earnings regularly. 

The next topic for discussion was opened by 
raising the question, which of the trades was best, 
easiest to learn, suitable for a man of free birth, 
required an outfit that was easy to come by, and 
offered an income that was sufficient. Each praised 
a different trade, according to his own judgement or 
experience ; but my father looked at my uncle (for 
among the company was my uncle on my mother's 
side, who had the reputation of being an excellent 
sculptor) and said : " It isn't right that any other 



iTTLKparelv aov Trapovro^;, aXXa rovrov aye*^ — 
SeL^a<i e'yue — ** hihaaKC TrapaXajSoDV XlOcov ipydrrfv 
ayaOov elvat Koi o-vvapfjLOcrrrjv koX ep/noyXvcpea' 
Svvarai yap kul tqvto, (fivaeQ)<; ye, 009 olaOa, exayv 
^ Se^LM^;" ire/c/jLaipeTO Be rat? i/c rov Krjpov irai- 
diaL<;' OTTore yap aipeueirjv viro rcov oicaaKaXcav, 
airo^ecov av rov KTjpov ^rj^ ^6a<; rj L7nT0v<; rj /cal vrj 
Al dvOpctiTTOvf; dviirXa'TTov, elKora^;} &)? ehoKovv 
Tft) Trarpr e</>' ol? irapd fiev tmv hihaaKaXaiv 
irXriya^i iXdfjLJSavov, Tore he €7raivo<i et? rrjv 
€v<f>vLav Kal ravra rjv, Kal XPV^'^^^ el^ov eir 
€/jLoI rdf; e'XTrt^a? w? iv ^pa^el fMaOrjaop^at, rrjp 
rex^V^i o-'^^ €K€Lvr)<; je rt)? 7rXaarLKrj<;. 

3 " hjia re ovv eVtTjJSao? ihoKei rjfiepa rexi^V^ 
evdpx^crOai, KaycD TrapeBeSofjbrjv tw, 0eLa) [xa rov 
Al ov a^ohpa tw TrpdypLcni d^ople^o^, dXXd pov 
Kal TratSidv nva ov/c drepirr]' iBo/cei ex^iv Kal 
7r/309 T0U9 yXLKCcoTa<; e^loet^LP, el (^aivoiiirjv Oeov^ 
re yXvc^doip koI dycCXyid^ia pbiKpd riva, fcaraa-Kevd- 
^cov ep,avr& re KdKeivoL<; gU 7rp07)poup,r]v. Kal 
ro ye irpSirov eKelvo Kal avpr}Oe<; rot? dpxofjLevoL<i 
eyiyvero, iyKO-nea ydp rivd p>oi 8ov<; 6 delo<^ 
eKeXevaev rjpejJLa KaOiKeaOai TrXdrco^ ev p^eaw 
Keip,ev7]<;, iTreLycovrb koivoi{ '* dpx^ Se rot rjp.L(JV 
rravro^r p-jcXrjporepov Be KareVeyKovro'^ vtt direi' 
pia^ KO^eayrj fiev v vrXaf, 6 Be dyavaKr^cra^ 
(TKvrdXrjvrivd TrXrjcTLav K€t/jLevr)v Xa^cov ov 7rpdco<; 
ovBe TTpdrpeTrrLKO)^ pov KarrjpParo, ^crre BdKpvd 
poL ra TTpooLp.ia rr}<; re^yv^- ' 7 

4 'A7roS/oa9 ovv eKeWev eirl rrjv OLKiav d(f)iKVovp.aL 
avvex^ dvaXv^wv Kal BaKpixDV rov^ o^OaX/jLOVf; 


""' ^ * ei/fdraj Naber : €Ik6tus MSS. 


trade should have the preference while you are by 
Come, take this lad in hand" — with a gesture 
toward me — "and teach him to be a good stone- 
cutter, mason, and sculptor, for he is capable of it, 
since, as you know, he has a natural gift for it." 
He drew this inference from the way in which I 
had played with wax ; for whenever my teachers 
dismissed me I would scrape the wax from my 
tablets and model cattle or horses or even men, and 
they were true to life, my father thought. I used 
to get thrashings from my teachers on account of 
them, but at that time they brought me praise for 
my cleverness, and good hopes were entertained of 
me, on the ground that I would soon learn the trade, 
to judge from that modelling. 

So, as soon as it seemed to be a suitable day to 
begin a trade, I was turned over to my uncle, and I 
was not greatly displeased with the arrangement, I 
assure you ; on the contrary, I thought it involved 
interesting play of a sort, and a chance to show off 
to my schoolmates if I should turn out to be carving 
gods and fashioning little figures for myself and for 
those I liked best. Then came the first step and 
the usual experience of beginners. My uncle gave 
me a chisel and told me to strike a light blow on a 
slab that lay at hand, adding the trite quotation . 
"Well begun, half done." But in my inexperience 
I struck too hard ; the slab broke, and in a gust of 
anger he seized a stick that lay close by and put me 
through an initiation of no gentle or encouraging 
sort, so that tears were the overture to my ap- 

I ran away from the place and came home sobbing 
continuously, with my eyes abrim with tears. I told 

VOL. III. H 217 


L'TTOTrXeft)?, Kal Bt,y]yov/j,at rrjv aKvraXrjv kcu TOv<i 
fico\(07ra(; iSeiKvvov, koI KaTr)y6povv TroXkrjv riva 
oDfioTTjra, TTpoaOeU ore vtto (j>66vov ravra eSpaae, 
/JLT) avTOV virep^aKwfjiai Kara rrjv Te')(vr)v. ava- 
/CTT)aa/jL6pr}<; Be r?}? firjTpo<; kol ttoWo, tw aBeXcf)^) 
XoiSopr]aa/ji€Pr)<;, eVel vv^ eTrrfkOev KariBapdov ert 
€pBaKpv<; Kal rrjp crKVTaXi^v ^ ivvocov. 

Mi^pi /JL€V Brj rovTcov yeXdai/jia koI /jueipaKKoBr) 
TO, elprj/jLeva' ra fiera ravra Be ovKen evKara- 
(f)p6v7jra, 0} avBp€<;, aKovcreaOe, dWa /cat irdvv 
(f>L\7]K6(ov dfcpoarcop BeopLSva' Xva yap Kad^ 'Ofirjpov 

eiTTCO, ' ^ 

Belo^ fioc ivvTTViov rfkOev ov€Lpo<i 
d/jL/3poalr}v Bid vuKra, 

evapyr)^ ovr(i)<i ware firjBev diroXeiireaOai rrj<i 
dXrjdeia^. en yovv Kal /nerd rocrovrov ^povov rd 
re axv/juard /jloi r(av (jyavevrayv ev rot? 6(j)6aX/jLol<; 
Trapafievei Kal rj (pcovrj rcov aKOVcOevrtov evavXo^' 
ovro) o-a(f)rj irdvra rjv. 

Avo yvvaLK€<; Xa^ofievat ralv 'xepolv clXkov fie 
7rpo9 eavrr]v eKarepa fidXa l3iai(o<; Kal Kapr€pco<;' 
fiiKpov yovv /JL€ Bieairdaavro 7rpo<; dXXrjXa^ (faXo- 
rifiov/xevar Kal yap Kal dpn p,€v dv rj erepa 
eireKpdrei Kal irapd fiiKpov oXov elx^ A^. dprt S' 
dv avdi^ VTTO T^9 erepa<^ elxo/Jirjv. e^ooov Be tt/do? 
dXX^Xa<; eKarepa, rj /lev o)? avrrj<i ovra fxe Ke- 
KrrjaOai fiovXoiro, r] Be q)<; fjbdrijv rwv dXXo- 
rpLcov avriTTOiolro. rjv Be 17 fxev epyariKr) Kal 
dvBpLKT) Kal avxP'Vp^ '^V^ Kofirjv, to) %6t/3€ 
rvXcov dvdirXeo)^, Bie^coa-fievrj rrjv eaOPjra, rcrdvov 

* trKvrd\rjy Steigerthal : vvKra ^\rjv MSS. 


about the stick, showed the welts and charged my 
uncle with great cruelty, adding that he did it out of 
jealousy, for fear that I should get ahead of him in 
his trade. My mother comforted me and roundly 
abused her brother, but when night came on, I fell 
asleep, still tearful and thinking of the stick. 

Up to this point my story has been humorous and 
childish, but what you shall hear next, gentlemen, 
is not to be made light of; it deserves a very 
receptive audience. The fact is that, to use the 
words of Homer, 

" a god-sent vision appeared unto me in my slumber 
Out of immortal night," ^ 

so vivid as not to fall short of reality in any way. 
Indeed, even after all this time, the figures that I 
saw continue to abide in my eyes and the words that 
I heard in my ears, so plain was it all. 

Two women, taking me by the hands, were each 
trying to drag me toward herself with might and 
main ; in fact, they nearly pulled me to pieces in 
tlieir rivalry. Now one of them would get the 
better of it and almost have me altogether, and now 
I would be in the hands of the other. They 
shouted at each other, too, one of them saying, 
"He is mine, and you want to get him ! " and the 
other : " It is no good your claiming what belongs 
to someone else." One was like a workman, mas- 
culine, with unkempt hair, hands full of callous 
places, clothing tucked up, and a heavy layer of 

^ Eiad 2, 56. 




fcaraye/jiovcra, oto^ tjv 6 6elo^ oirore ^eoi tov<; 
\i6ov<;' 77 krepa he fidXa €V7rp6crco7ro<i koX to 
a^7]/jLa ev7rp€7rr)<; kol fc6(Tfiio<; rriv dva/SoXrjv. 

TeXo9 ^' ovv €(j)idaL jjlol SlKa^€LV oiroTepa /3ou- 
XoLfXTjv avvelvaL avrojv. Trporipa Be rj aKXrjpd 
ixeivr) fcal dvBpcoSrj'^ eXe^ev 

7 " '£70), (fiiXe iral, 'EippoyXv(f>LKr} Tex^r) el/jLL, rjv 
%^e9 y]p^o) fiavOdveiv, otKela re (Tol xal avyy€vr]<; 
o^KoOev ^ 6 re yap TraTTTro? aov " — elirovaa tov- 
vopa Tov fjLrjTpo7rdTopo<; — " XlOo^oo^ rjv koX tco 
Oeico dp,(j)OTepa) kclI jjidXa evhoKifieljoy ^Bl rj/jud^, 
el B' iOeXei^ Xripcov fxev kol (j)Xrjvd(j)cov rcov irapd 
ravr7]<; direJleaOail^ — Bei^aaa rrjv erepav — '* cttc- 
adai Be Kal (TwoLKelv^^Lioi, irpcora puev Opeyjrrj 
yei'viK(x)<; kol tou? a>/jLOV<; e^e^? KapTepov<;, (f)06vov 
Be iravTO^ dXX6Tpio<; ear)' Kal ovirore direi eirl rrjv 
dXXoBainjv, rrjv irarpiBa Kal tov<; olKeiov^ Kara- 
XiTTwv, ovBe eirl X6yoL<; . • .^ eTraiveaovraL ae 

8 "Mr^ p,vaa')(6fi<; Be tov (T')(rjpaTo<i^ to evTeXe<; 
p,r)Be tt}? €a6r]ro<; to irtvapov drro yap tolovtwv 
6pfi(op.evo<i Kal ^€t5ta? eKelvo^ eBet^e tov Ala Kal 
IloXvKXeLTO<; rrjv "Hpav elpydaaTO Kal ^Ivpojv 
iiryveOr] Kal Ilpa^iTeXr]<; eOav/idaOr]. irpoaKV- 
vovvTai yovv ovtol jneTa tcov dewv. el Br] tovtcov 
el? yevoto, iroi^; puev ov kX€i,vo<; avTO^ irapd irdaLV 
dvdpcoTTOL^ earji^ ^rjXcoTov Be Kal tov iraTepa 

1 nr)T poBev Yvitzsche, as in Toxar. 51. 

' Lacuna noted by Bourdelot. At least oXA' cV epyois is 

3 axh^^O'Tos Bekker : awixaros MSS. 
^ iari Dindorf : yivoio MSS. 



marble- dust upon her, just as my uncle looked when 
he cut stone. The other, however, was very fair of 
face, dignified in her appearance, and nice in her 

At length they allowed me to decide which of 
them I wanted to be with. The first to state her 
case was the hard-favoured, masculine one. 

*^ Dear boy, 1 am the trade of Sculpture which 
you began to learn yesterday, of kin to you and 
related by descent ; for your grandfather " — and she 
gave the name of my mother's father — "was a 
sculptor, and so are both your uncles, who are very 
famous through me. If you are willing to keep 
clear of this woman's silly nonsense" — with a gesture 
toward the other — " and to come and live with me, 
you will be generously kept and will have powerful 
shoulders, and you will be a stranger to jealousy of 
any sort ; besides you will never go abroad, leaving 
your native country and your kinsfolk, and it will 
not be for mere words, either, that everyone will 
praise you. 

" Do not be disgusted at my humble figure and 
my soiled clothing, for this is the way in which 
Phidias began, who revealed Zeus, and Polycleitus, 
who made Hera, Myron, whom men praise, and 
Praxiteles, at whom they marvel. Indeed, these men 
receive homage second only to the gods. If you 
become one of them, will you not yourself be 
famous in the sight of all mankind, make your 



a7ro8et^€<9, Trepl^XeirTov Be airo^avel^ koX ttjv 

Tavra koX en tovtcov irXelova BiaTrralovaa 
fcal ^ap/3apL^pvaa 7rd/jU7roWa elirev rj Te;^!/?;, 
fjLoXa Brj (TTrovBfj avveipov&a kol TreiOeLv fie 
TreipcofievT)' aW' ov/ciri /jLe/jLvrj/nar ra rnrXelara 
yap TjBr) /nov ttjv fivrj/jLrjv BUcpvyev. 

^Kirel 8* ovv eTravcaro, ap^erat, rj ere pa ft>3e 
9 ** *Eyob Be. (t) reKVOv, TIaiBela eluX -nBrj avvr)6r)<i 
GOi Kai yvcopi/Xri, eijcai /jLTjceTrco €i<i Te\o<; fiov 
ireirelpaaai. rjKiKa liev ovv ja ayada Tropifj 
\iuo^oo<i y€vo/iievo<;, avrrj irpoeipTjKev^ ovdev yap 
OTL p,r} epydrrj^^ ecrrj rat acopari ttopcov^ Kav TOVT(p 
Tr)v diraaav eXirlBa rov filov T^^e//>te^'o?, dcpavrjf; 
fjL€V avTo^ oiv, 6\iya Ka\ ayevvrj Xa/ifidvcov, 
Ta7T€LV0<; TTJV yvco/jLTjy, evTe\Tj<; Be rrjv irpooBov, 
ovre ^tXot9 €7ri,BiKdai/jL6<i ovre e\6pol<; (j>o^€p6<; 
OVT€ T0t9 7ro\LTat.<i fryXcoTo?, dXx aVTO fiovov 
epydrrjfi /cat, jiav €k tov ttoWov Bnaov eU, del 
rov Trpovy^ovTa vTronTritraitiv Kai tov Xeyecv cvva- 
p,evov depaiyevayv, Xayo) ^iov ^ojv zeal rov Kpeir- 
TOi/09 epjiaiov cov et oe Kai (PeLOLa<; r) lioXv- 
kX€ito<s yevoLo fcal TroXXd Oaup^aard e^epydaaio, 
rrjv fiev ri'X^vrjv d7TavT€<; eTraiveaovrac, ovk eari 
Be oart^ rSiv IBovrcov, el vovv eyoi, ev^air av aol 
paoio<; yeveaOar olo<!. yap av 779, Bdvavao^ Kai 
^eipcova^ Kai a7roy^€ipopicoTO<; vo/j,i(Tur)ar}. 
10 "*Hv S' €p,ol^ ireiOr), Trpcorov fiev (rot iroXXk 
eTTiBei^o) iraXaLcov dvBpcjv epya Kai irpd^eif; 6av' 

> 8* ifioX Lehmann : 8c /xoi MSS. 


father envied, and cause your native land to be 
admired ? " 

Sculpture said all this, and even more than this, 
with a great deal of stumbling and bad grammar, 
talking very hurriedly and trying to convince me : 
I do not remember it all, however, for most of it has 
escaped my memory by this time. 

When she stopped, the other began after this 
fashion : 

" My child, I am Education, with whom you are 
already acquainted and familiar, even if you have 
not yet completed your experience of me. What 
it shall profit you to become a sculptor, this 
woman has told you ; you will be nothing but 
a labourer, toiling with your body and putting in it 
your entire hope of a livelihood, personally incon- 
spicuous, getting meagre and illiberal returns, 
humble-witted, an insignificant figure in public, 
neither sought by your friends nor feared by your 
enemies nor envied by your fellow-citizens — nothing 
but just a labourer, one of the swarming rabble, ever 
cringing to the man above you and courting the man 
who can use his tongue, leading a hare's life, and 
counting as a godsend to anyone stronger. Even 
if you should become a Phidias or a Polycleitus and 
should create many marvellous works, everyone 
would praise your craftsmanship, to be sure, but 
none of those who saw you, if he were sensible, 
would pray to be like you ; for no matter what you 
might be, you would be considered a mechanic, a 
man who has naught but his hands, a man who lives 
by his hands. 

*' If you follow my advice, first of all I shall show 
you many works of men of old, tell you their 



fjuaara^; koX \6yov<; avrcov aTrayyeXo), koX TrdvTcov 
ft)? elTTelv €fjL7Tetpov dirocpava), koX rrjv '^v^i]v, 
oirep croi KvpicoTaTov iari, KaraKoa-firjcro) TroXXot? 
Kal dyaOoL<; /coaa7iLiaai—cT(0(l>pocrvpr^, hLKaioavvr), 
evae^eia, irpaorrjTL, eTrceiKeia, avvecrei, Kaprepia, 

TW T(3v KOKoiV epCDTl, Tjj TTpO? TOL ac/jLvoTara 

opfifi' ravra yap eariv 6 rr}? i^u^t}? dicripaTO'i 
CO? d\r]6co<; koct/jlo^. Xijaec Se ere ovre iraXaLov 
ovBev 0VT6 vvp yeveadaL Beov, dWa fcal rd jxek- 
Xovra Trpoo-^Jrei fxer €/jlov, kol oXa>9 dnavra oiroaa 
eaTL, rd re Bela rd r dvdpcoTriva, ov/c et? fiaKpav 
ere SLSd^ofiai. 

11 " Kal o vvv TrevTjf; 6 rov S€lvo<;, 6 ^ovXevadp-evo^ 
TL irepl dyevvoi)'^ ovrco r€)(V7)^, fier oXiyov diraat 
^r)\(orb<; fcal eiriipOovof; earj, ti/jlco/jL€Vo<; Kal errai- 
vov/jLEVo^ /cat iirl tol<; dpiaroi^ evBoKi/uLcov Kal vtto 
rcjv yevei, Kal irkovrw Trpov-^ovrcov diro^XeTro- 
fjL€VO(;, iadrjra fjuev roiavrrjv d[i7re')(0fi6V0^j'* — 
hei^aaa rr)v kavTrj<^' irdvv he Xa/Jbirpdv i(f)6p€L — 
" ^PXV^ ^^ '^^^ '^poeZpia^ d^Lovixevo^i. kolv ttov 
d7ro8r)/jif]<;, ovS* €7rl t?)? dXXo8a7rrj<; dyvoi)<i ovB^ 
d<j)avr)(i earj' roLaurd ctol Trepidrjcrw rd yvcopla- 
fiara coare rSiv opcovrcov €KaaTO<; rov ttXtjotlov 
Kt,vr}(7a^ hel^ei ere Ta> BaKrvX(p, ' Guto? eKelvo^; ' 

12 Xeywv. dv Be ri (T7rov8r]<; d^iov rj rou? (f)iXov<; rj 
Kal rrjv ttoXlv oXtjv KaraXa/jL^dvrj, et? ere 7rdvT€<i 
diro^SXeylrovrar kuv ttov ti Xeycov rv^yii f^^XV' 
v6t€<; ol TToXXol dKovaovrai, 6avfjLdl^ovTe<; Kal 
evBaiixovL^ovTe<i ae rrj^ Bvpd/jLea)<; rcjp Xoycov Kal 
TOP irarepa tt}? evTror/iia^.^ b 8e Xeyovcrip, ft)? 
dpa Kal dOdparoi yiypoprai ripe^ e'f dpOpcancop, 

^ eviraidias W^ (conjectural?) and Hemsterhuj'S. 


wondrous deeds and words, and make you conversant 
with almost all knowledge, and I shall ornament your 
soul, which concerns you most, with many noble 
adornments — temperance, justice, piety, kindliness, 
reasonableness, understanding, steadfastness, love of 
all that is beautiful, ardour towards all that is sublime ; 
for these are the truly flawless jewels of the soul. 
Nothing that came to pass of old will escape you, 
and nothing that must now come to pass ; nay, you 
will even foresee the future with me. In a word, 
I shall speedily teach you everything that there is, 
whether it pertains to the gods or to man. 

" You who are now the beggarly son of a nobody, 
who have entertained some thought of so illiberal a 
trade, will after a little inspire envy and jealousy 
in all men, for you will be honoured and lauded, you 
will be held in great esteem for the highest qualities 
and admired by men preeminent in lineage and in 
wealth, you will wear clothing such as this " — she 
pointed to her own, and she was very splendidly 
dressed — " and will be deemed worthy of office and 
precedence. If ever you go abroad, even on foreign 
soil you will not be unknown or inconspicuous, for I 
will attach to you such marks of identification that 
everyone who sees you will nudge his neighbour and 
point you out with his finger, saying, ' There he is ! ' 
If anything of grave import befalls your friends or 
even the entire city, all will turn their eyes upon 
you ; and if at any time you chance to make a 
speech, the crowd will listen open-mouthed, marvel- 
ling and felicitating you upon your eloquence and 
your father upon his good fortune. They say that 
some men become immortal. I shall bring this to pass 



TOVTO aoi irepiTTOiTJo-o}' /cal yap rjv avTO<; iic tov 
Piov aTriXOrjf;, oviroTe iravar) avvoov toI<; Treirac- 

B€VfjL€VOL<; KaX 7rp0(T0/JLLX(OV TOt? dpL(TroL<;. 6pd<i 
TOV Ar]/jbO(T0evr]p i/celvov, tlvo<; vlov ovra iyw 
yjXiKop iiroir^cra. 6pa<; rov AtV^tV^^i/, 009 rvfJL- 
7raviaTpl,a<; uto? ^v, dX)C o/x&)9 ^ avrbv Sl ip,€ 
4>tXt7r7ro9 edepdirevev. 6 he ^o)KpdT7](; /cal avTO<; 
V7T0 rfi 'Fjpfioy\v(f)iK7} ravTrj rpa<f)eL^, iireihrr 
Td)(^i(7Ta o-vv7]K€V TOV Kp6LTTovo<; Kal hpaTTeTevao^ 
Trap' avTrj<^ rjvTO/ioXrjaev eo9 ific, dK0V6i<} q}<; irapa 
TrdvTCDV dSeTac. ^ ^.cA 

16 Acp€L<; 0€ av tol'9 t7)\ckovtov<; Kai tolovtov; 

avhpa^ Kal 7rpd^€L<; Xafxirpd^ Kal X6yov<^ ae/jLVov<; 
Kal a'x^fjfjLa evTrpeire^; Kal Tijxrjv Kal ho^av Kal 
eiraLvov Kal 7rpoehpia$ Kal Buvaaiv Kal dpYd<; Kal 
TO eiTL \oyoL<; evdoffip^LV Kat ^ to eiru avvecei 
evSai/jLovi^eaOai, 'x^iTcovcovTL TTLvapop ivSvar) Kal 
a^V/ia SouXo7rp67r€(; dvaXijyJrTj Kal^do'xXia Kal 
yXvcpela Kal Koireq^i Kal KoXaiTTripa^ ev Talv 
^epoip 6^€t<i /cdTO) v6vevKoo<i eU to epyov, '^afiatr-^ i 
7r€T^9 fC(il '^a!p,di^r]Xofi Kal irdvTa Tpoirov Tairei-^ 
v6<^, dvaKVTTTwv he ovheiroTe ovhe dvhpwhe^ ovhe 
iXevOepov ovhev eTrtvowVy dX\d tcl piev epya O7rco<; 
evpvOpa Kal evcr')(rjpLova eVrat aoi irpovowv, 07r&)9 
he avTo^ evpvOpL6<i t€ Kal Koapio^; earj, rjKKiTa 
7r€<f)povTiKa><;f dXX* aTi/xoTepov ttoimv aeavTov 
XlOcov.^^ j. 

14 Taura eri \eyov(jr}^ avTr]<; ov ireplpLeiva'^ eyta 
TO T6X09 TOiv Xoycov dvaaTCLf; d7re(f)r]vdp,r]v, Kal 
Ttjv dfiop^ov eKeivrjv Kal epyaTLKrjv dTroXiTrcov 

' tfiws N marg., 5-, viilg.: Uvus MSS. 


with you ; for though you yourself depart from life, you 
will never cease associating with men of education and 
conversing with men of eminence. You know whose 
son Demosthenes was, and how great I made him. 
You know that Aeschines was the son of a tam- 
bourine girl, but for all that, Philip paid court to him 
for my sake. And Socrates himself was brought up 
under the tutelage of our friend Sculpture, but as 
soon as he understood what was better he ran away 
from her and joined my colours ; and you have heard 
how his praises are sung by everyone. 

"On the other hand, if you turn your back upon 
these men so great and noble, upon glorious deeds 
and sublime words, upon a dignified appearance, 
upon honour, esteem, praise, precedence, power and 
offices, upon fame for eloquence and felicitations for 
wit, then you will put on a filthy tunic, assume a 
servile appearance, and hold bars and gravers and 
sledges and chisels in your hands, with your back bent 
over your work ; you will be a groundling, with ground- 
ling ambitions, altogether humble ; you will never lift 
your head, or conceive a single manly or liberal 
thought, and although you will plan to make your 
works well-balanced and well-shapen, you will not 
show any concern to make yourself well-balanced and 
sightly ; on the contrary, you will make yourself a 
thing of less value than a block of stone." 

While these words were still on her lips, without 
waiting for her to finish what she was saying, I stood 
up and declared myself. Abandoning the ugly 



fi€T€^aivov 7r/309 rrjv UaLBelav fidXa yey7)9(o<^, koI 
fiaXLara iirei fioi koI et9 vovv rfkOev 77 aKVToXr) 
KOI OTL 7r\r)ya(; evOv^ ^ ovk o\iya<^ apypybkvw ixoi 
X^l^ iveTpLyjrajo.^ T) Be airoXeKpOelaa to /jl€v 
TTpcoTOV rjyavaKTei koI tco %€t/36 avveKporei Kal 
Tov(; 6h6vra<i avveirpie' je\o<i Be, wairep r^i/ 
l^i6fit]v (iKovofJiev, eTreTrrjyei, koX eZ? XLOov jjuere- 
/3e/3X,7;T0. el Be irapdBo^a eiraOe, firj dTncnr)- 
arjTe' Oav/jLaroTroiol yap ol oveipoi. 

15 'H erepa Be tt/oo? //-e diriBovaa, "Toiyapovv 
dfjLei-^oiJLal ae" ecprj, " TrjaBe t% BiKaioo-vvrj^, on, 
«aXa)9 TTjv BiKr^v eBiKaaa^, Kal eXOe -IjBr], eTrifirjOi 
rovTOV Tov o;^r;/taT09," — Bei^aad rt o^V/^^ vtto- 
TTTepcov 'LTnrwv nvcbv tw Urjydafp ioiKorcov — 
**07ra)9 elBjji; ola Kal rfKiKa prj dKoXovOtj&a^; e/JLol 
dyvoijo-eiy 6ueXXe9." \ eVel Be dvrjXOov, 77 iiev 
ijXdvve Kau v(pr)VLox€L, apoei^ be et9 fY'^9 eyco 
iireo-KOiTovv diro Tr}<; ew dp^dfjLevo^; d^pt 7rp6<; rd 
kcnrepLa ^ iroKei^ Kal eOvrf Kal Br]/xov<;, KaOdirep 6 
Tpi7rr6\e/j,o<; diroaireipdiv ri elf} rrjv yrjv. ovKert, 
fievTOL p.efJLvripai 6 ri to (nreipoixevov eKelvo rjv, 
nrXriv touto llovov otl KdTwOev d(bopcbvTe<; dvOpco- 
nroi^eiTrjvovv Kat /jL€t €V(pr]/jLLa<; Kaa ov<i yevoip^r^v 
TT) TTTTjaei irapeirep^irov. 

16 Aei^aaa Be llol Ta joaavTa Kaiie tol<; eiraLvov- 
(Tiv eKeuvov^ e'TTavr)yayev avuL<;, ovKeTi Trjy avjrjv 
iaOnTa eKeivriV evBeBvkoTcL r/v elyov dSiTrtdfievo';, 
aWa p.0L eboKOUV €V7rapV(po<i t«9 eTravrjKciv. 
KaraXa^ovaa ovv Kal tov iraTepa eaTcoTa Kal 

^ & 6e7os Hemsterhuys. 

* Tct e(nr4pia Gronovius : rets ea-ireplas MSS. 



working-woman, I went over to Education with a 
right good will, especially when the stick entered 
my mind and the fact that it had laid many a blow 
upon me at the very outset the day before. When 
I abandoned Sculpture, at first she was indignant 
and struck her hands together and ground her 
teeth ; but at length, like Niobe in the story, she 
grew rigid and turned to stone. Her fate was 
strange, but do not be incredulous, for dreams work 

The other fixed her eyes upon me and said : '^ I 
will therefore repay you for the justice that you have 
done in judging this issue rightly : come at once and 
mount this car " — pointing to a car with winged 
horses resembling Pegasus — " in order that you may 
know what you would have missed if you had not 
come with me." When I had mounted she plied whip 
and reins, and I was carried up into the heights and 
went from the East to the very West, surveying 
cities and nations and peoples, sowing something 
broadcast over the earth like Triptolemus. I do not 
now remember what it was that I sowed ; only that 
men, looking up from below, applauded, and all those 
above whom I passed in my flight sped me on my way 
with words of praise. 

After all this had been shown to me and I to the 
men who applauded, she brought me back again, no 
longer dressed in the same clothing that I wore when 
I began the flight ; I dreamed that I came back in 
princely purple. Finding my father standing and 
waiting, she pointed him out my clothing and the 



irepLfievovra iSel/cvvev avrcp iKeivr) ^ rrjv eaOrjra 
Kafii, olo<; rjKOijiLy KaL ri KaX vTre fivrjaev ola 
fjLiKpov heZv irepl ifiov e^ovXevaavro. 

TaOra /JLijivrifiai IBq)v avrLirai^ €tl cjv, eiioi 
00K6LV eKTapax"€i<; tt/oo? top tcoi/ irX'qywv <popov. 

1 7 Meraf y he XiyovTO"!, " *HpaA;Xe«9," eSri rt?, 

** ft)? fiaKpov TO ivvTTVLov Kol hiKavLKov.^^ elr .^ 
aX\,o<; vireKpova-e, ** Xe^/xepii^o? ov6Lpo<;, ore^ fit]-*^ \^ 
Kiarai eucnv ai vv/CT€<i, i) ra^a tcov rpLeairepo'^, ^ 
ojGTTep 6 '}ipafc\7]<;, teal avro^; iari, tl 6' ovp 
iTTTJXdev avTw Xrjprjarai ravra TTpb'; r^jxa^ /cal 
fivrja-Orjvai TraiSiKrjt; vvkto^ koX oveipcov yraXaicav 
KoX yeyrjpafCOToyv; eft)A,09 yap r] '>^v')(^p(yXoyia. /jltj 
oveipcov TLva<; viroKpna^ r)/jLd<i vireiXrjifiev;" ovfc, 
ojyadi' ovBe yap 6 "Btevo^SiV ttotc Si,r]yov/j.€vo<; to 
ivvTTVLOVy ft)9 eho/cei avrw K€pavvo<; ifJLireaoDV KuUtv 
TTjv Trarpcoav olKiav^ Kal ra dXXa, — tare yap — 
ovx, ^TTOKpicnv rrjv oyjrip ovB^ o)? <j>Xvapelv iyvco- 
KOD<; avra Bie^^ei, Kal ravTa ev nroXefJutp koI 
airoyvioaei Trpayfidrayv, Trepiearcorcov woXefiloyu, 
dXXd TL Kal xpW''H'(^^ el%ei^ rj BLTjyrjaif;. 

18 Kal Toivvv Kayco tovtov top oveipov vfjuv 
SLTjyrjad/jLrjv eKeivov €V€Ka, otto)? ol vioi tt/oo? to, 
^eXTLO) TpeircovTai Kal iraL^eia'^ ejj^ftji/rat, Kal 

^ iKfiv-n r> AUinson : iKeivijv MSS. 
s St6 Graevius (Z^ ?) : Sn MSS. 

' <K*pavvhs iixTfeau}V>KaUiv r}}v irarpyav otK^av A.M.H. : koX 
iv ttJ irarptfa oIkio. MSS. 



guise in which I had returned, and even reminded 
him gently of the plans that they had narrowly 
escaped making for me. 

That is the dream which I remember having had 
when I was a slip of a lad ; it was due, I suppose, to 
my agitation on account of the fear inspired by the 

Even as I was speaking, " Heracles ! " someone 
said, " what a long and tiresome dream ! " Then 
someone else broke in : ^' A winter dream, when the 
nights are longest ; or perhaps it is itself a product 
of three nights, like Heracles ! ^ What got into him 
to tell us this idle tale and to speak of a night of his 
childhood and dreams that are ancient and super- 
annuated } It is flat to spin pointless yarns. Surely 
he doesn't take us for interpreters of dreams ? " No, 
my friend ; and Xenophon, too, when he told one 
time how he dreamed that a bolt of lightning, 
striking his father's house, set it afire, and all the 
rest of it — you know it — did not do so because he 
wanted the dream interpreted, nor yet because he 
had made up his mind to talk nonsense, particularly 
in time of war and in a desperate state of affairs, 
with the enemy on every side ; no, the story had a 
certain usefulness.^ 

So it was with me, and I told you this dream in 
order that those who are young may take the better 
direction and cleave to education, above all if poverty 

^ The Alexandrians called Heracles ** him of the three 
nights," because Zeus tripled the length of the night which 
he spent with Alcmene. See Dial, of the, Gods 14 (vulg. 10). 

2 Anabasis^, 1, 11. Lucian, perhaps confusing this with 
a later dream (4, 3, 7), evidently thinks that it was told to 
the soldiers to hearten them, but this is not the case. Xeno- 
phon was unable to interpret it until after the event, and did 
not tell it to anyone until he put it into his book. 



fxaXiara et rt,^ avrcov viro Trevia^; iOeXoKaKcl kcli 
irpo^ TTjv 7]TT(o aiTOKXiveL, (j)V(Tiv ovx ayewTj 
SiacpOelpcov. eTTippcoaOrjaeTaL ev oil) on KaKelvo^ 
cLKOvaaf; rov jjlvOov, Ikuvov eavro) TrapdBetypa 
ifie IT poarrja-dfievo^;, evvooyv olo^ fiev 03v 7rp6<; rd 
KoWtara Mp/jLr)aa koL iraiBeia^; iireOvfjiriaa, /uLTjSev 
tt7roSetXia<ra? tt/jo? rrjv ireviav rrjv rore, olo<i Be 
7rpo9 vp.d<; iiTaveXrjXvOa, el kol /jLrjSev dWo, 
ovBevo^i jovv T(ov \i6oy\v(p(t)v dho^orepo^. 



is making any one of them faint-hearted and inclin- 
ing him toward the worse, to the detriment of a 
noble nature. He will be strengthened, I am very 
sure, by hearing the tale, if he takes me as an 
adequate example, reflecting what I was when I 
aspired to all that is finest and set my heart on 
education, showing no weakness in the face of my 
poverty at that time, and what I am now, on my 
return to you — if nothing more, at least quite as 
highly thought of as any sculptor. 



Ludwig Radermacher has shown that The Parasite owes 
its being to the age-long war of words between philosophy 
and rhetoric, and should be read in the light of contro- 
versial tracts such as the Rhetoric of Philodemus. Ever 
since the time of Plato and Isocrates, the two systems 
of education had been fighting for pupils, and philosophy 
had found it well worth her while to test the pretensions of 
her rival by investigating the nature and value of rhetoric. 
As usual, her schools did not agree in their results. The 
Stoics found rhetoric fruitful in her promise if cultivated 
under proper management ; but most of the other schools 
would have naught of her. The leading voice of the opposi- 
tion was that of Critolaus, the Peripatetic, who, debating 
against Diogenes the Stoic, tested rhetoric by the Stoic de- 
finition of an "art," and demonstrated to his own satisfaction 
that it was none. 

The author of The Parasite makes fun of the question, still 
very much alive in his time, and of both parties to it by 
arguing that Parasitic is an art by the terms of the Stoic 
definition, and a better one than either rhetoric or philosophy. 
No other pursuit could have served his turn better than that 
of the parasite, who made a business of sponging, who, along 
with the cook, had been a standing butt of the New Comedy, 
and now had become the rival of the philosopher and the 
rhetorician for the favour of rich patrons. 

The author of this clever comparison had the same stand- 
point as Lucian with reference to philosophy and rhetoric ; 
he knows Lueian's writings ; and the name of Tychiades is 
one of Lxician's masks. He is either Lucian himself or a con- 
scious imitator. But the vocabulary, syntax, and style are 
so dissimilar as to seem another's, and even the humour has 
a different quality, for instance ; ' ' Aristotle only made a 
beginning in Parasitic, as in every other art ! " Possibly 
Lucian wrote the piece in his extreme old age ; but to my 
mind it is more likely to be the work of someone else. It 
is certainly prior to the Ungrammatical Man, which satirizes 
many words and expressions that occur in it. The text 
has come down to us through a single channel, and is ex- 
ceptionally corrupt. 



1 Tl TTore apa, S) ^Lfj^wVy ol fiev aWoi avOpcoiroi 
Kol eXevdepoL koI BovXoi Te-)(yr}v €Kaar6<; riva 
eTTLCTTavTai Bl' 779 avroU re elcriv kol aXkw ypr)- 
cnpLOL, av Be, q)<; eoi/cev, epyov ovBev e;3^ef<? Bi, ov 
dv TL rj avT6<; airovaio 77 dXkw fjL6TaBoLr]<; ; 

ITft>9 TovTO €p(OTa<;, 0) Tv)(^idBi]; ovBerrco olBa. 
ireipu) Bt) cra^earepov epayrdv. 


"Ear IV rjVTiva Tvyxdvet,<; eindrdpLevo^ rixv^^, 
olov fjL0vcriK7jv; 


Ma Ala. 

I 0€, LUTpiKrjV; 

OvBe ravrrjv. 




*AWa <y6(o/j,€Tplav; 



Available in photographs : rPNZ. 



Why in the world is it, Simon, that while other 
men, both slave and free, each know some art by 
which they are of use to themselves and to someone 
else, you apparently have no work which would 
enable you to make any profit yourself or give away 
anything to anybody else ? 


What do you mean by that question, Tychiades ? 
I do not understand. Try to put it more clearly. 


Is there any art that you happen to know ? 
Music, for instance ? 


No, indeed. 


Well, medicine ? 


Not that, either. 


Geometry, then ? 


Not by any means. 




Tt he, pr/TopiKTJv; (^Lkoao<\)ia<i fiev yap Toaovrov 
airix^i'i oaov kol rf KaKia, 


'£70) fiiv, el olov T€ elvaiy kol irXelov. coctg 
fir) hoKCi ^ rovTO KaOdirep ayvoovvri oveihiaar 
<j>r)fu yap kuko^ elvat, xal ')(eip(ov rj av Bokcl';. 


Nat. aWa TavTa<; fiev la(o<; ra? T6')(yci<i ovk 
i^ejiiaOe'i Bia p,€ye6o<; avTcov fcal hvaKoXiav, ra>v 
Be BrjfjLOTiKwv Tiva, reKTOVLKrjv rj <7KVT0T0fitK7]v; 
Kal yap ovBe raWa ovt(o<; e^ei' col, o)? /jLT) kol 
roiavTTjf; av BerjOrjvai Te'xyr)^;. 


*0/)^&)9 Xeyei<;y co Tv^taBr)' aXV ovSe yap ^ 
Tovrwv ovBe/JLLd<; i'mo-rrj/jLCDV elfiL. 


TtVo9 ovv eripa^; 


TtVo?; ft)? eyw oi/iai, yevvaia^;' fjv el /xadoi^, 
/cal ae eiraiveaeiv ol'ofiai. epyw fiev ovv Karop- 
60VV (l)r]/^t, ^S>;, el Be aoi fcal Xoyw,^ ovk e^co 


Hlva TavTTjv; 

OuTTft) /JiOi. BoKM T0U9 TTCpl TaVTTJV €KfJLe/JL€\€T7)- 

Kevav Xoyov^, cjare on Texyrjv [lev riva eiri- 

^ SoKfivulg.: 5o/cerj/ MSS. 

2 a\\' ovd€ yap A.M.H.: dA\' ovSe N, ouSe yap other MSS. 
^ €1 de aoi Koi \6ycf> A.M.H. : el Se Kal aol {av, avv) \6y(i> 
MSS. Editors, except Jacobitz, omit crou 




Well, rhetoric ? For as to philosophy, you are as 
remote from that as vice itself is ! 


Indeed, even more so, if possible. So don't sup- 
pose you have touched me with that taunt, as if I did 
not know it. I admit that I am vicious, and worse 
than you think ! 


Quite so. Well, it may be that although you have 
not learned those arts because of their magnitude and 
difficulty, you have learned one of the vulgar arts 
like carpentry or shoemaking ; you are not so well 
off in every way as not to need even such an art. 


You are right, Tychiades ; but I am not acquainted 
with any of these either. 


What other art, then ? 


What other ? A fine one, I think. If you knew 
about it, I believe you would speak highly of it too. 
In practice, I claim to be successful at it already, 
but whether you will find me so in theory also I 
can't say. 


What is it } 


I do not feel that I have yet thoroughly mastered 
the literature on that subject. So for the present 



arafiaL, v7rdp)(^eL fjSr] <Tot yLjvcoaKeiv koI fit} Sta 
TovTO ^aXeTTCO? /jlol 6)(6iv' 7]VTiva Bi, avOi^i OLKOVarj. 


'AXX' ovK ave^ofiai. 

To 76 T?79 Te'xyr]<i TrapdBo^ov i'cra)? (f^avelrai gol 


Kal yJr)v Bta touto airovha^cd /xaOeip, 


EiVaO^t?, &) TvxtdSi]. 


M»^8a/xa>9, a\X' ^81; Xe7e, el fit] irep dpa ala- 


'H TTapaarnLKrj. 


2 Kara et yit^ fiaivoLTo rt?, w '^Ip.wv, Te')(y7]v 
ravTTjv (palrj dv; 


"E7&)76* et he gol fxaiveaOai Sokco, tov /jLrjBe/jULav 
dWrjv eTTiaTadOai re-)(yr]v alriav elvai p,OL rrjv 
fiavlav BoKei /cai fxe tcjv iyKXij/jbdrcov 7]Br) d(f)L€t. 
<paal yap rrjv halpbova ravTrjv rd fiev dWa 
)(^a\€7rr)i/ elvat toI<; e^ovat, rrapaLTelaOaL Be tmv 
d/napTij/uidrayv avrov<; axrirep BiBdaKaXov r) iraiBa- 
ycoybv^ rovrcov dvaBexofieprjv eh avrr^v ra? alTia<;. 


Ovfcovv, 0) Xlp.eov, 7] TrapaaiTiKT} re-xyf) earl; 

1 TtaiZayuylv V (?), vulg.: vcuSa MSS. {varepa N). 


you may know that I possess an art and need not be 
dissatisfied with me on that score ; some other day 
you shall hear what art it is. 


But I can't wait. 


The nature of the art will perhaps seem extra- 
ordinary when you hear it. 


Truly, that is just why I am keen to know about it. 


Some other day, Tychiades. 


Oh, no I Tell me now — unless you are ashamed ! 




Really, would anyone who was not insane call that 
an art, Simon ? 


I do ; and if you think I am insane, think also 
that my insanity is the reason for my not know- 
ing any other art and acquit me of your charges at 
once. They say, you know, that this malign spirit, 
cruel in all else to those whom she inhabits, at least 
secures them remission of their sins, like a school- 
master or a tutor, by taking the blame for them upon 


Well then, Simon, Parasitic is an art ? 




Te^vf] yap> fcayo) ravrrjf; Srjfiiovpy6<:, 

Kal (TV dpa irapda-no^ ; 

Hdvv wvelBia-afif w TvxtdBr}, 


*AXV ovK €pvOpia<; irapdaLTOV aavrov KaXcav; 


OvSa/jL(o<;' alcTXWOifirjv yap dv, el p.r} Xeyoifii. 


Kal VT} Am oTTorav ae PovKw/xeOa yvcopi^eiv 
Ta)v OVK eina-Ta/jievcov tm, ore p^/jjyfot fiaOeiv, 6 
7rapdaiT0<; BijXov on (f>r](J0/jL€V ev Xiyovref;; ^ 

IIoXu fiaXkov TOVTO \eyovT€<; ifie rj ^eihiav 
dyaXfiaTOTTOLov x^^P^ ^^P '^V '^^X^V ovhev n 
yrrov rj ^eihia^ exctipe tw Ad. 


Kal /jltjv eK€Lv6 fiOL (TKOiTOVVTt TTpooLCTTaL yiXa)(; 

To TTolov; 


Et ye Kal * Tal<; einaToXal^; dvcoOev uxjirep eOo^ 
i7rtypd(l)0L/ji€Vy ^l/jlcovl TrapaaLTO). 

^ (d XfyovTfs A.M.H. : not in MSS. Dindorf supplies 

fv<l>pavf7Tf after ifie, below. 

"^ e^ ye koI Hirschig : fl ^cVai MSS. 




Indeed it is, and I am a craftsman in it.^ 


Then you are a parasite ? 


That was a cruel thrust, Tychiades ! 


But do not you blush to call yourself a parasite ? 


Not at all ; I should be ashamed not to speak it out. 


Then, by Zeus, when we wish to tell about you to 
someone who does not know you, when he wants to 
find out about you, of course we shall be correct in 
referring to you as " the parasite " ? 


Far more correct in referring to me so than in 
referring to Phidias as a sculptor, for I take quite as 
much joy in my art as Phidias did in his Zeus. 


I say, here is a point ; as I think of it, a gale of 
laughter has come over me 1 


What is it ? 


What if we should address you in due form at the 
top of our letters as " Simon the Parasite " ! 

* In the word t't)fjiiovpy6s there is an allusion to the defini- 
tion of Rhetoric as UfiQovs SrifnovpySs. 




Kal /jbrjv av 6/jloI fidWov ')(^DLpifyiO rj ^lcovl 
i7rLypd<po)i> (fytXoaocfxj). 


3 'AWa (TV /JL6V OTTd)^ ')(aip€C<; Ka\ovfi€Vo<i, ovBev 
y) fiLicpov fjLOL p^eXet' aKoirelv he hel Kal t^i/ oXXtjv 


Tlva prjv; 


Et KoX ravrrjv rah aWaL<; Texvai<; iyKaraXe- 
^opev, MaT€ iireihav TrvvOdvrjrai tl<;, OTroia Ti? 
avjr] Te^P^ iaTi, XiyeiP, olov ypa/n/JuartKi] rj ^ 
laTpiKij, irapaaLTLKrj. 


^E.y(o p,ev, 0) TvxtdSij, ttoXv p,aWov ravrrjv rf 
riva krepav re'xyrjv (pairjv av. el Se aoL (fiiKov 
cLKOveiv, Kal onco^ OLOfiai \eyoLpLi av, Kaiirep ov 
iravraTTaaiv (ov, co? e<pdr)v eliraiv, irrl rovro irape- 


OvdeVi el Kal apuKpa \eyoi<^,^ dXrjdij Be, 8lol(T€i. 


"I^t Br] TTpwrov, €L aoL BoKel, irepl rrj<; rix^V** 
rjrcf; rrore ovaa rvy^dvei rep yevei, (TKOTTOip^ev 
ovroaal yap erraKoXovdrjaaip^ev av Kal ral<^ Kar 
elBo^ rexvat<;, etirep dpa opOw^i pere^otev^ avrrj<i. 

1 fl Fritzsche : not in MSS. 

' \4yois Jacobs : Se roU (5e toi, Stoi) MSS. 

* ixerexoiev Gesner : /ueTc'xotywe*' MSS. 




Why, you would do me greater pleasure than 
you would Dion by addressing him as "the Philo- 
sopher." ^ 


Well, how it pleases you to be styled matters little 
or nothing to me ; but you must consider the general 
absurdity of it. 


What absurdity, I should like to know ? 


If we are to list this among the other arts, so that 
when anybody enquires what art it is, we shall say 
" Parasitic," to correspond with Music and Rhetoric.^ 


For my part, Tychiades, I should call this an art 
far more than any otiier. If you care to listen, I 
think I can tell you why, although, as I just said, I 
am not entirely prepared for it. 


It will make no difference at all if you say little, 
as long as that little is true. 


Come now, first of all, if it please you, let us con- 
sider what an art is in general ; for in that way we 
can go on to the individual arts and see if they truly 
come under that head. 

^ Dion of Syracuse, the friend of Plato. 

^ The examples in the Greek are "Grammar and Medicine," 
but it was necessa.ry to choose EngHsh examples which 
retained the Greek ending. 




Tl TTOT^ ovp iariv r/rixprj; irdvTOi)^^ eTridTacrai. 

Yldvv fiev ovv. 


Mr^ roivvv oKvei Xeyetv avrijVy eXirep olcrda, 


Texvrj icTTLVf co? iyo) Sta/jLvy/jLovevco ao(f)OV tlvo<^ 
oLKOVda^i (TvaTTjfJLa eK KaraXrjyjrecov avyyeyvfiva- 
a/j,6VQ)v 7rp6<; rt riXo^; ev')(^pr)(TT0V rw filw. 


'0/3^0)9 eKelv6<i ye elTrcov av re cltto/juptj/jLO- 


Et he fjLerexot tovtcov aTrdvrcov rj Trapaa-iriKi], 
tL av aXKo rj koI avrrj rex^V eirj; 


Tex^V y^Ry ^Tre/) ovtq)<; exoi. 

^epe Btj Kad^ eKaarov tol<; tt}? rex^V^ eiBe(Tiv 
e<^apii6^ovTe<; rrjv TrapacnTiKrjv, el (TVvaBei (tkottS)- 
fiev rj^ 6 irepl avTrj<^ \6709, Kaddirep at irovrjpal 
XVTpai BiaKpovo/jtevai, aadpov d'jTo<^6eyyeTaL^ Bel 
Toivvv^ iraaav rexvrjv <rv(rT7]fia €K KaToXrjyjrecov 

1 irdvTws Seller : vdw is MSS. 

* <rv T6 aTToiJLvr)iJ.ovevaas A.M.H. : ovros airoiJ.vr)/j.ov(v<Tas F^ ; 
ovTOJs a.rc€ijLV7]fx6v€v<Tas I^, other MSS. Cf. opdS>s (TV 7'€ \4yQ>y 7. 

' fl Fritzsche : koI MSS. 

* <ra6phv (Seager) a.'rro<l>d€yyeTat Fritzsche : /j.^ aavphv 
airocpdeyyooiTai {airo<f>9fyynTai) MSS. 

* MSS. (except m) insert elvai /col Tavrriv &<rxtp koI. 




What on earth is an art, then ? Surely you know. 


To be sure. 


Then do not hesitate to tell, if you do know. 


An art, I remember to have heard a learned man 
say,^ is a complex of knowledges exercised in com- 
bination to some end useful to the world. 


He was quite right in what he said, and you in 
your recollection of it. 


If Parasitic satisfies this definition completely, what 
other conclusion could there be than that it is an art ? 


It would be an art, of course, if it should really be 
like that. 


Now then, let us apply to Parasitic the individual 
characteristics of an art and see whether it is in 
harmony with them or whether its theory, like a 
good-for-nothing pot when you try its ring, sounds 
cracked. 2 Every art, then, must be a complex of 

^ The particular learned man who said it first is not known 
to us. It is the orthodox Stoic definition, quoted repeatedly 
by Sextus Empiricus. Cf. Quint. 2, 17, 41 : ille ab omnibus 
fere probatus Hnis . . . artem constare ex perceptionibus con- 
sentientibus et coexercitatis ad finem utilem vitae. 

* Just so Critolaus had tested rhetoric and found it want- 
ing : see Philodemus, Rhetoric 2 ; Sextus, Against the Rhetor- 
icians ; and Quintilian 2, 17. 



. , . TTpCOTOV ^ /jL€V TO BoKLfjid^eiV KOl BlO Kplp€lV 

6o-TL<i av €7r crrjSeiof; yevocro rpecpetv avrov, fcal 
or(p TrapacTLTelv ap^dpevo^ ovk av peraypotr). rj 
Tov pev dpyvpoyvoopova Te-)(yr}v rivd (prjaopev 
€')(€Lv, €L7rep eiriaraTaL Biayiyvcoo-Keiv rd re 
Ki/SSrjXa TO)v vopiapdrcdv koI tcl prj, rourov Be 
dvev re^vrj^; BiaKpLveLv tou? re KL^BrfKov^ rcov 
dv6p(i)TTwv Kol Tou? dyaOov<;, Koi ravra ovx^ 
wairep tmv vopiapdrcov koX rwv dvOpcoTrcov (j)av€- 
pMV €v6v<; ovTcov; avra pevrot, Tavra^ kol 6 
ao(f)o<; EupiTTtSj;? KarapLepcfyeraL Xeywv 

dvBpcov 8' OTft) ^/3^ TOV KUfcov BietBivat, 
ovBel^ 'X^apafCTyp ip^Trecj^v/ce acop,aTL. 

(p Br) fcal pLGL^cov ** 77 tov irapaaiTOV T€')(yrj, rj ye 
KOL TCL ouTO)? ciBrfka KOL d(j)avfj paXkov rr}? pavTL- 
Ki]<s yv(opi^€L re Kal olBev. 

To Be ye eirLa-TaaOai \6yov<; Xeyecv eTnTrjBeiov; 
Kal TTpdypaTa irpdTTeiv Bi wv olfceicoaeTat Kal 
evvovaTaTov eavTov tw TpecpovTi diroBei^et, ap^ ov 
(Tweaeo)^ Kal KaTaX^yjrecof; eppoi)pevr]<; elvai aot 


Kal pdXa. 


To Be ye ev Tal<i ecTTidcreaiv avTaU 07r&)? TravTOf; 
direkdoi irXeov e')(aiv Kal irapevBoKipoyv tov<; p.rf 
Tr)V avTTjv avTw KeKTrjpevov^ Te^vrjv, avev tlvo^ 
\6yov Kal aocplaf; irpdTTeaOai^ oiet; 

^ Lacuna Fritzsche : supply char wu t^D vapaaircp A.M.H. 

* ovx vulg. : not in MSS, ^ ravra vulg.: avra. MSS. 

* fieiCocv vulg. : fiel^oy MSS. 

^ irpdmadai vulg. : irXdmaQai MSS. 



knowledges ; and of these, in the case of the para- 
site, first of all there is testing and deciding who 
would be suitable to support him, and whom he could 
begin to cultivate without being sorry for it later. 
Or do we care to maintain that assayers possess an 
art because they know how to distinguish between 
coins that are counterfeit and those that are not, but 
parasites discriminate without art between men that 
are counterfeit and those that are good, even though 
men are not distinguishable at once, like coins ? 
Wise Euripides criticizes this very point when he 

'^ In men, no mark whereby to tell the knave 
Did ever yet upon his body grow." ^ 

This makes the parasite's art even greater, since it is 
better than divination at distinguishing and recog- 
nising things so obscure and hidden. 

As for knowing how to talk appropriately and to 
act in such a way as to become intimate and show 
himself extremely devoted to his patron, do not 
you think that this show^s intelligence and highly- 
developed knowledge ? 


Yes, indeed. 


And at banquets, to go away with more than any- 
body else, enjoying greater favour than those who do 
not possess the same art — do you think that can 
be managed without some degree of theory and 
wisdom ? 
[ * Euripides, Medea 518. 

VOL. III. J 249 




Tt Si, TO iiriaraaOai ra? apera^; koX KaKla<; 
TMV (Tirlcov KoX TMV oyjrcov TroXvTrpajfiocrvvrjv 
are^vov Tivb<; elvai aot Bok€l, koX ravra tov 
ryepvaiOTarov UXdrcovot; ovrcoal Xeyovro^, "Tov 
fjueWovrof; earidaeaOai firj fiayeipiKov oVto?, 
aKeva^opbivq^i 6oLvrj<; aKVporepa r} /tyOtVf?"; 

6 "Oti ye fir}if ovK CK fcaTa\7]yjr€(o<; puovov, dXka 
avyyeyv/jLvao-fiivrjf; iarlv r) irapaGiTiKr], fxadoLfi av 
ivOivSe paBLw^;' at fxev yap tmv dWcov T€')(yo)v 
KaraX^yjr€i<: fcal ^p,€pa<; koX vvKra^ kclX firjva^ koX 
ivLavrov<; 7roWdfci<; davyyv/jLvacTTOL jxevovaLv, koI 
o/jL(o<i OVK diroWwrai irapd rot? K6KTr)p,evoi<i at 
rexvcLii V ^^ ''"o^ irapaalrov KardXij'^jrL'; ^ el firf 
Koff rj/juepav €tr) iv yvfivaala, diroXXvaiv ov p^ovov, 
olp,aL, TTjv ri^vrjv, dWd koX avTov tov re')(yi'Tr)v. 

7 To ye pL7)v "tt/oo? tl Te\o<; ev^pV^'^^v rco /3tft)'* 
p.r) Koi pavia<; y ^ ^rjreiv. eya) yap tov (payelv 
Kal TOV TTielv ovBev ev^pv^'^oTepov evpLCTKCo iv T<p 
fiiw, wv^ ovBe ^Tjv ye dvev eaTiv, 


JJdvv fiev ovv, 


8 Kat p.rjv ovSe tolovtov tl eaTLV r/ irapaaiTiKr) 
oTTolov TO KaXko^ Kal rj la^y^i waTe Te'xyrjv jxev 
fir) hoKelv avTrjv, Bvvap,LV he Tiva ToiavTr]v. 

^ Text Fritzsche : of 8e rod trapaffirov Kara\-{)\pfis MSS. 
2 ^ Jacobitz : err? MSS. 

2 wv Hirschig : Jv MSS. which (except r^fl) insert rovrov 
before &vti/ 





Not by any means. 


What about knowing the merits and defects of 
bake-stufFs and made dishes ? Does that seem to you 
matter for an untrained man's bumptious inquisitive- 
ness ? Yet excellent Plato says : '^ When a man is 
about to partake of a banquet, if he be not versed 
in Ihe art of cookery, his opinion of the feast in 
preparation is something deficient in weight." ^ 

That Parasitic is based not only on knowledge, 
but on exercised knowledge, you may readily assure 
yourself from this fact : the knowledges that belong 
to the other arts often remain unexercised for days 
and nights and months and years, and yet the arts 
are not lost to those who possess them ; but if the 
parasite's knowledge is not in exercise daily, not 
only the art, I take it, but the artist himself, is lost 
thereby ! 

And as to its being " directed to some end useful 
to the world," it would be crazy, don't you think, 
to investigate that point. I, for my part, cannot 
discover that anything in the world is more useful 
than eating and drinking, and in fact without them 
it is impossible to live at all ' 


Quite so. 


Again, Parasitic is not the same sort of thing as 
beauty and strength, so as to be considered a gift, 
like them, rather than an art.^ 

1 Plato, Theaetetus 178 J). 

* Again a thrust at Rhetoric, which some considered ** vis 
tantum " ; cf. Quintilian 2, 15, 2. 



AWa fxevTOL ovhe aT6')(via earlv' rj yap are- 
^i^/a ovSeTTore ovSev fcaropOol rw KSKTrjixevw. (pepe 
yap, el 67riTp€yjr€ia^ ^ av aeavrw vavv iv OaXdrrrj 
Kal 'X^eifjLOJVi jJLrj i7naTd/jL€vo<; KV^epvav, acoOelrj^; 




<Tt S', el iTTTTovf; iTTiTpa^delrj Tt9 fxrj iiriard- 
jievo^ r)vio^6Lv;> 


Ovh* 0UT09. 


Tt Si] TTore, rj rd) fjurj e%6ti/ rix^jv, Bl ^9 Bvvi]' 
aerai ad>^eiv eavrov; 


Kal fidXa. 


Ov/covv Kal 7rapd<n,T0<; vtto Trj<; irapacriTiKrj^f 
etirep yv dT€')(via, ovk dv iad)^€To; 




OvKovv Te')(yr) crdy^eTai, dTe')(yia Be ov; 

Udvv /lev ovv. 

* iinTp4\pfia5 Hirschig : iirirpeipas MSS. 
^ Lacuna Fritzsche : supplemented partly by Fritzsche, 
partly by A.M.H. 




You are right. 


But on the other hand, it is not want of art ; for 
want of art never achieves anything for its possessor.^ 
For example, if you should put yourself in command 
of a ship at sea in a storm without knowing how to 
steer, should you come safely through ? 


Not by any means. 


How about a man who should take horses in hand 
without knowing how to drive ? 


He would not come through, either. 


Why, pray, except because he does not possess the 
art by which he would be able to save himself.'* 


To be sure. 


Then the parasite would not be saved by Parasitic 
if it were want of art ? 




Then it is art that saves him, and not want of art ? 


Quite so. 

* Rhetoric is a want of art : cf. § 27, and Quint. 2, 15, 2. 




T6)(^vr} apa iarlp rj TrapacrtTLKri. 

TeXVrj, CO? €0LK6V. 


Kal firjv Kv^epvriTa<^ fiev dyaOov<; vavayia 
Trepiireaovra^^ kol r)vi6xov<; T6;\^ytTa? iKireaovTa^; 
rcov hi^pwv olSa iyco iroKkaKi^;, koI Tov<i piev 
avvTpL^€VTa<;, tov<; Se koI irdpLirav Bia(pOapevra<;, 
Trapaalrov Be vavdyiov ovBe el? e^ot rotovrop 

OvKOvv el pLrjTe drexvlcL earlv rj irapao-CTiKTj 
pLTjTe BvvapL<;, avarrjpia Be rt ck KaraXrj'^eaiv 
yeyv pvaa pLev(0Vy ri'xyr] BrjXov OTt BicopoXoyrjTaL 
rjplv arjpepov, 


9 "Ocrov €K TOVTOV eLKa^co' aXX* eKelvo, ottoo^ kol 
opop r)p,LP Tipa yeppalop aTro^aJ? t^9 7rapaaLTi/€r]<;. 


^Op6(ti<; (71) ye Xeycop. Bokcl yap Brj p,ot ovtco^ 
ap paXicTTa wpiadar irapaaiTiKr) iariP ri'xp-q 
TTorecop Kal ^pcorecop fcal roop Bid ravra \€kt€0)v 
Kol TTpa/crewp,^ TeA,09 Be avTrj<i to r/Bv. 


'Tirepevye pot BokcU opLaaaOat ttjp aeavTov 
Te-)(^py]P' aW* eKeiPO aKOirei, pr) Trpo? epiovf; tcop 
<l)iXo<r6(f)0)p pd'X^rj aoi irepX rov riXov; y. 

^ vavayia Trepnrea-dvTas Frjtzsche : not in MSS. 
* Ka\ vpuKrewv Fritzsche : not in MSS. 




Then Parasitic is an art ? 


It is, apparently. 


I assure you I know of many instances when good 
helmsmen have been wrecked and expert drivers 
thrown from their seats, and some had broken 
bones, while others were completely done for ; but 
nobody can cite any such mishap in the case of a 

Then if Parasitic is not want of art and not a 
gift, but a complex of knowledges exercised in com- 
bination, evidently we have reached an agreement 
to-day that it is an art. 


As far as I can judge from what has been said. 
But wait a bit : give us a first-class definition of 


Right. It seems to me that the definition might 
best be expressed thus : Parasitic is that art which 
is concerned with food and drink and what must be 
said and done to obtain them, and its end is pleasure. 


That, to my mind, is a tip-top definition of your 
art; but look out that you do not get into conflict 
with some of the philosophers over the end.^ 

^ With the Epicureans, who claimed the same summum 
bonum, and the Stoics, who rejected it. The Stoics are met 
first, with the argument that not virtue but Parasitic is the 
consummation of happiness. The sense of xeAos shifts 
slightly, to prepare for its use in the citation from Homer. 




Kal fjLr)v airoxpv 7^ etirep earuL to avro reXo? 

10 €vBai/jLOVLa<; Kal irapaa-LTLKrj^;. <^avelrav he ov- 

Tft)9* yap 0-0(^09 ^'OiJir]po<; rov rod irapadiTOV 

Piov Oavfxd^wv co? apa fjuaKcipLO^ Kal ^7]\(t)To<; etr) 

pLOVO'i, OVTQ) cjirjaLV ^ 

ov yap eycoye ri cj)7]fii reXo? x^piidTepov elvai, 
Tj or av evcppoavvr] fM6v exv f^cLra Btj/jlov airavra, 
SaLTVfMove^; S* ava Sco/xar^ aKOvd^covTai ololSov 
rjfjL€VOi i^€Lr)(;,^ irapa he ifKrjdoiaL rpdire^aL 
acTOV Kal KpeLcbv, fieOv S^ ck KprjTrjpo<; d(f)vaa-o)v 
olvo')(^6o<i (fyopijjai Kal iyX^^V heirdeaaL. 

Kal ft)? ovx iKavS)^ ravra Oavfid^cov fidWov Tr)v 
avTOv yvcojjLTjv irotel <f>avep(OTepav ev Xeywv 

TOVTO TL fioL KoWicTTOV €vl (fypccrlv et^fiTat elvai, 

ovx erepov ri, ef u)V (prjaiv, rj to TrapaaiTeiv 

evBat/JLOV po/jll^cjv. Kal fjurjv ovBe to) tv)(^6pti 

dvSpl TrepLTeOeLKe tovtov<; Tov<i \6yov<i, dX\a tw 

ao(f)(DTdTq) T(i)V o\(i)V. KaiTOL ye etirep e^ovkeTO 

*OBv(Ta€v<; TO KaTa tov<; Xtcolkov^; eTratvelv reXo?, 

ihvvaTO TavTl Xeyeiv 6t€ top ^cXoKTJJTyjv dvr]- 

yayev €K t7J<; Atj/juvov, OTe to "IXcov e^eTropdija-ev, 

OTe Tou? ''KXXrjva<; ^evyovTa<; KaTe(T-)(ev, otc et? 

Tpoiav elarfkOev eavTov ixa(TTLy(i)(Ta<^ Kal KaKa 

Kal ^TcoiKa pdKTj iv8v<;' dWa t6t€ ovk elire 

1 ovToa (prjffiv Fritzsche : not in MSS. 

* SaiTv/jL6vfs — €|eti7s not in MSS. : supplied by Cobet. 




It will be quite sufficient if I can show that hap- 
piness and Parasitic have the same end, and that 
will be plain from thi* : wise Homer, admiring the 
life of a parasite on the ground that it alone is blessed 
and enviable, says : 

" I for my own part hold that there is no end more 

Than when cheerfulness reigneth supreme over all 

of the people ; 
Banqueters down the long halls give ear to the bard 

as he singeth. 
Sitting in regular order, and by each man is a table 
Laden with bread and with meat ; while the server 

from out of the great bowl 
Dippeth the mead, and beareth and poureth it into 

the beakers." ^ 

And as if this were not enough to express his 
admiration, he makes his own opinion more evident, 
rightly saying : — 

"This is a thing that to me in my heart doth seem 
very goodly." ^ 

From what he says, he counts nothing else happy 
but to be a parasite. And it was no ordinary man 
to whom he ascribed these words, but the wisest of 
them all. After all, if Odysseus had wished to com- 
mend the Stoic end, he could have said so when 
he brought Philoctetes back from Lemnos, when he 
sacked Troy, when he checked the Greeks in their 
flight, when he entered Troy after flogging himself 
and putting on wretched Stoic rags ; but on those 

1 Odyssey 9, 5ff. 2 Odyssey 9, 11. 



rovTO Te\o<; x^pteo-Tepov. aXXa firfv koX iv rw 
roiv ^^TTLKovpeiwv Piw j6v6/jl€VO<; avOi^; irapa rfj 
KaXvyjrol, ore avrw V7r7]p)(^ev iv apyia re (3lo- 
reveiv koi rpvcpdv koI 0tv€LV rrjv "ArXavrof; 
dvyarepa koI klvsIv irdcra^i Ta<; Xeta? KLvrjaeL^;, 
ovhe Tore -^ elrre tovto to reXo? %a/)teo-T€/3or, 
dWa Tov TOiv TTapadiTcov /Slop. i/caXovvro Be 
BaLTV/JLOve^; ol Trapdairot Tore, ttw? ovv Xeyei; 
nrdXiv yap d^iov dvajJbvqaOrjvai rcov iirSiV' ovBev 
rydp olov d/coveiv avrcov 7roXXdKt,<; ^ Xeyofiivcov 
" BaLTVfjLove^ KaOrjfievoi ef et?;?*" Kar 

irapd Be TrXrjOcoai rpdire^ai 
auTOv Koi Kpeiojv. 

11 "O 76 firjv ^K7rLKOvpo<; a(f)6Bpa dpaia^vvroyi 
v(f)eX6fjL€V0<; to t?)? 7rapa(Ti,TiKrj<; reXo? t?}? kuO^ 
aiiTov €vBai^ovla<; riXo^; avro jroiel, koX on 
kXottt) to TTpdyfid icrriv Kal ovBev ^RirLKOvpay 
fieXcL TO rjBv, dXXd rw Trapaairtp, ovtoo fxdOoL'^ 
dv. €7ft)7e r^yovfiai to rjBv TTpcorov fiev to t^9 
aapKO^ d6')(X'qTov, eireira to /jlt} dopv/Sov Kal 
Ta/3a^7)? Tr)v yjrvx^rjv i/jLTreirXrjo-Oai. rovrayv rol- 
vvv 6 fjuev 7rapdano<i eKarepcov Tvy^dvei, 6 Be 
*E7rLKOvpo<; ovBe Oarepov 6 yap ^rjTcov irepX ^XH' 
fxaro^ yrj<; kol koct/jlcov aTre^/ota? /cal fMeyedov; 
7]Xiov Kal d7ro<rTr)/j,dTCi)V Kal Trpcorcop aroi'^eLoov 
Kal irepl 6ewv, etre elalv etre ovk elai, Kal irepl 
avTOv tov TeXou? del iroXefiwv Kal Bia(f>€p6/Ji€vo<i 
7r/oo9 Tiva<; ov ixovov ev dvOpwirivaif;, dXXd Kal iv 

^ ovSe r6T€ vulg. : ovZcirore MSS. 

* Text anonymous friend of Cobet's : olov re aKoveiv avrav 
fii] iToWaKis MSS. 


occasions he did not call that a more delightful end ! 
Moreover, after he had entered into the Epicurean 
life once more in Calypso's isle, when he had it in 
his power to live in idleness and luxury, to dally 
with the daughter of Atlas, and to enjoy every 
pleasurable emotion, even then he did not call that 
end more delightful, but the life of a parasite, who 
at that time was called a banqueter. What does he 
say, then ? It is worth while to cite his verses once 
more, for there is nothing like hearing them said over 
and over: "banqueters sitting in regular order," and: 

" by each man is a table 
Laden with bread and with meat." 

As to Epicurus, quite shamelessly filching the end 
of Parasitic, he makes it the end of his conception 
of happiness. That the thing is plagiarism, and that 
pleasure does not concern Epicurus at all, but does 
concern the parasite, you can assure yourself from 
this line of reasoning. I for my part consider that 
pleasure is first of all the freedom of the flesh from 
discomfort, and secondly, not having the spirit full 
of turbulence and commotion. Now then, each of 
these things is attained by the parasite, but neither 
by Epicurus. For with his inquiries about the shape 
of the earth, the infinitude of the universe, the mag- 
nitude of the sun, distances in space, primal elements, 
and whether the gods exist or not, and with his con- 
tinual strife and bickering with certain persons about 
the end itself, he is involved not only in the troubles 



KO(T/jLLKaL<; iariv oy^rjaeaiv. 6 he 7rapdaiT0<i 
irdvra koXco^ e%eii^ oloixevo^ koX ireinaTevKOD'^ firj 
aW&)9 ravra exeiv diieivov rj e%6^, fjuera ttoXXt}? 
dBeiaf; koI yaktjvrjf;, ov8€v6<; avrco tolovtov irap- 
evo^XovvTO^, eaOieL kol KOLfiarai vTrrw^ dcpei/coD^; 
Tou? 7ro8ct9 Kal ra? ')(^elpa<; wairep ^OBvaaev^; t>}9 
S%6/9ta9^ dTTOirXewv OLKaSe. 
12 Kal /j,r]v ov')(l Kara ravra /jlovov ovSev irpoarj- 
KSL ro r)hv TO) 'RircKovpo), dWa Kal Kar ifcelva' 
o ydp KiTLKOvpof; ovro^, oari,<; irore iartu 6 cro- 
(l)6<;, 7]roL ^ayelv €%€t rj ov' el jxev ovk eyeiy ovy^ 
oiTW^ r)Seco<; ^rjaerat,^ dXhJ ovBe ^r]crerar el Be 
ex^i^f €tT6 Trap' eavrov etre Trap' dWov el fiev 
ovv Trap aWov ro (f)ayeiv exoi, rrapdair6<i eari 
Kal ovx 09 ^ Xeyer el Be Trap' eavrov, ovy 'rjBeco^ 

IIco? ovx r)Be(o<i; 


Et yap e')(oi ro (payeiv irap eavrov, iroWd roi, 
(o Tvyt'dBr), rd drjBea ^ rw roiovro) /3tft) irapa- 
KoXovOetv avdyKT)' Kal dOpet, iroaa. Bel rov fiek- 
Xovra ^laxrecrOac KaO^ r)Bovr]V rd^ eyyiyvofxeva^ 
ope^eifi dirdaa^ dvaTrXrjpovv. r) ri <^r]<i; 


Ka/z-oi BoKel. 


OvKOvv ra> fiev avxyd KeKrrjfjLevw t'crct)? rovro 
irape-)(eL, rat Be okiya Kal firjBev ovKerr axire 

^ Trjs 2xfp«as du Soul : rrjs trxeSias MSS. 

^ C'nceTai Cobet : ov (r)(T€rai MSS. 

s hs vulg.: us MSS. * rh drjSca A.M.H.: not in MSS. 



of man but in those of the universe. The parasite, 
however, thinking that everything is all right and 
thoroughly convinced it would not be any better if 
it were other than as it is, eats and sleeps in great 
peace and comfort, with nothing of that sort annoy- 
ing him, flat on his back, with his arms and legs 
flung out, like Odysseus sailing home from Scheria.^ 
Again, it is not only in this way that pleasure 
is foreign to Epicurus, but in another way. This 
Epicurus, whoever the learned gentleman is, either 
has or has not his daily bread. Now if he has not, 
it is not a question of living a life of pleasure ; he 
will not even live ! But if he has, he gets it either 
from his own larder or that of someone else. Now 
if he gets his daily bread from someone else, he is a 
parasite and not what he calls himself; but if he 
gets it from his own larder, he will not lead a life of 


Why not? 


If he gets his daily bread from his own larder, 
many are the unpleasantnesses which must needs 
attend such a life, Tychiades ! Just see how many ! 
A man who intends to shape his life by pleasure 
should satisfy all the desires that arise in him. What 
do you say to that ? 


I agree with you. 


Therefore the man of vast means no doubt has 
the opportunity of doing so, while the man of 
little or no means has not ; consequently a poor 

1 Cf. Odyssty 13, 79, and 92. 



TreVi;? ovk av <TO(j>o<; yivoiTO ovSe ecfiifcono rov 
riXovf;, \eyco Srj rov 778609. dX)C ovBe firjp 6 
irXovcrio^, 6 irapa r?}? ovaia'^ dcfyOopo)'^ rai? inri- 
Ov/jLLai<; 'X^oprjycov, Bvvrjaerai TovSe i<j)LKe(T6aL. ri 
Br) IT ore; on irdaa dvciyKrj rov dvaXLaKovTa ra 
eavTov 7roWac<; TrepLTrlirreiv drjSiai.^, tovto fiev 
T(p fxayeipcp KaKco<; cTKevdaavri to oy^rov i^ax^' 
fxevov Tj el /irj ixd^oiTO (pavXa irapd tovto 
icrdiovTa to, oyjra /cal tov iJSeo? vaTepovvTa,^ 


/jlt) KaX(o<; oIkovo/jloli], fxa'X^ofievov. rj ov^ ovTCd^; 


N^ Ata, KdjJLol BoKel, 

Tft) fiev ovv ^ETTiKOvpo) irdvTa (Tv/iiffaiveiv el- 
k6<;, axTTe ovBeiroTe Tev^eTUi tov TeXov<i' tm Be 
irapaaiTW ovTe p,dyeip6<; ea-TCV c5 -x^ciXeTrrjvaL, 
ovTe dypo<; ovtc oIko^ ^ ovTe dpyvpca, virep wv 
dTToXXv/jbivcov d')(6eG6eiriy wcrre kol (f)dyoL kol ttIol 
pLovo^i ovTO<; virb pLr)Bev6<;, o)v iKeivov; dvdy/CT], 
13 'AXV oTi /jL€V Te^vrj idTLV rj irapaaLTLKi], Kdic 
TOVTfov KOi Twv oXXwv lKav(o<i BeBeiKTat. Xonrov 

OTi KoX dpLO-TT) BeiKTeOV, KOX TOVTO OV^ d'7rX(0<f, 

dXXd TTpcoTov /xei/, otl kolvtj iraawv Bia^epev to)v 
Te^voiV, eiTU oti kol IBia eKaaTrji;. 

Koivfj p,€v ovv diraacdv ovtcj Bia(j)€pei' irdar)^ 
yap Te')(yrj<i dvdyKT] 'npodyeiv fidOrjaiv irovov <^6- 

^ ixTrepovvra Seager : ixTTtpelv MSS. 

« o?/coy A. M.H.: otVoj'J/ioj MSS. Cf. 53. 



man cannot become an adept or attain the end, that 
is to say, pleasure. Even the rich man, however, 
who through his wealth ministers lavishly to his 
desires, cannot attain that. Why.'* Because quite 
inevitably, when a man spends his money, he becomes 
involved in many an unpleasantness, at one moment 
quarrelling with his cook for preparing the meat 
badly — or else if he does not quarrel, eating poor 
food on that account and coming short of his 
pleasure — and the next moment quarrelling with 
the man who manages his household affairs, if he 
does not manage them well. Is not that so ? 


Yes, by Zeus, I agree with you. 

Now Epicurus is likely to have all this happen to 
him, so that he will never reach the end. But the 
parasite has no cook with whom to lose his temper, 
nor lands nor house nor money over the loss of 
which to be vexed, so that he alone can eat and 
drink without being annoyed by any of the matters 
which inevitably annoy the rich. 

That Parasitic is an art has been well enough 
demonstrated by means of this argument and the 
others. It remains to show that it is the best art, 
and not simply this, but first that it excels all the 
other arts put together, and then that it excels each 
of them individually. 

It excels all put together for this reason. Every 
art has to be prefaced by study, hardships, fear and 



pov 7rXr)yd<;, airep ovk eariv 6(rTi<; ovk av airev- 
^aiTO' TavTrjv he rrjv re'xyrjVy (w? eoiKev, fiovr^v 
e^eari fiadelv avev ttovov. rt? yap awb heiTrvov 
irore airrjXOev KKaiwv, wairep Tiva<; €k tcov BlSu- 
(TKclXwv 6pM/ji€v, Tt? 8' eVt BcLTTPOV cLTTLcov axpdrj 
aKvdp(07r6<;, coairep ol eU SiBaaKaXeLa ^otTwi^re?; 
Kol firjv 6 pep TrapdacTO^ €kq)v avro^ eirX helirvov 
ep')(eTai pidXa €7ri6vp,cov Trj<; rex^^^y ol he ra? 
aXXa<; Te^va^ p^avOdvovre^ pbiaovaLv avrd^;, ware 
evLOL hi avrdf; aTToBiSpda-KOva-t. 

Tt he, ov KaKelvo ivvorjaai, ae het, otl kuI tov<; 
iv eKelvai<i Tal<^ re^vai^ irpOKoiTTOVTa^; ol irarepe'^ 

Koi p,rjT€p€<; TOVTOL^ TipLWaL pidXidTa, 049 Kad^ 

rjpepav koX tov Trapdairov, " KaXoi? vt] ACa 
eypayjrev 6 iral^,^^ XeyovTe^;, " hore avTw ^ayelv^* 
'* Ovk eypa^p-ev 6pOcb<;, purj horeT ovrco to Trpd- 
ypa KOL evTipLOV kol iv TipLcopia pAya (fiaiveraL. 
14 Kal pir]v al dXXai Te')(yaL to TeXo^ ^ varepov 
rovro e^ovai, pLera to puaOelv kuI tou9 Kap7rov<; 
97860)9 diroXapL^dvovaai'^ ttoXXtj yap " kuI opOio^; 
o2pLO<} 69 avrd^i' *' ^ rj he nrapaaiTLKr] puovrj twv 
dXXwv €vOv<; diroXavet rfj(; Te')(y7)<; iv avrw Tq> 
pavddvecv, Kal dp,a re dp^erai, Kal iv tw reXei 

Kal* puevTOi T(ov dXXctyv Te')(yo3V ov rivh, dXXd 
iraaaL iirX pLovrjv ttjv rpocprjv yeyovaaiv, 6 he 
7rapdaiT0<i evOv^ eyec rrjv Tpo(j)7)v dp,a rw dp^a- 
aOat TTJ^ re-x^VT)^. rj ovk ivvoel<; on 6 puev yecopyo^ 

^ Tf\o$ Fritzsche : not in MSS. 

^ air oXafx$dvov(rai A.M.H.: dTToAoyUjSavoucrj MSS. 

' avrds vulg. : avT-fjv MSS. 

* Kal vulg. : al MSS. 



floggings, from which everyone would pray to be 
delivered. But this art alone, it seems, can be 
learned without hardships. Who ever went home 
from a dinner in tears, as we see some going home 
from their schools .^ Who ever set out for a dinner 
looking gloomy, like those who go to school? I 
promise you, the parasite goes to dinner of his own 
accord, with a right good will to exercise his art, 
while those who are learning the other arts hate 
them so much that some run away from home on 
account of them ! 

Again, should you not note that when pupils make 
progress in those arts, their fathers and mothers give 
them as special rewards what they give the parasite 
every day.^ "By Zeus, the boy has written nicely," 
they say ; '^give him something to eat ! " " He has 
not written correctly ; don't give him anything ! " 
So highly is the thing esteemed, both as a reward 
and by way of punishment. 

Again, the other arts attain to this end late, 
reaping their harvest of pleasure only after their 
apprenticeship; for ''the road to them leadeth 
uphill" and is long.^ Parasitic alone of them all 
derives profit from the art immediately, in the 
apprenticeship itself, and no sooner does it begin 
than it is at its end. 

Moreover, the other arts, not merely in certain 
cases but in every case, have come into existence to 
provide support and nothing else, while the parasite 
has his support immediately, as soon as he enters 
upon his art. Do not you see that while the farmer 

^ The quotation is from Hesiod, Works and Days 290, and 
refers to the road that leads to virtue. The scholasticus, the 
grey-headed student, was a familiar figure ; see Lucian's 



yewpyeL ov rov yewpyelv evexa koX 6 tcktcov 
T€KTaiv€Tai ov-^^l Tov reKTaiveaOai eve/ca, 6 he 
TrapdaiTOf; ou% erepov fiev rt, hiooKei, aWa to 
avTO KoX epyov fiev ea-rlv avrov koI ov evexa 

15 Kal /jLTjv ixecvd ye ouSet? icrriv 0(tti<; ovk eVt- 
ararai, on ol /lev Td<; XotTra? ri'xya^ ipya^ofjievoi 
TOV fiev aXkov ')(p6vov TaXacTreopovo'i, jjuiav he rj 
hvo fMova^ TOV fJL7)vof; '^fiepw? /epa? dyovai,^ Kal 
€V(f>paLV€(7dai, XiyovTUL t6t€' 6 Be irapdacTO'; tov 
/jLr)v6(; Ta<; TpiaKOvO^ rjfiepa'; iepa<; dyer irdcai. 
yap avTa> hoKOvaiv elvai tS)v Oewv. 

16 "Ert ol fiev ffovXofievoL ra? dX\a^ Texva<i 
KaTopOovv oXiyocTiTLaL^ Kal o\LyoiToalaL<; )(^pa)VTat, 
KaOdirep ol vo(tovpt€<;, iroXviroaiai'i he Kal iroXv- 
aiTLaL<i OVK ecTTLV €v<j>paiv6juL€vov jiavddveiV' 

17 Kal al fiev dXXao Tex^ai %ft>/ot9 opydvcov ov- 
ha/jLa)<; tw KeKTrj/juevo) virrjpeTelv hvvavTai' ovTe 
yap avXelv eve %ft)/9i9 avXoov ovts ^frdXXeiv dvev 
Xvpaf; ovT€ iTVireveLv dvev lttttov' avTr) he ovtco<; 
ecTLV dyaOrj Kal ov fiapela tw TexvLTrj, axTTe 
virdpx^i Kal /irjhev e^ovTi ottXov XprjaOai, avTrj. 

18 Kat ot)9 eoLKev dXXa<; Te')(ya<; /lavOdvofiev fjnaOov 
hth6vT€<;, TavTijv he Xa/jufidvovTe^. eVt tojv fiev 

19 dXXwv Te^yciiv elai hihdaKaXoL rti/e?, r^? he 
TTapacriTLKrj^; ovhei^, dXX! (oaTrep r] iroLrjTLKrj KaTcl 
^(OKpdTTj Kal avTT} Tivl deia fiolpa irapayiyveTai. 

20 KUKelvo he crKOTTeL, otl Td<; /Jtev dXXa<; Te-)(ya<; 

^ MSS. add. koI al ■nSXeis Se toj /xfv Sl' ctovs, ras 5e ifi/j.T)vovs 
lopras 5joTeAoi)<rt, excised by A.M.H, as a comment. Note 
also SiaTfXovcri for TcAoCct, or (vit€\ov(Ti. 



does not farm for the sake of farming, nor the builder 
build for the sake of building, the parasite does not 
aim at something different ; his work and its object 
are one and the same thing. 

Everybody knows, too, that those who ply the rest 
of the arts drudge all the time except one or two 
days a month which they celebrate as holidays,^ and 
are said to have their good time then. But the 
parasite celebrates thirty holidays a month, for he 
thinks that every day belongs to the gods. 

Furthermore, those who wish to be successful in 
the other arts eat little and drink little, like in- 
valids, and it is impossible to learn them while one 
is rejoicing the inner man with plenty of food and 
plenty of wine. 

The other arts, moreover, cannot be of use to their 
possessor without tools, for it is impossible to pipe 
without a pipe or to strum without a lyre or to ride 
without a horse ; but this one is so genial and pre- 
sents so little difficulty to the artisan that even one 
who has no tools can follow it. 

And we pay, it is likely, for our lessons in the 

other arts, but get paid in this one. Besides, the 

other arts have teachers, but Parasitic has none ; 

like the Art of Poetry according to the definition 

of Socrates, it comes by some divine dispensation. ^ 

Reflect, too, that we cannot exercise the other arts 

^ The manuscripts add: "and the cities too hold some 
feasts once a year and others once a month." 
2 Plato, Ion 534 b-c. 



6SevovT6(; 7] TrXeoz^Te? ov Bwd/jueda hiaTrpdrreaOaLi 
ravrrj ^ Be iart '^^pfjaOai, xal iv oSo) koI irXeovTi. 


21 Tldvv fjuev ovv. 


Kal fxevTOL, w Tv)(^idBr], at fiev dWai, re^vac 
BoKoval juLOC Tavrrj<i i7ri6u/jL€iv, avrrj Be ovBe/jLid<i 


Tt 8's, ov')(^ 01 TCL dWorpLa Xafi^dvovre^; dBLKelv 
aoL BoKovai; 


nw9 yap ov; 


I]a)9 ovv 6 7rapdaiT0<; ra dWorpia XafJi/Bdvcov 
ovK dBiKel /JLOVO^; 

22 OvK e^w Xeyeiv. Kal fjurfv tcop dXkwv rex^otyv 
at dp^al (pavXau nve^ Kal evreXel^ elat, t?}? Be 
7rapaairtK7]<; dp')(rj irdpv yevvaia ri?* to yap 
OpvXovfxevov TOVTO Trj<i ^iXia^ ovofxa ovk dv dWo 
TL €vpoL<; rj dpxv^ TrapaaiTiKrj^. 


IIw? Xeyei^; 


"Otl ovBel<; exOpov rj dyvcora dvdpcoirov dW 
ovBe (jvvrjOj] pLerpiw^; eirl Belirvov KaXel, dXkd Bel 

^ ravTT) vulg. : aurf) MSS. 

^ This point is not dwelt upon here because the author 
proposes to use it with great effect later at the expense of 
philosophy (§§ 31 flf.). 



while on a journey or a voyage, but this one can 
be plied both on the road and at sea. 


Quite true. 


Moreover, Tychiades, it seems to me that the other 
arts stand in need of this one, but this one does not 
stand in need of any other. ^ 


But, I say, don't you think that people who take 
what belongs to someone else do wrong } 




How is it, then, that the parasite is the only one 
that does not do wrong in taking what belongs to 
someone else? 


1 can't say ! ^ — Again, in the other arts the first 
steps are shabby and insignificant, but in Parasitic 
the first step is a very fine one, for friendship, that 
oft-lauded word, is nothing else, you will find, than 
the first step in Parasitic. 


What do you mean ? 


That nobody invites an enemy or an unknown 
person to dinner ; not even a slight acquaintance. A 

2 Fritzsche gives the two questions to Simon and the 
answers to Tychiades, at the expense of a little rewriting. 
Perhaps he is right, but it is rather too bad to lose the 
humorous effect of the "I can't say" in the mouth of 
Simon, followed by the change of subject. 



Trporepov olfiat tovtov yeveaOai, <I>l\ov, Yva koivco- 
vrjar] ctttovBcov koX Tpa7ri^r)<; kol tojv t?}? rix^V^ 
TavTT]<; fivaT7)pia)v. iyoD yovv TroXXa/ct? rjKOvad 
Tiv(DV XejovTcov, "noraTTo? Se ovTo<i ^tXo?^ oari^ 

OVT€ ^6^p(0K€V OVTE 'TTeTT(OKeV jXed^ 7]p.<jdV^^ SijXov 

on Tov avfiTTLVOVTa kol (Tvveadiovra jjlovov iriaTov 
(jylXov rjyovfiivcov. 

23 "Ort ye /jb7]v rj ^aaiXiKCdTarr) rcov rex^oov eartv 
avTTj, ixdOoLf; av koI ck rovBe ov)( Tj/CLCTTa' Ta<i 
fjuev yap XoiTra? re')(ya<^ ov jjlovov KaK07radovvTe<; 
Kal lhpovvTe<;, dXka vrj Ata KaOrjfxevoL koI karS)- 
Te9 ipyd^ovrai, wairep d/jiiXcL SovXoi rcov t6Xv(ov, 
6 Be irapdaLTOf; jjbera'xeipi^eTai, rrjv avrov Tex^^V^ 
0)9 ^aaiXev^ KaraKeLfievo^;. 

24 ^FiKclva fiev yap ri Bel Xeyeiv irepX rri<!; evBai- 
/jLOVLa<; avrov, on Brj /jlovo^; Kara tov ao^ov 
"OfJL7]pov ** ovre (pvrevet %6/3(rt <j>vrov ovre dpol, 
dXXd rd 7' ^ dairapra Kal dvrjpora rrdvra " 

25 Kal /jLTjv prjTopd T€ Kal yew/jierprjv Kal ^^XKea 
ovBev KcoXvec rrjv iavTOv rex^W epyd^ecrOai 
idv T€ 7rovr)po<; idv re Kal fjLcop6<; rj, TTapadirelv 
Be ovBeU BvvaraL r) /jL(i)po<i wv rj irovrjpo^;. 


UaTrai, olov XPVf^^ dirocfyaivri rrjv TrapaaLnKrjv 
S)(TT6 Kal avT0<i 7]Br] ^ovXeaOai Bokco /jloi Trapdai- 
T09 elvai dvrl tovtov 09 sl/jll. 


26 '1)9 fiev Toivvv Koivfj Traacov^ Biacpepei, Be- 

vTos <pi\os Cobet : ovtos 6 <piAos MSS. 

2 y Dindorf : not in MSS. 

^ Tracrwv Jacobitz : iroi/Ta'j' MSS. 



man must first, I take it, become a friend in order to 
share another's bowl and board, and the mystic rites 
of this art. Anyhow, I have often heard people say : 
" How much of a friend is he, when he has neither 
eaten nor drunk with us ? " That is of course be- 
cause they think that only one who has shared their 
meat and drink is a trusty friend. 

That in truth it is the most royal of the arts, you 
can infer from this fact above all : men work at the 
rest of them not only with discomfort and sweat 
but actually sitting or standing, just as if they were 
slaves to the arts, while the parasite plies his art 
lying down, like a king ! 

What need is there, in speaking of his felicity, to 
mention that he alone, according to wise Homer, 
"neither planteth a plant with his hands nor 
plougheth, but all, without sowing or ploughing," ^ 
supply him with pasture ? 

Again, there is nothing to hinder a rhetorician or 
a geometer or a blacksmith from working at his 
trade whether he is a knave or a fool, but nobody 
can be a parasite who is either a knave or a fool. 


Goodness ! What a fine thing you make out 
Parasitic to be ! I myself already want to be a 
parasite, I think, rather than what I am. 


Well, that it excels all put together, I think I 

1 Odyssey 9, 108-109. 



BetxOaL fxoL BoKW. (pipe Br) co? Kal kut IBiav 
€Kd(TTr)<; Bia^epei, o-Koircofjiev. to /jlcv Br) ral<; 
fiavav(70L<; Texvai<; Trapa/SaXXetv avTr)v av6r)T6v 
iffTiv, Kol fjidXXov TTft)? KadaipovvTO^ to d^lco/ia 
rrj<; rixi^V^- ore ye ixr)v tcop KaWLareov xal 
fieyiarcDV re'xywv Biai^epei BeiKreov. 6ofi6\6yr)TaL 
Br) 7r/?09 TrdvTcop Tijv re prjTopiKr)v Kal rr)v (piXo- 
ao^iaVy 09 Bta yevvaiOTrjTa kol iirLarr^fxa^ diro- 
(paivovTab rive^i, . . . eireiBav^ kol rovrcov diro- 
Bei^ai/JLL TT)v irapaaiTiKrjv iroXv Kparovaav, Br)\ov 
OTi> ^ TO)v dWcov Te')(v(f)v Bo^et irpocfyepeardTrj 
Kadd'Tvep r) l^avatKda rcov OepaTTaivlBwv. 
27 l^OLvfi fxev ovv dficpolv Biacbepet Kal rr}<i prjro- 
ptKTJf; Kal T^9 <f)tXoao(l)ia<i, irpwrov Kara rrjv 
v7r6(Tra(Tiv' r) fiev yap v^e(TTr)K€v, at Be ov. ovre 
yap Tr)V pr)TOpiKr)V ev tl Kal to avTO vofii^opiev, 
a)OC ol fiev Te')(vr)v, ol Be TOvvavTiov drexviavy 
dXkoL Be KaKOTe-xyiaVy aXkou Be dXko tl. 6/molco<; 
Be Kal Tr)v (piXoaocjiiav ov^ Kara rd avTa Kal 
ooo-auTft)? exovo^CLV, ereyoo)? /lev yap ^FjirtKovpw 
BoK€L Ta irpdyjiaTa ex^cv, erepco? Be T0Z9 d-rro t^9 
^Tod<i, eTepa)9 Be tol<; diro t/}9 ^AKaB7)fjiLa<i, eTepw^; 
Be T0t9 aTTo Tov JJepiTrdTOv, Kal a7rXw9 aA,Xo9 
dXKr)v d^iol Tr)v (fnXoa-ocplav elvar Kal p-expi' ye 
vvv ovre ol avTol yvoi)/ji7)<^ KpaTOvatv ovTe avTa)v 
r) Te^yv /^^^ ^alveTai. ef mv BrjXov 6 tl TeKfiai- 
peadaL KaTaXeiireTai. dpxv^ ydp (pr)/jLt, firjBe* 
elvat Tex^V^ '?'» ovk eaTiv viroa-Tacrt,';. eirel tl Bt] 

^ Lacuna Dindorf : iireiiav [iirfi^av -yovv) also is corrupt. 
fi(yi(TTa5 €lvai, oto-re et gives the required sense. 

^ SrjXov on vulg. : (rxoA.?) S^Aov 8ti MSS. 

•'' oh Cobet, ^F (?) : not in other MSS. 

* jU7|5€ vulg. : /ii^Tc MSS. 


have demonstrated. Come iiow^ let us see how it 
excels each individually. To compare it with the 
vulgar arts is silly^ and, in a way, more appropriate 
to someone who is trying to belittle its dignity. We 
must prove that it excels the finest and greatest 
of them. It is universally admitted that rhetoric and 
philosophy, which some people even make out to be 
sciences because of their nobility, are the greatest. 
Therefore, if I should prove that Parasitic is far 
superior to these, obviously it will appear preeminent 
among the other arts, like Nausicaa among her 

It excels both rhetoric and philosophy, in the first 
place in its objective reality ; for it has this, and they 
have not. We do not hold one and the same view 
about rhetoric ; some of us call it an art, some a 
want of art, others a depraved art, and others some- 
thing else. So too with philosophy, which is not 
uniform and consistent ; for Epicurus has on opinion 
about things, the Stoics another, the Academics 
another, the Peripatetics another ; in brief, every- 
body claims that philosophy is something different, 
and up to now, at all events, it cannot be said either 
that the same men control opinion or that their art 
is one. By this it is clear what conclusion remains to 
be drawn. I maintain that there can be no art at all 
which has not objective reality. For how else can you 

» Odyssey 6, 102-109. 



TTore apiO^rjTiKTj fiev fila earl koX 17 avrrj ^ koI 
8I9 hvo irapd re ^ rjixlv Koi Trapa Uepaat^; reaaapd 
i<TTLV Kal (JVfKfxovel ravra /cal irapd ''EiWrjcri fcal 
^ap^dpoi,<;, <f>i\,oao(f)La^ Be TroWa? Kal 8i,a(f)6pov<i 
opcj/xev Kal ovre rd<; dp^d^ ovre rd reXr) av/jLcjiCDva 


^AXijdrj Xeyei^' fiiav fiev ydp rrjv ^i\oao(f)Lav 
elvai Xiyovaip, avrol he avrrjv ^ iroioijai iroWd^. 


28 Kal firjv Kal ra? fiep d\\a<; Te-xya^, el Kal tl 
Kard ravra^ dav/ju^covop eirj, kclv irapeXOoL Tt? 
avy'yvcl)jji7]<; d^La)cra<;, eirel jMeaau re SoKovai Kal 
at KaTaXijyjreL^i avrcov ovk elalv d/j,€Td7rr(OT0i^ 
^iXoao<f)Lav Se tl<; dp Kal^ dvda'X^oLTO firj fiiav 
elvat Kal firjBe av/ncficovov avrrjv eavrfj jjudWov 
Tcov opydvcov; [xla fxev ovv ovk eari ^iXoao^la, 
eTreihrj opSi Kal direipov ovaav TroWal he ov 
Bvvavrat, elvai, eTreiStjirep rj ao^La ^ fiia. 

29 '0/jLOL(o<; Be Kal ire pi t^? vTroo-rdaeco^; rrjf; pr)TO- 
piKYj^i ravrd ^alrj rt? dv to ydp irepl ev6<; 
TTpoKeifJievov ravrd firj Xeyeiv drravra^;, dWd 
fid)(r]v elvai (f)Opd<; dvriBo^ov, diroBei^L'i /leyLarr) 
rov /bbrjBe dpxv^ elvai rovro ov /iia KardXrj-^Lfi 
OVK eariv to ydp ^rjrelv to, rl fxaXkov avro ^ 

* KoL 7) avT^ vulg. : Kal avrii MSS. 
2 Tf vulg.: 7« MSS. 

' avT^v Cobet's anonj^mous friend : ouras MSS. 

* MSS. (except n) add : irpoaSsKTeos &v etr]. 
^ h.v Kol vulg.: ai/ajKoiav MSS. 



explain it that arithmetic is one and the same, and 
twice two is four not only here but in Persia, and 
all its doctrines are in tune not only in Greece but 
in strange lands, yet we see many different philoso- 
phies, all of them out of tune both in their be- 
ginnings and in their ends ? 


You are right : they say philosophy is one, but 
they themselves make it many. 


As far as the other arts are concerned, if there 
should be some discord in them, one might pass it 
over, thinking it excusable, since they are sub- 
ordinate and their knowledges are not exempt from 
change. But who could endure that philosophy 
should not be one, and in better tune with itself 
than a musical instrument ? Well now, philosophy 
is not one, for I see that it is infinitely many ; yet 
it cannot be many, for wisdom is one. 

The same can be said, too, of the objective reality 
of rhetoric. When all do not express the same views 
about one subject, but there is a battle royal of con- 
tradictory declarations, that is the greatest proof 
that the subject of which there is not a single de- 
finite conception does not exist at all ; for to enquire 
whether it is this rather than that, and never to agree 

* ffo^la Cobet's friend : (f)i\o<ro<{>ia MSS. 
' abr6 Halm : avTwv MSS. 



iariv, KoX to fjbrjSeTroTe o/ioXoyetv €v ^ elvai, tovto 
avrrjv avaipel rov ^rjrov/jiepov rr]v ovaiav. 

30 'H jievTOL irapacriTC/cr) ov^ ovrax; e;^et, aWa 
Kol iv "KWrjai. koX ffap/3dpoL<i fiia iarlv koI 
Kara ravra koI aoaavrco^;, koX ovk av eliroL tl^ 
aXXcD? fiev rovaBe, erepw^ he rovahe irapaaiTelvy 
ovBi elaiv o)? eoiKev iv 7rapaaLT0L<i ^ tlv€<^ olov 
^TOdiKoX rj ^ETTiKovpeioi Boyfiara 6XovTe<; Bid^opa, 
dWa rrdai irpo'^ diravTa^ o/jLoXoyia rt? iarcv koX 
av/jicficovla rwv epycov kol tov reXof?. axrre 
e/jLoiye Bo/cei r) TrapaacTLKrj KivBvveveLV Kara ye 
TOVTO Kol ao(f)La elvai. 


31 Tldvv jjLOL hoKel^ Ikuvco^; Taxna elprjKevau. &>? 
Be KoX TCL aXXa 'y^elpcov iaTiv rj <fiL\ocro(f)La ttj^ 
(Trj<i T€xvr]<;, ttw? diroBeLKvvei^;; 

OvKovv dvdyKY] irpwTov eiTrelv oti ^iKoao^ia^^ 
/lev ovBeiroTC '^pdcrOrj irapdaiTO';, irapacnTiKYj^ Be 
irdfjuTToWoL €7rL0vfji7](TavTe<; /jLvrjfiovevovrac (f)i\6- 
aocpOL, Kol /lixP^ y^ ^^^ epaxTLV. 

TTXIAAH2 TLva<i av e%0£9 elirelv ^LKoa6(f>ov<; irapa- 
(TLTeiv airovBdaavTa^; 


OvaTLva^ fMevTOL, co Tv^idBrj; ov<; kol av yi- 
yvcoaKcov vnoicplvr) dyvoelv /cd/jie KaTaaocpl^y o)9^ 

1 ev Fritzsche : hv r^n, /jliuv T^, other MSS. 

2 eV TTopacr/Tots A.M.H.: TrapaalTois MSS. Cf. <7a//u5 27 fin. 
iv iKfivois. 

' Ka/jLf KaraaoipiCl) «ms Fritzsche : /co/ie Kara T^fl, Kot/xe ws T^, 
other MSS. 



that it is one, does away with the very existence of 
the subject that is questioned. 

This is not the case, however, with Parasitic. 
Both among Greeks and among foreigners it is one 
and uniform and consistent, and nobody can say that 
it is practised in one way by this set of men and in 
another by that set. Nor are there, it seems, among 
parasites any sects Hke the Stoics or the Epicureans, 
holding different doctrines ; no, there is concord 
among them all, and agreement in their works and 
in their end. So to my thinking Parasitic may well 
be, in this respect at least, actually wisdom. 


It seems to me that you have put all this very well. 
But how do you prove that philosophy is inferior to 
your art in other ways ? 


Well, it must first be mentioned that no parasite 
ever fell in love with philosophy ; but it is on record 
that philosophers in great number have been fond of 
Parasitic, and even to-day they love it ! 


Why, what philosophers can you mention that 
have been eager to play parasite ? 


What philosophers, Tychiades ? Though you know 
them yourself, you pretend not to, and try to pull 


Tivo<; auTOt? (U(T')(vvr)(; evTevOev yiyvo/juivrjf;, oir)(l 


Ov fJLCL TOP Ala, ft) Xifiayv, dWa kuI a^oBpa 
diropS) ov(TTtva(: xal evpoi^; elTretv. 


'fl yevvaie, av ixoi hoK6l<; avrjKoo<^ elvai xal 
T&v dvaypw^avTcov tou? eKelvcov ^iov<;, eVel 
iravrcofi av koI iir iyvwvat ovariva^ Xeyco Bvvaio. 


Kal fiivTOL vrj top ^HpaKXia iroOo) Brj aKoveiv 
TLV€<; elaiv. 


'£70) (TOL KaraXe^co avTov<; ovTa<i ov)(l tov<; 
(f)avXov<;, dXX' cw? ^ iyo) Bokco, tou? dpi<TTov<; koX 

32 01)9 rjKKTTa av oXei. Al(T')(Lvrj<; fievroi 6 XcoKpa- 
tik6<;, outo? TOv<; [xaKpov<i Kal dareiov<; Bia- 
Xoyov^ ypdyjra<;, rjKev irore eh XiKeXiav KOfii^wv 
avTCj<;, et tto)?^ Bvvairo Bl avrcov yvcoaOrjvai, 
Aiovvalo) rw Tvpdvvtp, koI rov MiXTcdBrjv dva- 
yvoiff; Kal B6^a<; evBoKLfirjKevai Xolttov iKaOrjro ev 
XiKeXia TrapaaiTMV Aiovvalcp Kal rat? 'Z(OKpdrov<; 

33 BcaTpL0al^ ippcoaOai (ppdaa^;. rl Be, Kal ^Api- 
cTTtTTTro? o Kvprjvato^ ov^l t<ov BoKificov (paLverab 
<TOi (piXoao^cDv; 


KcM. iravv. 


Kal ouTO? fiivToi Kara rov avrov XP^^^^ ^*€- 
Tpi/Sev eV XvpaKovaaL<; Trapaaircov Aiovvalq). 

^ ws Gesner : S>v MSS. ^ elf vus Dindorf : onus MSS. 


the wool over my eyes, as if it brought them 
disgrace instead of honour ! 


No, by Zeus, Simon ; I am very much at a loss as 
to whom you can find to mention. 


My dear fellow, you seem to be unfamiliar with 
their biographers, as otherwise you would certainly 
be able to recognize whom I mean. 


Well, anyhow, by Heracles, I long to find out now 
who they are. 


I shall give you a list of them, and they are not 
the riff-raff, but in my opinion the best, and those 
whom you would least expect. Aeschines the 
Socratic, the man who wrote the long and witty 
dialogues, once went to Sicily, taking them with 
him, in the hope that through them he might be 
able to get acquainted with Dionysius the tyrant; 
and after he had read his ^'Miltiades" and was 
considered to have made a hit, he made himself at 
home in Sicily from then on, playing parasite to the 
tyrant and bidding adieu to the haunts of Socrates. 
And what about Aristippus of Cyrene ? Is he not 
in your opinion one of the philosophers of dis- 
tinction ? 


Very much so. 


But he too lived in Syracuse at about the same 
time, playing parasite to Dionysius. In fact, of all 



irdvTwv yovv a/neXei, tcop irapaalrcov avro^ r)v- 
SoKifiec Trap' avrw' koI yap rjv irXeov tl tmv 
dWcov TT/oo? TTfV Te)(yr)v ev(^vr)f;, oiiare tou? 
6yjro7roLov<; oa-rjfiipai eirefXTrev irapa rovrou 6 
^LOvv(TLo<; 0)9 TV izap avrov /JLaOrjao/aevov'^. 

OvT0<; jievTOi hoKel Kal KoafJLrjaai Tr]v ri'xyi^v 

34 d^i(jd<;. 6 he TiXdrcov v/juojv 6 yevvacoraTO'^ Kal 
at'TO? /iiep TjKev eU XiKcXiav iirl tovtw, Kal 6\iya<i 
irapaaLTijaa^ r)/jL€pa<; tm rvpdvvw rod irapaaLTelv 
viTO d(f)Uia^ efeVecre, Kal irdXiv ^AOrjva^e dcjiLKo- 
fievof; Kal <l>tXo7rovr]cra^ Kal irapaaKevdaa'^ eavrov 
av6i<i hevreptp aroXo) eireTrkevcre rfj %LKe\ia Kal 
SenTvi]aa<; irdXiv 6\iya<; rjfiepa^ vtto djjLaOla<; 
efeVeo-e* Kal avrrj rj av/jL<popd UXdrcovc irepl 
XtKeXlav 6/JLOLa Sok€l yeveaOai rfj ^iklov, 


Kal rl<i, 0) XifJicov, irepl tovtov \eyei; 


35 IToXX-ot fxev Kal dWoi, ^Apicrro^evof; Be 6 fiov- 
aLKo^, TToWov \6yov d^io<;^ 

^vpLirLhr)<i fiev yap otl ^Ap^eXdw fiexpt f^^v 
rod Oavdrov TrapeaureL Kal Avd^ap)^o^ 'AXe- 

36 ^dvSpo) TrdvTdx; iirLa-raaai. Kal ^ ApL(TTorekri<^ 
Be TYj^ 7rapa<TLTiK7]^ rjp^aro fxovov wairep Kal to)v 
dWcov re^j^i^wT^. 

37 ^LXoa6(f)ov(; fiev ovv, wairep rjv, irapaanelv'^ 
aTTovBd(TavTa<i eBei^a' TrapdcriTOV Be ovBeU e'^CL 
(jipdaac (f>L\oao(^elv iOeXija-avra. 

^ MSS. add : kuI avrhs Se napda-iTos Nr/Xews ^v, excised by 
Cobet. Dindorf, referring it to Aristotle, sets it after rexvuy. 
^ ■napaaiTi'iv du Soul : irapacriTia MSS. 



the parasites he was in highest favour with him, 
being, to be sure, somewhat more gifted for the art 
than the rest of them, so that Dionysius sent his 
cooks to him every day, to learn something from 

Aristippus, indeed, appears to have been a worthy 
ornament to the art ; but your most noble Plato also 
came to Sicily for this purpose, and after being 
parasite to the tyrant only a few days, was turned 
out of his place as parasite on account of ineptitude. 
Then, after going back to Athens and working hard 
and preparing himself, he cruised once more to 
Sicily on a second venture, and again, after only a 
few days of dining, was turned out on account of 
stupidity; and this "Sicilian disaster" of Plato's is 
considered equal to that of Nicias. 


Why, who tells about this, Simon ? 

A great many; among them, Aristoxenus the 
musician, who deserves great consideration.^ 

That Euripides was parasite to Archelaus until he 
died, and Anaxarchus to Alexander, you surely 
know. As to Aristotle, he only made a beginning 
in Parasitic, as in every other art. 

I have shown that, as I said, philosophers have 
been eager to play parasite ; but nobody can 
instance a parasite who has cared to practise philo- 

^ The MSS. add: "and he himself was parasite to 
Neleus." Both were pupils of Aristotle. Aristoxenus wrote 
a life of Plato, which was used by Diogenes Laertius. 

VOL. III. K ^ 


38 Kat ixevTOi el earcv evBaifiov to /ult) Treivijv 
/bLTjSe Siyjrrjv /JLrjSk ptyovv, ravra ovSevl dWo) 
virdpy^ei r) irapaaiTW. W(TT6 <pLXocr6<f>ov^ fiev av 
T^9 7roWov<; koI puyovvra'^ koI ireivoyvra^i evpoi, 
irapdaiTOv he ov' t) ovk dv elrj irapdcnTO^i, dWd 
Bvarv')(^rj<; ri,<; kol ^ tttcoxo's dvOpo)7ro<i koI ^ ^iXo- 
a6(f)a) 6/jlolo<;. 


39 'lKav(b<; ravrd ye. on Be Kara rdWa^ Bia- 
(pepeL (piXoaocpLaf; kol pr}roptKfj<i rj irapaaiTiKr] 
TTco? e7nBet,Kvv6t<; ; 

EtViV, ft) ^eXTLare, Kaipol rov rcov dvOpcoirwv 
Piov, 6 fiev Ti9 elpr}vr]<i, olfiat, o 5' av iroXe/iov. 
ev Br) TOVTOL<^ irdcra avdyKi] <^avepd^ yiyveadai 
rd'^ re^va^ kol tol'? exovTa<; TavTa<; oiroloi Tive^ 
elaiv. TTporepov Be, el BoKel, aKOTrco/iieda rov rov 
iroXe/uLOV /caipov, /cat rive^ dv elev pLdXiara XPV' 
ai/jLcoTaroL IBla re e/caaTc; avru) koX Koivfj rfj 


'fl9 ov fxerpLOv dywva KarayyeXXei<; rcov dv- 
Bp(ov KOL eyajye rrdXai yeXco Kar ifxavrov 
evvoMV 'Trolo<s dv etrj crvjj,^aXX6/jLevo<i irapaairw 


40 "Iva rolvvv fir) irdvv davfjud^r]^ fjLr)B€ ro irpdy/xd 
aot BoKj) ^Xeur;? d^iov, (pepe TrporvrraxKOfieda 
rrap rj/jblv avrol^ rjyyeXOau fiev al^vlBiov eh rr)v 
')(^cjDpav i/jL^efiXr)Kevai, TroXefMLOv;, elvai Be dvdyKr)v 

1 /cal A.M. H.: ^MSS. 

* riKXa Fritzsche : -iroKKh MSS. 



Furthermore, if happiness Ues in not hungering 
or thirsting or shivering, nobody has this in his 
power except the parasite. Consequently you can 
find many cold and hungry philosophers, but never 
a parasite ; otherwise he would not be a parasite, 
but an unfortunate beggar fellow, resembling a 


You have been sufficiently explicit on that score. 
But how do you prove that Parasitic excels 
philosophy and rhetoric in other respects ? 


There are seasons, my dear fellow, in the life of 
man, seasons of peace, I take it, and again seasons 
of war. Well, in those seasons it is absolutely in- 
evitable that the arts and those who possess them 
should show what they are. First, if you please, let 
us consider the season of war, and what class of men 
would be above all most useful to themselves indi- 
vidually and to the state in general. 


What a searching test of manhood you are 
announcing ! I have long been laughing inwardly 
to think how a philosopher would look in comparison 
with a parasite. 


Then in order to prevent you from wondering too 
much and also from thinking it a laughing matter, 
let us imagine that right here in our city 
proclamation has been made that the enemy has 
unexpectedly invaded the country; that it is 



eTre^ievat koX /ir) irepiopav e^co ByovfMevrjv rrjv yrjv, 
Tov arpaTTjybv Be irapayyeWeLV airavra^ el<; rbv 
KUTaXoyov tov<; iv rfXiKia, koX hrj ')(^ctipelv tov<; 
dWov^, iv Be Brj tovtol^ ^CXoao^ov^ Tiva<; Kal 
prjropa^ Kal 7rapaaLT0V<;. irpoiTOv roivvv airo- 
Bvacofiev avrov^' avajKr] yap roi)^ /meWovraf; 
OTrXi^eaOai yvjiivovaOaL irpojepov. Oecj Br] tou9 
dvBpa<;, w yevvale, tcaG" eKaaiov Kal Bo/cifia^e to, 
acofiara. tov^; fiev roivvv avrcjv viro evBela^ 
tBoi<; av XeTTTOu? Kal a}Xpov<;, Tre^/JtACora?, wawep 
7]Br) r pav jjLariaf; Trapetfjuevov;' aywva fiev yap kuI 
/jLd)(r]v araBiatav Kal a)6i(rp,bv Kal koviv Kal rpav- 
fiara fjut} yeXolov y Xeyeiv BvvaaOat (pepet-v dvOpco- 
TTOU? coaTrep eKeivov<; TLvb<; Beofxevov^ dvaX'^yjreax;. 

41 dOpei Be irdXiv fiera^d^ rbv irapdatrov OTrolof; 
Ti? ^aiverai. dp ov^ 6 fiev rb acofia irpcorov 
TToXu? Kal TO ')(p(bfMa rjBvf;, ov yueXa? Be ovBe 
\€vk6<; — TO /jL€V yap yvvaiKi, rb Be Bov\(p rrpoa- 
eotKCV — eireira OvfjioeiBr)^, Beivbv fiXeircov oirolov 
r)/jL€2<;, fieya Kal vcfyatfiov; ov yap KoXbv BeBoiKora 
Kal OrjXvv o^ddXfxbv eh rroXepLov (pepeiv. dp* 
ou^ o roLovro<^ Ka\b<; fiev yevoir dv Kal ^cov 
ottMtt;?, Ka\b<; Be Kal el diroOdvoi veKp6<;; ^ 

42 'AXXa ri Bel ravra elKa^ecv e'xpvra<^ avrcov 
irapaBeiyixara; aTrXw? yap elrrelv, iv TroXeyno) r(ov 
TTcoTTore prjropcov rj (ptko(jb(f>(ov ol fjuev ovBe oX&)9 
v7re/jL€Lvav e^co rov Tet^ou? irpoeXOetv, el Be rt<; Kal 
dvayKao-Oel<i iraperd^aro, (prj/jl rovrov Xeu^avra 
rr]v rd^iv viroarpe^eLv. 

^ veKp6s A.M.H.: KaXws MSS. Somraerbrodt excises 



necessary to take the field against them and not 
allow the farm-lands outside the walls to be laid 
waste, that the commander has called to the colours 
all those of military age, and that of course 
everybody is going, including certain philosophers 
and rhetoricians and parasites. First, then, let us 
strip them to the skin ; for those who are going to 
put on armour must first take off their clotlies. 
Now inspect your men, sir, one by one, and give 
them a physical examination. Some of them you 
can see to be thin and pale through privation, shud- 
dering, and as limp as if they had already been 
wounded. Surely it would be ridiculous to say that 
fighting, hand-to-hand combat, pushing, dust, and 
wounds can be borne by men like these, who need 
something to brace them up ! Pass on, and now see 
how the parasite looks ! In the first place, is he not 
generous in his proportions and pleasing in his 
complexion, neither dark nor fair of skin ; for the 
one befits a woman, and the other a slave ; and 
besides, has he not a spirited look, with a fiery 
glance like mine, high and bloodshot ? It is not 
becoming, you know, to go into battle with a 
timorous and womanish eye. Would not such a man 
make a fine soldier in life and a fine corpse if he 
should die ? ^ 

But what is the good of guessing about all this, 
when we have historical examples? To put it 
briefly, in war, of all the rhetoricians and philo- 
sophers that ever were, some have not dared to go 
outside the walls at all, and if any one of them ever 
took the field under compulsion, he deserted his 
post, I maintain, and beat a retreat. 

1 Cf . Tyrtaeus 8, 29-30, and § 55. 




'n? davfidaia Trdvra kol ovSep V7ri(r^vfj fxerpiov, 
Xeye Be ojjuco<;, 

Twv /JLeV TOIVVV prjTopcDV ^l(T0KpdT7]<; ou% O7rco9 
6t9 TToXe/jLOv e^rjkdev irore, aXV ovh^ iirl ScKaari]- 
piov dve^rj, Sia heikiaVy oI/juil, oti ovBe rrjv (jycovrjv 
Bia TovTO el^ev en. ri 8';^ ov)(l ^VH'^^V'^ /^^^ ^ct^ 
Al(T)(lv7)<; fcal ^iXoKpdrrjf; virb Beovi €vdv<; rfj 
KarayyeXla rod OtXtTTTrou iroXepLOv rrjv iroXiv 
irpovBoaav kol (r(f)d<; avTOv<; tw ^cXltttto) kol 
BteriXeaav ^AOrjvqaiv del rd e/celvov TroXirevo- 
fievoi, 09 €L ye koX dXXo<i ti<; ^ AdrjvaioL^^ Kara 
ravra iiroXepiei' Ka/cetvof; iv avrol^ rjv </)tXo9. 
'TTrepLSr]<; Be koI Arj/jLoaOevrj'; /cal AvKoupyo<;, oi 
ye Bo/covvT€<; dvBpeiorepoi kuv rat^ eKKXrj(TLaL<; del 
6opv^ovvTe<; kol XocBopov/jievoi tw ^iXltttto), ri 
TTore direipydaavTO yevvalov iv tco 7rp6<; avrov 
TToXe/xft); Kal 'TTrepuBr}^ puev koX AvKOvpyo<; ovBe 
e^rjXOov, dXX^ ovBe 0X0)9 iroXfiTjaav /xiKpov efo) 
irapaKV'^ai tS)V ttvXmv, dXX evreix^BioL iKdOrjvro 
Trap' avTOL<; T]Br] TroXLopKov/juevoL yvco/jLiBia Kal 
TT pofiovXevfidria avvTLdevTe<;. 6 Be Brj Kopv<pai,6- 
TaT09 avTCJV, 6 ravrl Xeycov ev Ta2<; eKKXrjaLaL<} 
o-L'z^6%w9* "^iXcTTTro^ ydp 6 MaKeBoov 6X€9po<;y odev 
ovBe dvBpdiToBov irpiaLTo Tt9 Trore," ToX/jL7]aa<i 

1 ri S* Fritzsche : not in MSS. 

^ ts—'Ae-nvalois A.M.H.: us—'AOrivaTos MSS. 




What assertions, all surprising and none moderate ! 
But say your say, nevertheless. 


Among the followers of rhetoric, Isocrates not only 
never went to war but never even went to court, 
through cowardice, I assume, as that is why he could 
not even keep his voice.^ And did not Demades 
and Aeschines and Philocrates, through fright, 
directly upon the declaration of war against Philip, 
betray their city and themselves to Philip and 
continually direct public affairs at Athens in the 
interest of that man, who was waging war upon the 
Athenians at that time, if ever a man was ; and 
he was their friend. Moreover, Hyperides and 
Demosthenes and Lycurgus, who put up a more 
courageous front and were always making an uproar 
and abusing Philip in the assemblies — what on earth 
did they do that was valiant in the war with him ? 
Hyperides and Lycurgus did not even take the 
field — why, they did not even dare to show their 
heads just outside the gates, but safe within the 
walls, they sat at home as if the city were already 
besieged, framing trivial motions and petty reso- 
lutions ! And as for the topmost of them, the 
man who was continually talking in the assembly 
about "Philip, the scoundrel from Macedon, where 
one could never even buy a decent slave ! " ^ he did 

* Every schoolboy knew — such was the interest in rhetoric — 
that Isocrates did not practise in the courts because his voice 
was too weak. The author pretends to think that its weak- 
ness must have been due to fright, and that therefore he was 
a terrible coward. 

" Demosthenes, Third Philippic 31. 



irpoekOelv eU rrjv l^oicorlav, irp'iv rj crv/j./jit^ai ra 
a-TparoTTeha kol av/jL^aXeiv et? ')(elpa<; plyjra^ rrjv 
aaTTiSa ecfivyev. rj ovheirco ravra irporepov hirj- 
KOuaa<; ovSevo^;, irdvv yvoopifia ovra ov)(^ ottoj? 
^ A6r)vaioL<;, aXka Spa^l kol XKvOat<;, o6ev CKelvo 
TO KaOapfxa rjv; 


43 ^KTriara/iai ravra' aXX' ovroL fiev p7]rope<; Aral 
Xoyov^; Xiyeiv '^crKTjKore^;, aperr]v he ov. ri he 
rrepX rcov (piXocrocpcov Xeyei^i; ov yap Srj rovrov<; 
ex^t'i oyairep eKeivov<^ alndadaL. 


Ovroi TrdXiv, w Tu)(idBr}, ol rrepl rr}<i dvhpeia<^ 
oarj/jLepai BiaXeyo/jievoL Kal Kararpi^ovre'^ ro rr]^ 
dperri<i ovofxa iroXXw fxaXXov rwv pijropcov (fea- 
vovvrai heiXorepoi Kal fiaXaKcorepot. (JKoirei Btj 
ovra)<;. Trpayrov fiev ovk eariv OGri<^ elirelv eyoi 
<j)iX6a-o<j)OV ev TroXe/uLw rereXevrrjKora' i^roL yap 
ovhe 6Xo)<; earparevaavro, 7) etrrep ecrrparevaavrOt 
rrdvre^ e<^vyov. ^AvnaOevr]^ fiev ovv Kal Aioyevrj^; 
Kal Kpdr7)<; Kal Ztjvcov Kal TlXdrcov Kal Ala^i'VV^ 
Kal \\piaroreXr)<i Kal irdf; ovro<; 6 o/jliXo^; ovhe 
elSov irapdra^LV fJL6vo<; 8e roXfirjaa^; e^eXOelv eU 
rrjv iirl ArjXia) ^ fid^V^ ^ 0"0^09 avrcov ScoKpdrr)<; 
<f>evy(op eKeWev diro rr)<^ TIdpvr}Oo<; el<i riiv Tavpeov 

^ eVi Ar)\li{) Gesner : eV ttj WAet MSS. 

^ The story that Demosthenes played the coward at 
Chaeronea was spread by his political enemies Aeschines 
(3, 244 ; 253) and Pytheas (Plut. Demosth. 20) ; see also 
Gellius 17, 21. 



venture to join the advance into Boeotia, but before 
the armies joined battle and began to fight at close 
quarters he threw away his shield and fled ! ^ Has 
nobody ever told you that before? It is very well 
known, not only to the Athenians, but to the people 
of Thrace and Scythia, where that vagabond came 
from. 2 


I know all that. They were orators, however, who 
cultivated speech-making, not virtue. What have 
you to say about the philosophers ? Surely you are 
not able to censure them as you did the others. 


They in turn, Tychiades, though they talk every 
day about courage and wear the word virtue smooth, 
will be found far more cowardly and effeminate than 
the orators. Look at it from this standpoint. In the 
first place, there is nobody that can mention a 
philosopher who died in battle ; either they did not 
enter the service at all, or if they did, every one of 
them ran away. Antisthenes, Diogenes, Crates, Zeno, 
Plato, Aeschines, Aristotle, and all that motley array 
never even saw a line of battle. The only one who 
had the courage to go out for the battle at Delium, 
their wise Socrates, fled the field, fleeing for cover all 
the way from Parnes to the gymnasium of Taureas.^ 

2 Cleobule, the mother of Demosthenes, was said to be 
Scythian on her mother's side (Aesch. 3, 171). 

'^ As a matter of fact Socrates displayed conspicuous valour 
in the retreat from Delium (Plato, Laches 181 b). The 
allusion to the gymnasium of Taureas rests upon a hazy re- 
collection of the opening of the Charmides, where Socrates 
says that he visited it on the morning after his return from 
Potidaea. Furthermore, there were no Spartan troops at 



irakaicTT pav Karecfyvyev. ttoXv yap avro) acrreto- 
repov iSo/cei fiera rcov fieipaKvWicov KaOe^ofievov 
oapL^eiv KoX (TO(f)LafidTia irpopaXkeiv to?9 ivTvy- 
')(^dvovaLV rj avBpl XTrapridrr) ^d')(e(T6aL. 


'fl yevvale, ravra fiev ijBrj koI irap dWcov 
iiTv66fir)v, ov fia Ala CTKcoTTreiv avTOv<; Kal oveihi- 
^eiv ^ovXo/jLevcov c^are ovBiv ri fjuoL Bok€l<; %a/3A- 
t^ofievo^ rj] aeavTOv re^vr) KarayjrevBeaOai rwv 
44 dvBpcov. a)OC el Bokgl rjBrj, ^epe fcal arij rov 
irapdcTLTOv oTroio? Tt9 io-rtv iv iroXe/xq) Xiye, Kal 
el Ka66X(o<;^ Xiyerai irapdaiTO'i rt? yeveadai rcov 


Kal /J't]Vf w (piXoTrjf;, ovBel<; ovtco^;^ dvrjKoo^ 
*OfJLrjpov, ovS* av irdfJUTrap IBicoTrjf; rv^V' ^'^ °^^ 
eiriaTarai irap avro) tov<; dpiarov; rcov rjpoawv 
Trapaalrov; ovra^. 6 re yap 'Nearwp €K€lvo<;, ov 
aTTO TTjf; yXo)TTr]<; Mairep /jbiXi 6 X070? direppeiy^ 
avTov rov ^aaiXeco^ irapdaiTO^ rjv, Kal ovre rov 
*A')(^tXXia, oanep iBoKei re Kal ^v to atofxa yevvaib- 
TaT09, 01/T6 rov AiOfn]Br)v ovre rov Atavra 6 
^Aya/jbifivcov ovrco^; iiraivel t€ kuI Oavfid^eu wairep 
TOP l^siaropa. ovBe yap BeKa Atavra^ ev^^erai 
yeveadai avrw ovre BeKa ^A^iXXea^:' irdXaL S* av 
eaX(OK€vac rrjv Tpoiav, el tolovtov<; 6itoIo<; rjv 
ovTO^ 6 irapdaLTo^;, Kaiirep yepcov a>v, cnpaTLoaraf; 
el')(€v BeKa. Kal rov ^IBo/ievea rov rov Afo? eyyo- 
vov TrapdaiTov ^ AyafjL€/JLVovo<; ofiolw^ Xeyei* 

1 KaeoXus A.M.H.: Kal HXcas MSS. 

* ovTws Dindorf : not in MSS. 

* avfppei vulg. : airoppci MSS. 


He thought it far nicer to sit and philander with 
boys and propound petty sophistries to anyone who 
should come along than to fight with a Spartan 


My excellent friend, I have already heard this 
from others, who certainly did not wish to ridicule 
or libel them ; so I do not in the least think that 
you are belying them out of partiality to your own 
art. But if you are now willing, tell what the 
parasite is like in war, and whether anybody at all 
among the ancient heroes is said to have been a 


Why, my dear friend, no one is so unfamiliar with 
Homer, even if he is completely unlettered, as not to 
know that in him the noblest of the heroes are 
parasites ! The famous Nestor, from whose tongue 
speech flowed like honey, was parasite to the king 
himself; and neither Achilles, who seemed and was 
the finest in physique, nor Diomed nor Ajax was so 
lauded and admired by Agamemnon as Nestor. He 
does not pray to have ten of Ajax or ten of Achilles, 
but says that he would long ago have taken Troy if 
he had had ten soldiers like that parasite, old as he 
was. 2 Idomeneus, too, the son of Zeus, is similarly 
spoken of as parasite to Agamemnon.^ 

* The first orators were found in Homer ; notably Odysseus, 
Nestor, Menelaus. Also the beginnings of philosophy (Philod. 
2, frg. xxi). So the first parasites should be found there. 

» Iliad 2, 371-374. ^ m^^ 4^ 257-263. 




45 TavTa fiev Koi avro^ eV/cTTa/xaf ovttco ye /irjv 
BoKCt) fjLOL yiyvMaKUv, iTOi^ Bt) TO) avBp6 Tft) 'Aya- 
fJLeiJbvovi wapdaiTOL rjcrav. 

^Ava/jLv^aOi^Ti, (o yevpale, rcov iirajv i/celvcov 
wvTTep avTo^ 6 ^KyafiifJLvwv irpo^ rov ^IBofievea 




^ov Be irXelov Be7ra<; alel 
€arr})(^ Mairep ifiol ineeLv ore du/io^ avcoyoL. 

ivravda yap to alel irXelov Beira^ etprjKev ov^ 
OTL TO TTOTrjpLov Bia 7ravT0<; 7rXrjpe<; eaTrjKeL T(p 
^IBofievec Kal /uta'^o/jLeva) Kal KaOevBovTi, aX}C otl 
avTw Bi* oXov Tov piov p,6v(p avvBenrvelv vTrrjp^ev 
T(p /SaaiXel, ov^ cjaTrep tol^ XolttoI^; (TTpaTiooTaL^ 
7rp6<; r)/jiepa<; TLva<s KaXovfievoL<^. 

Tov jxev yap AiavTa, errel KaX(o<; e/xovofid^rjaev 
T(p "^KTOpLt " el<; ^ A.y a i^efiv ova Btov dyov,^' (fyrja-iv, 
KaTCL TLp^rjv d^LcoOevTa oyjre tov irapa tw ^aacXel 
BeiiTvov. 6 Be ^\Bop,evev<; Kal 6 NecTTCop oarj/xepaL 
(TweBeLTTvovv Tw ^aaiXel, co? avTO^ (f)r]aLV. NeV- 
Tcop Be irapdaiTo^ jjloi BoKel tcov fiaaiXecov fMuXiaTa 
Te^i/tTTy? /cal dya6o<; yeveaOar ov yap errl tov 
* Ay a fie fjLV0V0<; dp^aaOai t/}^ Te%y7;9, dXXd dvwdev 
iirl Katveayf; Kal ^R^aBlov BoKel Be ovBe av 



Of course I myself know all this, but I do not 
think that I yet see how the two men were parasites 
to Agamemnon. 


Remember, my friend, those lines that Agamemnon 
himself addresses to Idomeneus. 


What lines? 


'' Your beaker has always 
Stood full, even as mine, to be drunk when the 
spirit should move you." ^ 

For in saying there that the beaker "always stood 
full," he did not mean that Idomeneus' cup stood full 
under all circumstances, even when he fought or 
when he slept, but that he alone was privileged to 
eat with the king all the days of his life, unlike 
the rest of the soldiers, who were invited only on 
certain days. 

As for Ajax, when he had fought gloriously in 
single combat with Hector, " they brought him to 
great Agamemnon," ^ Homer says, and by way of 
special honour, he was at last counted worthy of 
sharing the king's table. But Idomeneus and Nestor 
dined with the king daily, as he himself says. 
Nestor, indeed, in my opinion was the most work- 
manlike and efficient parasite among the kings ; he 
began the art, not in the time of Agamemnon, but 
away back in the time of Caeneus and Exadius,^ 

1 Iliad 4, 262-263. « Iliad 7, 312. 

3 Two generations earlier ; Iliad 1, 250, 264. 



TravaaaOai Trapaairoyv, el firj 6 * AyajuLCfivav 


OvT oal fiev jevvalo<i 6 irapdairo*;. el Se Kal 
a\\ov<; TLva^ olaOa, ireipo) Xiyeiv, 

46 Tl ovv, (o Tv^idBrj, ovj^t Kal TldrpoKXo^; rov 
'A^£XXea)9 7rapdatT0<; rjv, koX ravra ovhevo<; twv 
dWcov 'EW^vcov (pavXorepof; ovre ttjv "^vXV^ 
ovre TO awjjia veavia<; wv; iyco yap ovS^ avrov 
fioi BoKOt) rov 'A;^fXA,ea)9 reK/naipeaOai tol<; epyoL<; 
avTov %et/3ft) elvar rov re yap '^Efcropa prj^avja 
T<X9 TTvXa^ Kal irapa Tal<; vavalv etaw \xayop.evov 
ovTo^ e^ewaev Kal rrjv UpoyreaLkdov vavv ^8rj 
Kaio/xevrjv eor^eaev, KaLroi eire^drevov avrrj^ oup^ 
ol (^avXoTaTOi, dXX* ol rod TeXaficovo^ Ataq re 
Kal T€VKpo<;, 6 fxev ottXlttj^; dya06<i, 6 Be To^orrji;. 
Kal 7roXXov<i fiev dTreKreive roop ffapffdpcov, ev Be 
Bt) TOVTOi^ Kal XapTrrjBova top iralBa tov Ato?, 
6 TrapdatTQi; tov *Axt,XXe(o<;. Kal direOapep Be 
ov^^l T0i9 dXXoL<; ojJLoiw^, dXXa top ^ puep "EiKTOpa 
*Axi'XXev<; drreKTeiPep, el<; epo^ Kal avTOP top 
^A'^iXXea IldpL<;, top Be irapdauTOP 6eo<; Kal Bvo 
dpOpcoTTOi. Kal TcXevTCOP Be ^a)pa<{ d(f)7]Kep ov^ 
oXa<i 6 y€PPai6TaT0<i "EKToap Kal Trpoa-TrlTrrcop top 
'A^tXXea Kal iKeTevcop otto)? o P€Kpb<; avTov rot? 

^ aWa rhv Fritzsche : oAA' avrop MSS. 



and by all appearances would never have stopped 
practising it if x\gamemnon had not been killed. 


He was a doughty parasite, I grant you. Try to 
name some more, if you know of any. 


What, Tychiades, was not Patroclus parasite to 
Achilles, and that too although he was quite as fine 
a young man, both in spirit and in physique, as any 
of the other Greeks ? For my part I think 1 am 
right in concluding from his deeds that he was not 
even inferior to Achilles himself. When Hector 
broached the gates and was fighting within them 
beside the ships, it was he that thrust him out and 
extinguished the ship of Protesilaus, which was 
already in flames. Yet the fighters who manned 
that ship were not the most cowardly of all : they 
were the sons of Telamon, Ajax and Teucer, one of 
whom was a good spearman, the other a good archer. 
And he slew many of the barbarians, among them 
Sarpedon, the son of Zeus, this parasite of Achilles ! 
In his death too, he was not to be compared with the 
others. Achilles slew Hector, man to man, and Paris 
slew Achilles himself, but it needed a god and two 
men to slay the parasite.^ And in dying, the words 
that he uttered were not like those of noble Hector, 
who humbled himself before Achilles and besought 
that his body be given back to his family ; no, tliey 

^ Apollo, Hector, and Euphorbus, Hector's squire ; Iliad 
16, 849-850. 



olK€LOi<i arroSoOy, a\X* OLa<; eiVo? acpelvat Trapd- 

roiovTOi 5' elirep poi €€lko(tiv avre^oKr^aav, 
iravre^ k avrod^ oXovto ifiu> vtto Bovpl Sa/ieWe?. 


47 Tavra fi€V iKavw^' otl he jxr) <J)l\o<; dWa 
TTapdcnro^ tjv 6 IldTpoK\o<; rod * A)(^iWeo)<s ireipco 

AvTov, CO Tv)(^idBrj, Tov liaTpoKkov on irapd- 
(TiTOf; rjv Xeyovrd croc Trape^ofxat. 


@avfjiaard Xiyeif;, 


"Kkove roivvv avrcov rcov iircdv 

firj ifjid aCiv dirdvevde Ti6r]p.evaL oare, 'A^j^iWeO, 
a\V ofjiov, ft)9 irpd^rjv irep ev vjierepoLaL B6/jiOiai. 

fcal TrdXtv uTroySa?, " kol vvv jne Be^d/ievo^i,^' (f)r]aLV, 
" YirfXev<^ 

€rp€(j)€v €vBvKea)<; Koi crov Oepdirovr ovop^rjve^ 

rovT6(Tri irapdaiTov elx^v. el fiev roivvv (plXov 
epovXero tov YldrpoKXov Xeyeiv, ovk dv avrbv 
wvofia^ev depdirovra' iXevOepo^i yap rjv 6 Hdrpo- 
kXo<;. Tiva^ roivvv Xiyei rov<; Oepdirovra^;, el 



were the sort of words that a parasite would naturally 
utter. What were they, do you ask ? 

" Even if twenty such men had come in my way in 
the battle. 
All would have met their death, laid low by my 
spear on the instant." ^ 


Enough said as to that; but try to show that 
Patroclus was not the friend but the parasite of 


I shall cite you Patroclus himself, Tychiades, 
saying that he was a parasite. 


That is a surprising statement. 


Listen then to the lines themselves: 

" Let my bones not lie at a distance from thine, 
O Achilles : 
Let them be close to your side, as I lived in the 
house of our kindred." ^ 

And again, farther on, he says : " And now Peleus 
took me in and 

Kept me with kindliest care, and gave me the 
name of thy servant." ^ 

That is, he maintained him as a parasite. If he 
had wanted to call Patroclus a friend, he would not 
have given him the name of servant, for Patroclus 
was a freeman. Whom, then, does he mean by 

» Iliad 16, 847. ' Iliad 23, 83. ^ m^fi 23, 89. 



fXTjTe Tou? hov\ov<; fii]T€ TOv<; (f)L\ov<;; TOv<i irapa- 
crLTOV<; BrjXov otl' y kol tov ^rjpLovrjv tov 'ISo- 
fieveco'; kol avrov Oepdirovra ovofid^ei.^ 

^KOTrei Se on Koi iuravOa tov fiev ^iBo/ievia 
Afc09 ovra vlov ovk d^iol Xeyeiv " drdXavrov 
"Apr^i," M.r)pt6vrjv Be tov irapdaLTOv avTOv. 

48 Tt Be; ovxl "^ctt ^ApiaToyeuTCDv, B7}/jL0TLKb<i cov 
Kal irevrjf;, wairep %0VKvBiBri<^ (fyyjai,, 7rapdaLT0<; r}v 
* KpjioBiov; tL Be; ov')(i Kal epaaTi]<;; e7neLK(o<; yap 
ol TTapdcTLTOL Kal epacTTal twv TpecjiovTcov elcriv. 
o^T0<; TOLvvv TrdXiv 6 irapdaLT0<; tj-jv W.6r]vai(ov 
TToXiv Tvpavvoviievrjv eh eXevOeplav d(f)€L\eT0, Kal 
vvv eaTJjKe ')(a'kKov'^ ev ttj dyopa jieTcu tcov TraiBi- 


OvTOL /JL€v B^, TOLoiBe 6vTe<;, fJidXa dyaOol irapd- 
CTLTOi rjaav. 

49 Su Be Brj TTOLov Tiva elKd^ei^ ev 7ro\e/jL(p tov 
TrapdacTov; ov^l irpodTov fjuev 6 tolovto^ dpiaTO- 
7roLT]adfi€vo(; e^eiaiv eirl ttjv TrapdTa^iv, KaOdirep 
Kal 6 ^OBva(T€v<i d^iol; ov yap aWw? ev '7ro\ep>q) 
/xd^ecrOaLf </)?ycrtr, eaTiv, el Kal^ evOv<; dfia ew 
yLta%€cr^ai BeoL. Kal ov dWot aTpaTicjTac 'X^povov 
VTTO Beov<; 6 fxev Tt9 aKpi^o)^ dpfio^et to Kpdvo<i, 
6 Be OwpdKiov €vBv€Tai, 6 Be avTo to Bslvov 
v7ro7rT€V(ov TOV TToXe/jLov Tpe/iet, ovto<; Be eaOiei 
TOTe fxdXa (jyaiBpw tw irpoadynw Kal /leTa ttjv 
e^oBov eu9v<; ev Trp cot ol<; BLaywvi^eTar 6 Be Tpe<f)cov 
avTOV oTTLaOev viroTeTaKTai t& irapaaiTw, KaKel- 

^ MSS. (except r) add oZrws olfiai Ka\ovfi4puv rSrt rwv 
itapaairvv, excised by Hirschig, Jacobitz. 

2 Text A.M.H.: oh yhp d\A' %v 4v iro\e/xy fxax^trdai <pt](Tiv 

fffTtdfffl Kol MSS. 


servants, if not either friends or slaves ? Parasites, 
evidently. In the same way he calls Meriones too a 
servant of Idomeneus.^ 

Observe also that in the same passage it is not 
Idomeneus, the son of Zeus, whom he thinks fit to 
call " unyielding in battle," but Meriones, his 

Again, was not Aristogeiton, who was a man of 
the people and a pauper, as Thucydides says, parasite 
to Harmodius?^ Was he not his lover also? Naturally 
parasites are lovers of those who support them. 
Well, this parasite restored the city of Athens to 
freedom when she was in bondage to a tyrant, and 
now his statue stands in bronze in the public square 
along with that of his favourite. 

Certainly these men, who were of such distinction, 
were very doughty parasites. 

What is your own inference as to the character of 
the parasite in war ? In the first place, does he not 
get his breakfast before he leaves his quarters to fall 
in, just as Odysseus thinks it right to do ? Under no 
other circumstances, he says, is it possible to continue 
fighting in battle even if one should be obliged to 
begin fighting at the very break of day.* While the 
other soldiers in affright are adjusting their helmets 
with great pains, or putting on their breastplates, or 
quaking in sheer anticipation of the horrors of war, 
the parasite eats with a very cheerful visage ; and 
directly after marching out he begins to fight in the 
first line. The man who supports him is posted in 
the second line, behind the parasite, who covers 

' Iliad 13, 246. 2 jii^d 13, 295. 

> Thucydides 6, 54, 2. * Iliad 19, 160-163. 



1^09 avTOV axTTrep 6 Am? rov TevKpov viro t& 
acLKei Kokvinei, koX tmv jBekMV d(l>c€fji6va)V yv/x- 
pcoaa<; eavrov tovtov o-Keirer ffovXerai yap i/celvov 
fxaWov (TU)^€tv rj iavrov. 

50 Et 8e Br) Koi ireaoL irapdcnTOf; iv TroXefjuM, ov/c 

dv CTT aVTW BljlTOV OVT€ \0')(^CLyO<i OVT€ (TTpaTLCOTrj'i 

ala-x^vvOeLT} /leydXa) re ovn vexpo) /cal coairep iv 
av/jLTToala) Kokw Ka\a)<; KaraKeipevo). co? d^iov 
ye (f)L\oo-6(f>GV veKpov ihelv rovro) irapaKeifievov, 
^rjpov, pVTTMvra, jxaKpov TreoycovLOv e^ovra, irpo- 
redvrjKora t^9 p,d')(r]<i, daOevrj dvOpcoTTOV. rt? ovk 
dv fcaracfypov^a-ete Tavrr]^ tt)? TroXeo)? rov<; viraa- 
7TLaTd<; avT7]<; oi/to)? KaKohaifiova^i opcov; rt? Be 
OVK dv eiKaaaL, ')(X(opov(; kol Ko/jLi]Ta<; opcov dvOpco- 
iri(TKov<; fcetfi€vov(;, rr]v ttoXiv diropovcrav avp^fid- 
')((ov T0U9 iv TTJ elp/CTTJ KaKovpyov<; iiriXvaai rep 

ToiovTOL fjbev iv irdXep^wirpo'^ pr)Topa<; Kal (f>L\o- 

51 a6(f)ov<; elalv ol irapdaiTOi. iv elp^jvrj Be roaovrw 
fioi BoKel Bia(j)ep€i,v^ TrapacnrLKr) (pLXocrocpla^; ocrov 
avrrj 1) elprjVJ] iroXe/jLOV. 

Kal TTpcarov, el BoKel, aKOTrcofiev rd rrj<; elprjvr]^ 


Oi;7r&j (TvvirjfJLt 6 ri rovro ttw? ^ovXerai, (tko- 
TTMpev Be ofjbwf;. 

OvKovv dyopdv Kal BiKaarijpia Kal 7raXaiarpa<i 
Kal yvfJLvdaia Kal Kvvrjyeaia Kal avjjL7r6(Tia eycoye 
<i)aLr)v dv ir6X€a)<! ^^P^^* 

^ dia<p4pfiv vulg. ; Ka\ dia<pfpetv MSS. 


him with his shield as Ajax covered Teucer, and 
when missiles are flying exposes himself to protect 
his patron ; for he prefers to save his patron rather 
than himself. 

If a parasite should actually fall in battle, certainly 
neither captain nor private soldier would be ashamed 
of his huge body, elegantly reclining as at an elegant 
banquet. Indeed it would be worth one's while to 
look at a philosopher's body lying beside it, lean, 
squalid, with a long beard, a sickly creature dead 
before the battle ! Who would not despise this city 
if he saw that her targeteers were such wretches ? 
Who, when he saw pale, long-haired varlets lying 
on the field, would not suppose that the city for 
lack of reserves had freed for service the malefactors 
in her prison ? 

That is how parasites compare with rhetoricians 
and philosophers in war. In peace, it seems to me. 
Parasitic excels philosophy as greatly as peace itself 
excels war. 

First, if you please, let us consider the strongholds 
of peace. 


I do not understand what that means, but let us 
consider it all the same. 


Well, I should say that market-places, law-courts, 
athletic fields, gymnasia, hunting-parties and dinners 
were a city's strongholds. 



UdpV fjL€V OVP, 

'O Toivvv irapdaLTO^ eh dyopdv fiev koX Bi/ca- 
arrjpLa ov TrdpeiaLv, on,, roh av/co(pdvTai<; 
Trdvra rd ')(^u)pia ravra fxaXkov Trpoa-rjKeL /cat on 
ovBev fieTpLov io-nv rcov ev rovroi<; ycyvo/jLepcov, rd<; 
Be iraXaiarpa^ Kal rd yvfxvdaLa /cal rd avfiTroaia 
StcoKeL fcal Koafjuel fi6vo<; ovto<;. iirel rt? ev TraXai- 
arpa (J3Lk6ao(j)0<; rj pTjrcop d7ro8v<; d^io<; dvyKpi- 
Orjvai Trapaairov rw acofian; r) rt? ev yvjxvaaicp 
rovrcov 6(f)6el'; ovfc ala')(vvrj fjidWov rov ')(copLov 
eari; koI /jltjv ev epr^fxia rovrcov ovSeU dv viro- 
(rralri drjplov ofiocre lov, o Be irapdairo^; avrd re 
eiTLovra /levei koI Se^erai pahiw^, /ji€/ji€Xerr)K(o<i 
avrojv ev rot<; BeiirvoL^ Karacjipovelv, /cal ovre 
eXa^o? ovre crO? avrov eKirXijrrei 7re(f)piKct)<i, dWd 
Kav eir avrov o 0-O9 rov oSovra Orjyr), Kal 6 irapd- 
airo<i eVl rov avv dvnOrjyeL. rov<^ fiev ydp \ayd)<; 
SicoKeL fidWov rcov kvvwv. ev he Srj avfjuroaim 
ri's dv Kal d/jLiX\ijaaLro irapaaircp i]roL nrai^ovn 
rj eadiovn; ri<^ S* dv pbdXKov evcppdvai rov^ av/jL- 
TTora^; irorepov irore ovro<; aScov Kal crKO)7rr(ov, 
rj dv6p(orro<^ firj yeXwv, ev rpi^cdvm Keifxevof;, et? 
rr]v yrjv opcjv, ojcrirep eirl 7revOo<; ov')(l avfiTTocnov 
rjKfov; Kal epioiye BoKel, ev avfiTroa-LO) (f)L\oa'0(f)o<f 
roLovrov eanv olov ev ^aXaveiw kvwv. 
52 ^epe Srj ravra d(j)evre<; eV avrov ySr] /SaBi^cDfjiev 
rov ^lov rov Trapaairov, aKOirovvre^ dpua Ka\ 
irapa^dWovre^ eKelvov. 

ilpoirov roivvv iBoi n<; dv rov fjuev irapdairov 




To be sure. 


The parasite does not appear in the market-place 
or the courts because, I take it, all these points are 
more appropriate to swindlers, and because nothing 
that is done in them is good form ; but he frequents 
the athletic fields, the gymnasia, and the dinners, 
and ornaments them beyond all others. On the 
athletic field what philosopher or rhetorician, once 
he has taken his clothes off, is fit to be compared 
with a parasite's physique ? What one of them 
when seen in the gymnasium is not actually a 
disgrace to the place ? In the wilds, too, none of 
them could withstand the charge of a beast ; the 
parasite, however, awaits their attack and receives it 
easily, having learned to despise them at dinners ; 
and neither stag nor bristling boar affrights him, but 
if the boar whets his tusks for him, the parasite 
whets his own for the boar ! After a hare he is as 
keen as a hound. And at a dinner, who could 
compete with a parasite either in making sport or in 
eating? Who would make the guests merrier? He 
with his songs and jokes, or a fellow who lies there 
without a smile, in a short cloak, with his eyes upon 
the ground, as if he had come to a funeral and not 
to a banquet ? In my opinion, a philosopher at a 
banquet is much the same thing as a dog in a bath- 
house ! 

Come now, let us dismiss these topics and forth- 
with turn to the parasite's way of living, considering 
at the same time and comparing with it that of 
the others. 

In the first place, you can see that the parasite 



ae\ h6^r)<^ KaracppovouvTa Ka\ ovSev avro) jxeKov 
6 Ti av ^ ol avOpwTTOi otwvTai irepl avrov, prjTopa<i 
he Koi ^i\oa6(})Ov<; evpoc t^? av ov rivd^, a\\a 
irdvTa'i VTTO TV(f)ov fcal B6^7]<; rpifievra^;, Kal ov 
S6^7j<; fiovov, dXka Kal o tovtov aXG'yjLov iariv, 
VTT dpyvpiov. Kal 6 jxev irapdairo^ ol/to)? e^et, 
7r/3o? dp'yvpLov o)? ovk av Ti<? ovhe 7rpo<; ra? iv 
rot? aljia\oL<; '\lrr](f>lSa<; d/neKctx; e^ot, Kal ovBev 
avTW hoKel 8La(f)ep6LV to 'X^pvalov tov irvpo^. oi 
fye firjv p't]TOp€(;, Kal o BeivoTcpov icmv, Kal ol 
<j)iXoao(f)€Lv (f>d(TK0VT6<; 7r/)09 avrd ovtco^ BtaKeivrai 
KaKoSaLfiovcof;, ware rwv fidXiara vvv evhoKL- 
fjLOvvTcov (jicXoaocpcov — Trepl /iiev yap twv pTjTopcov rl 
Bel \iy€Lv; — o /xev BiKd^wv Blktjv 8coyoo£? eV avrfj 
idXco,'^ 6 Be irapd ^aaiXeco^ virep tov avvelvai 
fxiadov alrel Kal ovk alcr^vverai, on ^ 7rp6a^vrrj<; 
dvrjp Blo, rovTO diroBrjiiel Kal fjLiaOo^opel KaOdirep 
'Ii'So? rj ^KvOrj^ al'X^fjidXddTo'i, Kal ovBe avro ro 
ovofia ala'XvveTai o Xafifidvei. 
53 Eupot? B^ av ov fiovov ravra Trepl tovtov<;, dWa 
Kal dWa irdOr), olov XuTra? Kal opyd^ Kal (f)06vov<; 
Kal 7ravT0La<; eVi^u/xta?. 6 ye firjv irapdairo^ 
e^coOev TOVTcov iarlv aTrdvTwv ovre yap opyl^erai 
Bl dve^iKaKiav Kal on ovk eanv avra> otw opyi- 
aOeir]' Kal el dyavaKTrjo-eiev Be irore, r] opyij 
avTOV 'x^aXeirov fjuev ovBe aKvOpcoirbv ovBev direp- 
yd^erai, fiaXkov Be yeXwra^ Kal evcfypaivei tou? 
avvovra^. Xvirelrai ye fiyv rjKLCTTa TrdvTcov, tovto 

1 Tihy Fritzsche : ri tip MSS. (ti wv r' : ajv vulg.). 

2 MSS. (except rnz^) add aW 6 fitv {&\\os Sf N) fitadhy 
<ro<pL<Trev(av elcrirpaTTeTai rovs ixavQavovTas, excised by Jacobitz. 

3 oVi A.AI.H.: rrt (errt) MSS. 


always despises reputation and does not care at 
all what people think about him, but you will find 
that rhetoricians and philosophers, not merely here 
and there but everywhere, are harassed by self- 
esteem and reputation — yes, not only by reputation, 
but what is worse than that, by money I The para- 
site feels greater contempt for silver than one would 
feel even for the pebbles on the beach, and does not 
think gold one whit better than fire. The rhetori- 
cians, however, and what is more shocking, those 
who claim to be philosophers, are so wretchedly 
affected by it that among the philosophers who are 
most famous at present — for why should we speak 
of the rhetoricians ? — one was convicted of taking 
a bribe when he served on a jury, and another 
demands pay from the emperor as a private tutor ; 
he is not ashamed that in his old age he resides 
in a foreign land on this account and works for 
wages like an Indian or Scythian prisoner of war 
— not even ashamed of the name that he gets 
by it.i 

You will find too that they are subject to other 
passions as well as these, such as distress, anger, 
jealousy, and all manner of desires. The parasite is 
far from all this ; he does not become angry because 
he is long-suffering, and also because he has nothing 
to get angry at ; and if he should become indignant 
at any time, his temper does not give rise to any 
unpleasantness or gloom, but rather to laughter, and 
makes the company merry. He is least of all subject 

^ The allusion is uncertain. The emperor is probably 
Marcus Aurelius ; if so, the philosopher may be Sextus of 
Chaeronea, or the Apollonius whom Lucian mentions in 
Demonax 31. 



T^9 Te)(^ur)^ irapaa Keva^ovar)<; avrw Koi ')(^api^o- 
fjL€vr)<;, fXT] 6')(€Lv vTTep OTOU \v7rriBeir)' ovre 'yap 
')(p7]pc»Td i(TTLV avTw ovre oIko<; ovre olfC6T7j(; ovre 
yvvT) oihe iralBe^, wv hia^OeLpofjievodv iraaa avdyKt) 
earl XvirelcrOai rov e^ovTa avTa} eiriOvfiel Se 
0VT6 86^r)<; ovT€ ')(pr]/jLdT(ov, a\V ovSe wpaiov 



54 'AXV, CO ^I/jlcov, et/co9 76 ivheia rpocfii]^ Xvtttj- 
OrjvaL avTov. 


^A.'yvoel^, 0) Tv')(^td8rj, on i^ a/0%% ovSe irapd- 
o-tTO? icrriv ovro<;, 6(TTi<i diropel Tpo(j)rj<;' ovSe yap 
dvSpeio^ diropia dvhpeia<i icrlv dvBp€L0<;, ovBk 
<f)p6vt/jL0'i diropia (fipevcjv ianv <^p6vLfio<;' aK\w<i 
yap ovBe ^ 7rapdairo<; av etrj. irpoKeiraL Be r^puv 
Trepl TrapaaLTOV ^rjreLV ovro^, ov')(l p.r} ovto^. el 
Be^ dvBpelo<; ovk aXXco? 17 irapovaia dvBpeio- 
T77T09 Ka\ 6 ^p6vLpiO<; irapovala (^povrjae(o<;, /cal 6 
irapdaLTO^ Be Trapovala rod irapacnrelv 7rapd(TiT0<; 
earar ft)9 et ye rovro firj virdp^oc avrw, Trepl 
dWov Tiv6<;, Kal ovy^i irapacTirov, ^rjrrjcyoixev. 


OvKovp ovBeirore dirop^^aei Trapdcnro'; rpocprjf;; 


"RoLKev oiare ovr iirl tovtco out eV aXXo)* 
€(7tIv OTft) XvTrrjOeirj dv. 

^ MSS. add : cirel toCto airoXXwrai^ omitted by Lascaris. 

^ yap ovSh vulg. : 7* oijre MSS. 

» «t Se vulg. : €t 5e fii] MSS. 

* o(jt' iwl rovTcp oUt' iv' fiAAy Vulg. : in] Tovrcf ovk iv' &\\a> 



to distress, as his art supplies him gratuitously with 
the advantage of having nothing to be distressed 
about. For he has neither money nor house nor 
servant nor wife nor children, over which, if they go 
to ruin, it is inevitable that their possessor should 
be distressed. And he has no desires, either for 
reputation or money, or even for a beautiful 


But, Simon, at least he is likely to be distressed by 
lack of food. 


You fail to understand, Tychiades, that a priori 
one who lacks food is not a parasite. A brave man 
is not brave if he lacks bravery, nor is a sensible man 
sensible if he lacks sense. On any other supposition 
the parasite would not exist ; and the subject of our 
investigation is an existent, not a non-existent 
parasite. If the brave man is brave for no other 
reason than because he has bravery at his command, 
and the sensible man because he has sense at his 
command, so, too, the parasite is a parasite because 
he has food at his command ; consequently, if this 
be denied him, we shall be studying some other sort 
of man instead of a parasite. 


Then a parasite will never lack food ? 


So it appears ; therefore he cannot be distressed, 
either by that or by anything else whatsoever. 



55 Kat iJLr)V fcal Traj/re? 6/jlov koI (^iXoao^oi Kal 
prjTOp€<; (po^ovvrai, fiaXiara. rov^ ye rot ttXcl- 
crTOL'9 avTOJv evpoL ti<; av /jbera ^vXov TTpoiovras, 
ovK av 8r] TTOV, el /xr) e(fiofiovvTO, oDTrXia/ievov^, 
Kal ra? 6vpa^ Be fxaXa ippco/iievco^ airoicXeiovra^, 
fii] T£9 dpa vvKTwp iTTipovXevaetev avTOL<; BeBio- 
Ta<;. 6 Be rrjv Ovpav rov Bco/Jbarlov TrpoariOijaiv 
elKY), Kal TOVTO CO? /jlt) vtt dvep^ov avoL^Oeir), Kal 
jevo/xevov '^o^ov vvKTcop ovBev re fjuaXXov Oopv- 
^elrat t) p.rj yevo/iievov, Kal Bi iprjfjila^ Be aiTLUiv 
dvev ^L(j}ov<; oBevec (f)ofielrai yap ovBev ovBa/xov. 
(pLXoa6(l)Ov<; Be i]Br] 670) iroXXdKi<^ elBov, ovBevof; 
6vT0<i Beivov, To^a eveaKevaa jievov;' ^vXa fiev 
yap e'XpvaLV Kal eU ^aXavelov d7ri6vT6<; Kal eir 

56 TlapacTLTOv pAvTOi ovBeU e^oi Kart^yoprjaai 
fMOLX^lav Tj ^lav r) dpTTayr)V rj dXXo n dBuKij/jLa 
aTrXco?* iirel 6 ye TOLovro<; ovk av elr) irapdaLTO^y 
aXV eavTov eKe2vo<; dBiKel. a>aT el /jLOLxevcra^; 
TVXOL, dfjia TO) dBiK'^/iari Kal rovvofxa /jberaXa/i- 
pdveu Tov dBiKrjfjLaTO^. wairep yap 6 dya6o<i 
<j)avXa TTOiSiv Bid tovto ovk dyad6<^} dXXd (j)avXo<i 
elvac dvaXafjL^dveL, ovrco<;, ol/xai, Kal 6 irapd- 
o-tTO?, idv TL dBiKfi, avTO fxev rovro oirep iarlv 
diro^dXXei, dvaXa/jb/Sdvec Be b dBiKec. dBcKTj/jLaTa 
Be roiavra p'ijropcov Kal ^iXoaocficov d^Oova ov 
fjLovov i(T/iev avTol ^ yeyovora KaO^ Tj/id^;, dXXd 

^ Text A.M.H. : wairep rh ovk ayaOos T^HZ, (Lairep oh rh 
ayaQos F-, other MSS. So-n-ep Se 6 KUKhs ov rh ayadhs Jacobitz, 
&<nr€p Se 6 i^ ayadov (pavXos ov rh ayados Fritzsclie. 

2 avTol Cobet : avroh MSS. 



Moreover, all the philosophers and rhetoricians, to 
a man, are particularly timid. At all events you will 
find that most of them appear in public with a staff 
— of course they would not have armed themselves 
if they were not afraid — and that they lock their 
doors very securely for fear that someone might plot 
against them at night. The parasite, however, 
casually closes the door of his lodgings, just to pre- 
vent it from being opened by the wind, and when a 
sound comes at night, he is no more disturbed than 
as if it had not come, and when he goes through un- 
frequented country he travels without a sword ; for 
he does not fear anything anywhere. But I have 
often seen philosophers armed with bows and arrows 
when there was nothing to fear ; and as for staves, 
they carry them even when they go to the bath and 
to luncheon. 

Again, nobody could accuse a parasite of adultery 
or assault or larceny or any other offence at all, since 
a man of that character would be no parasite ; he 
wrongs himself. Therefore if he should commit 
adultery, for instance, along with the offence he 
acquires the name that goes with it. Just as a good 
man who behaves badly thereby acquires the name 
of bad instead of good, so, I take it, if the parasite 
commits any offence, he loses his identity and be- 
comes identified with his offence. But not only are 
we ourselves aware of such offences on the part of 
rhetoricians and philosophers committed without 



KCLV TOfc? jSiB^ioif; airoXeKeifXfxeva virofiv^fjiara 
e'XPfiev wv yBiKyjaav. aTTo\oyia fiev yap ^co/cpd- 
rov<; iarlv /cat Alo-'X^ivov koX 'TTreplBov koL ^TjfjLO- 
adevov^i Kol tmv TrXelcrrcov cryehov tl prjropcov kcli 
ao(j)S>v, TrapaauTOV 5e ov/c earcv airoXoyca ovS' 
€%6i Tt? elirelv Blktjv 7r/)09 Trapdatrov rivi yeypafi- 

57 'AXXa VT} Aia 6 fiev 0lo<; tov irapaairov Kpeir- 
Tcov icrrlv tov tmv prjropcov koX tmv (^iXoaocjiwv, 6 
he ddvaro^i ^avXorepo^; irdvv p.ev ovv rovvavriov 
irapa ttoXv evhaLixovearepo^. <pL\oa6(pov<i fjiev yap 
Xajxev d7ravTa<; rj Toi"? TrXeidTOVi KaKov^ KaKS)<; 
dTTodav6vTa<;, rov^ jxev i/c KaraBiKij^;, eaXwKOTaf; 
iirl TOL<; /jL€yLaroi<; dhiKrjfjutcn, (jyapfjudKO), tou? Be 
KaraiTpr^crOevTa^ to awfjua dirav, rou? 5e diro 
Bvaovpla^ (f)0iV7](TavTa<;, tou? Be <f)vy6vTa^. nrapa- 
airov Be Odvarov ovBeh e^^f' tolovtov elirelv, dWa 
TOV evBaifjioveaTaTov <f)ay6vT0^ Kal ttlovto^;. el 
Be Tt9 fcal BoKet fiiaiq) TeTeXevTrjKevai Oai/aTO), 
diTeiTTrjaa^ aTredavev. 


58 TavTa fxev iKavS)^ BtrjfjLiWrjTai croi, to. tt/oo? 
TOV<; (j)t,\oa6(j)ov(; virep tov irapaaiTOV. Xolttov 
Be el KaXov /cal Xvo'iTeXe<; icTTtv to KTrj/aa tovto 
Tw TpecpovTi, ireipo) Xeyeiv e/xol fxev yap Bokovctlv 
wairep evepyeTovvTe<; Kal 'X^api^o/xevoi Tpe^eiv 
auTov? ol 7rXov(Tiot, Kal elvac tovto alax^vqv Ta> 


'n? rjXiOid ye <tov, w Tv^LaBrjy raura, el firj 



number in our times, but we also possess records of 
their misdeeds left behind in books. And there are 
speeches in defence of Socrates, Aeschines, Hyperides, 
Demosthenes, and very nearly the majority of orators 
and sages, whereas there is no speech in defence of a 
parasite, and nobody can cite a suit that has been 
brought against a parasite. 

Granted that the life of a parasite is better than 
that of a rhetorician or a philosopher, is his death 
worse ? Quite to the contrary, it is happier by far. 
We know that most, if not all, of the philosophers 
died as wretchedly as they had lived ; some died by 
poison, as a result of judicial sentence, after they had 
been convicted of the greatest crimes ; some had 
their bodies completely consumed by fire ; some 
wasted away through retention of urine ; some died 
in exile.^ But in the case of a parasite no one can 
cite any such death — nothing but the happy, happy 
death of a man who has eaten and drunk ; and any 
one of them who is thought to have died by violence 
died of indigestion. 


You have satisfactorily championed the cause of 
the parasite against the philosophers. Next try to 
explain whether he is a good and useful acquisition to 
his supporter ; for to me it seems that the rich play 
the part of benefactors and philanthropists in sup- 
porting them, and that this is dishonourable to the 
man who receives support, 


How silly of you, Tychiades, not to be able to 

^ Socrates ; Empedocles (and Peregrinus Proteus) ; Epi- 
curus ; Aristotle. 



hvvaaai ycvcocTKetv on irXovaco^ cLvrjp, el koI to 
Tvyov 'X^pvaiov €^01, fJLOVO^ iaOLwv 7r6vr)<i iajlv 
Kol TTpolcDv aveu TTapaaiTov 'jTrai')(pf; 8ok6l, koI 
(aairep arparLcorrj^; %ft)yot9 ottXcov drifjuorepof; kol 
ea-0r}<; dvev iropcfyvpa^; kol itttto? avev (paXdpcov, 
ovTco Kol rrXovaio^ dvev TrapaaLTOv Taireivo'^ tl^ 
Kol €VTeXr)(; ^aiverac. kol firjv 6 fiev irXovaio^ 
KocrfielraL vii avrov, top Be irapdaLTOv 7r\ovcno<; 

59 ovSeTTore tcoa/xel. a\Xo)<; re ovBe 6veiBo<i avra> 
iariv, &)? o'v </)^9, to Trapaacrelv i/celvcp, BijXov 
on CO? nvi, /cpeurrovL 'xeipova, ottov ^ ye fu,r)v tm 
nXova-LO) tovto XutrireXe? eanv, to Tpe(j>eiv tov 
irapdaiTOv, S ye fxeTa tov KoafMeladau vtt avTov 
Koi dcr^dXeia TToWr) ex Trj<; tovtov Bopv<f)opLa<; 
V7rdp')(^er ovTe yap fid^r) paBi(D<^ dv ri? eirix^^- 
prjaat tm TrXovaicp tovtov opoiv irapeaTOiTa, aXV 
ovB^ av aTToddvoL (f)apfidK(p ouSet? g'X^cov irapd- 
aiTOV. TL<^ yap dv To\/jL7]aeiev eiri^ovXevaai tlvl 
TOVTOV 7rpoe(rOiovTO<; koi irpoirLvovTo^; waTe 6 
TrXovaiof; ovxi Koa/jLetTat, /lovov, dWd Kal e/c tmv 
/jLeylaTcov kivBvvcov vrro tov irapaaLTOv aco^eTai. 
ovTO) /jL€v ^ 6 irapdaiTO^; Bid (faXoaTopyiav irdvTa 
KivBvvov vTTO/iievei, /cal ov/c dv TTapa^wpy^aeiev 
TO) irXovGiw (fiayeiv /jlovm,^ dWd /cal dirodavelv 
aipeLTai avfJLt^aywv, 


60 TldvTa /jLOi BoKet^i, c5 ^l/xcov, Bie^eXOelv vaTe- 
p7]aa<; ovBev Trj<; aeavTOV Te)(yr]^, ovx ^o'^rep avTo<; 

^ OTTOV VUlg. : '6lT(jD5 MSS. 

^ OVTO) fiev vulg. : oiVe /x}]u, are /xtjv, Uri /tec MSS. 
^ lj.6v(p N : fjLovov other MSS. 


realise that a rich man, even if he has the wealth of 
Gyges, is poor if he eats alone ; that if he takes the 
air without a parasite in his company he is considered 
a pauper_, and that just as a soldier without arms, or 
a mantle without a purple border, or a horse with- 
out trappings is held in less esteem, so a rich man 
without a parasite appears low and cheap. Truly, 
he is an ornament to the rich man, but the rich 
man is never an ornament to the parasite. Further- 
more, it is no disgrace to him to be the rich man's 
parasite, as you imply, evidently assuming that 
he is the inferior and the other a superior; 
since surely it is profitable for the rich man to 
support the parasite, seeing that, besides having him 
as an ornament, he derives great security from his 
service as bodyguard. In battle nobody would readily 
attack the rich man while he saw the other standing 
by, and in fact no one could die by poison who had a 
parasite ; for who would dare to make an attempt on 
a man when a parasite tastes his meat and drink first ? 
So the rich man not only is ornamented but is 
actually saved from the greatest perils by the 
parasite, who faces every danger on account of his 
affection, and will not suffer the rich man to eat 
alone, but chooses even to die from eating with him. 


It seems to me, Simon, that you have treated of 
everything without being in any degree inadequate 

VOL. III. T 3^3 


e(j>a<rK€<;, aixe\eTr)TO<; mv, afOC wairep av ri^s vivo 
tS)v /Meylarcov y€yv/jLva(7jji€vo<;. Xoittov, el firj 
aia)(^iov avTO to ovofid ean t^9 irapaaiTiKr}^, 
6e\w fjuaOelv. 


^Opa hrj rrjv airoKpiaiv, idv aoi iKavco^; \ey€- 
ffOai BoKj), Koi Treipw ttoXlp avTO<; diroKpLvaaOai 
TT/oo? TO ip(OTQ)/jL€Vov ^ ^ dpKTTa OL€i, (pipe ^dp, 
TOP acTov ol irakaLol ri koXovctl; 




Tt he TO (TLTelaOai, ov)(l to iaOlecv; 


OvKovv KaOcj/jLoXoyrjTai, to irapaaLTeiv otl ovk 
aX\o icTTLv; 


^ovTO yap, 0) '^l/jlwv, iaTlv o ala^pov (jialveTai. 

61 ^ep€ Br) ttoXlv diTOKpLvai fiOL, iroTepov <toi BokcI 
Bia^epeiv, koI irpoKet/jLevcov d/jL(j)olv iroTepov av 
avT0<; eXoLO, apd ye to irXelv r) to TrapairXelv; 


To irapaiTXelv eycoye. 

i ^ vulg.: elMSS. 



to your art. You are not deficient in preparation, as 
you said you were ; on the contrary, you are as 
thoroughly trained as one could be by the greatest 
masters. And now I want to know whether the very 
name of Parasitic is not discreditable. 


Note my answer and see if you think it is satisfactory, 
and try on your part to answer my question as you 
think best. Come, now, what about the noun from 
which it is derived ? To what did the ancients 
apply it ? 


To food. 


And what about the simple verb, does it not 
mean "to eat".'' 




Then we have admitted, have we not, that to be a 
parasite is nothing but to eat with someone else ? 


Why, Simon, that is the very thing which seems 
discreditable ! 


Come, then, answer me another question. Which 
seems to you to be the better, and which should you 
choose if both were open to you, to voyage or to 
voyage with someone else ? 


To voyage with someone else, for my part. 




Ti Be, TO Tpex^i'V V "^^ iraparpexeLv; 


To irapaTpe'xeLv, 

Tt 8e, TO iTTTreveLV rj to irapcTTTrevetv; 


To TTapiTTTreueiv. 

Tt Se, TO afcovTL^eiv rj to irapaKOVTi^eLv; 


To TrapaKovTL^eiv. 

OvKovv 6/JL0LC0<; av eXoto^ /cat tov iaOUiv ixaXkov 
TO irapacTLTelv; 


^OfioXoyelv avdyKTj. Kai aoi Xolttov coairep ol 
iralhe'^ a<t>L^opai kol e(po<i kol p,€T dpiaTov fiadi]- 
a6/jLevo<i Tr)v Texvf]v. av Be fie avTrjv BUaio^ 
BiBdaKeiv d(f)d6v(o<;, eVet /cal tt/owto? /jLaOrjTjjii aoi. 
tyiyvojjiaL. (j^aal Be /cal tcl^} p,r]Tepa^ fxaWov to, 
Trpoyra (puKelv tmv TeKvcov. 

1 iKoio Fritzsche; iftiAoio r^n, OeXois, de\T}s other MSS. 




To run, or to run with someone else ? 


To run with someone else. 


To ride, or to ride with someone else ? 


To ride with someone else. 


To throw the javelin, or to throw it with someone 

else ? 


To throw it with someone else. 


Then, in like manner, should you not choose to eat 
with someone else, rather than just to eat ? 


I cannot but admit it. Hereafter I shall go to you 
like a schoolboy both in the morning and after 
luncheon to learn your art. You, for your part, 
ought to teach me ungrudgingly, for I shall be your 
first pupil. They say that mothers love their first 
children more. 



A conversation dealing with the supernatural, recently- 
held at the house of Eucrates, is recounted by one of the 
chief participants, Tychiades, to his friend Philocles, to show 
how mendacious and how credulous people are. 

To put ourselves in tune with Lucian and his audience 
requires very little effort, now that we too are inclined to 
believe in supernatural manifestations. To be sure, the 
other world manifested itself to men in those days through 
somewhat different channels ; but the phenomena, then as 
now, were considered extremely well authenticated, and were 
credited by men of high standing. Take but one example, 
the younger Pliny. In a famous letter, which should be 
read in full (7, 27), he asks Licinius Sura for his opinion 
about phantasmata, citing as well vouched for by others 
the story of Curtius Rufus (told also by Tacitus : Annals 
11, 21) and that of the haunted house, which we find in 
Lucian, and then relating two incidents that happened in 
his own family : in both cases a boy dreamed that his hair 
was being cut, and awoke in the morning to find it lying on 
the pillow beside him. Pliny does not seek a rationalistic 
explanation in the pranks of pages ; he takes the incidents 
very seriously, and surely does not expect either Sura or 
the general public to do otherwise. Eucrates is Pliny's 
spiritual grandson. 

Lucian's auditors, too, were credulous, and whether they 
fully believed such tales or not, anyhow they were eager to 
listen to them. Lucian for his part was uncommonly eager 
to repeat them because he was quite aware that he could do 
it very well. Was he to be debarred from that privilege 
simply because he did not believe in them ? Not he ! He 
could kill two birds with a single lucky stone, for he could 
tell what his audience craved to hear, and at the same time 
he and they could laugh at those who liked to tell and hear 
such stories. The inclusiveness of the satire is clearly shown 
in its last words. Both Tychiades and Philocles confess that 
they have been bitten with the prevailing mania. 



"K^et'; /LLOi, 0) ^lXokXcl^;, elirelv ri irore dpa 
i(nlv o 7roWov<; ^ ei? iTriOv/nlav rod ■\p'ev8ov<; '^ 
Trpodyerai, co? avTov<; re ')(^aipeiv fjLrjBev vji€<i 
Xijovra^; koI rot? ra roiavra Bie^covaiv /xaXio-ra 
Trpoai'X^ei'V top vovv; 


TioWd, 0) Tv^^^tdBrj, iarlv a Tov<i avOpcowovf; 
€VLOv<i dvayKa^ei, ra yjrevBrj Xejeiv eh to 'Xprjaifiov 


Ovhev 7rpo<; eVo? ravra, (paaiv, ov jap irepl 
Tovrcov rjpofxrjv oiroaoi t?}? ')(^peia<; eveKa yjrev' 
Sovrar crvyyvcocrTol yap ovroi ye, fxaXXov he Kal 
eiraivov TLve<; avrcov d^ioi, oiroaob rj 7roXefiLOV<; 
e^rjirdrrjaav rj iirl aoyrrjpia tw rotovro) (fyapfxdKw 
exPW^^'^^ ei' Tol<; BeLV0L<;, ola iroXXd /cal 6 
^OSvacrev^ eiroUi rrjv re avrov "^^XV^ apviffxevo^; 
Kal Tov voarov twv eraupcov. dXXd irepl eKeivwv, 
&) dpiare, (^r)fu ot avro civev Trj<; ^peta? to i/reDSo? 
Trpo TToXXov tt)? dXTjOeta^; TiOevTai, 7]B6p.evoL tw 
irpdyixaTL Kal evhiarpi^ovTe^i eV ovhefjua irpo- 
(ftdaec dvayKaia. TOVTOV<i ovv ideXco elBevai 
TLVO<; dyaOov rovro iroiovaiv. 

Available in photographs : r, PN. 
* Tt iron tovt6 iariy h rovs voWovs y. ^ }f/€vS€<Tdai y, 



Can you tell me, Philocles, what in the world it is 
that makes many men so fond of lying that they 
delight in telling preposterous tales themselves and 
listen with especial attention to those who spin yarns 
of that sort ? 


There are many reasons, Tychiades, which constrain 
men occasionally to tell falsehoods with an eye to 
the usefulness of it. 


That has nothing to do with the case, as the phrase 
is, for I did not ask about men who lie for advantage. 
They are pardonable — yes, even praiseworthy, some 
of them, who have deceived national enemies or for 
safety's sake have used this kind of expedient in 
extremities, as Odysseus often did in seeking to win 
his own life and the return of his comrades.^ No, 
my dear sir, I am speaking of those men who put 
sheer useless lying far ahead of truth, liking the 
thing and whiling away their time at it without any 
valid excuse. I want to know about these men, to 
what end they do this. 

* An echo of Odyssey 1, 6. 



*H TTOV Karav6v6'rjKa<; ijBr} Tiva<; tolovtov^, 61^ 

€yU.(/)UT09 €/?&)? OUTO? i(TTL ITpO^; TO ^/reOSo?,* 

Kal fjbdXa TToWoi elatv ol toiovtoi. 


Tl S' ovv aXXo rj dvoiav ^91 ot^V'^a^' elvai avToh 
(pdvai rod /jlt) raX'i]6rj Xeyeiv, et ye to ')(€ipL(TTOV 
clvtI tov fie\TL(TT0V TT poaLpovvTai; 


Ovhev ovBe tovto, w ^iXo/cXet?* ^ CTrel ttoX- 
\ov<; av iyo) aoi hel^atfJLL (tvv€tov<; ToXXa /cal ttjv 
ryv(t}/jL7]v Oavfiaa-TOVf; ovk oI8' otto)? eaXcoKOTa^; 
TOVTO) T6t) Kafco) KoX ^tXo^/refSet? ovTa^, to? 
dvLaaOai jxe, el tolovtoi dvBp€<; dpiaTOi tcl iravTa 
6/jLQ)<; ')(^aipovaLv avTOv<; re Kal Tov<i ivTvjxd- 
vovra^ i^aTrarcovTe^. eKeivov^ fiev yap tou? 
iraXaioixi irpb €/jlov <re 'x^prj elBivai, tov 'HpoBoTOv 
Kal K.Tr}(Tiav tov KvlBlov Kal irpo tovtcov tov<; 
7roLr]Td<; Kal Tov"0/Mr]pov avTov, doLBlfjLOV<i dvBpa<;, 
iyypdcpw tw "yjreva/uLaTL K€)(pr]/jLevov<i, oo? /ht) jjlovov^ 
i^airaTdv tou? tot€ aKOvovTa^ o■^<w^', dXXd Kal 
/i€^pi<; '^fjLcov BiLKveladai to '\jr€vBo<; €k BiaBoxv^ 
iv KaXXi(jT0L<i eirecn Kal pueTpoi<i (pyXaTTofievov. 
Ifiol yovv TToXXaKL^ alBeladai virep avTcov eirei- 
(TLV, OTTOTav Ovpavov to/jL1]V Kal TLpo/jL7]0€O)<; Beafjua 
BcTjycbvrai Kal TiydvTcov iiravdaTaaiv Kal ttjv iv 
AlBov irdaav TpayqyBlav, Kal o)? Bl epcoTa 6 
Zev^ ravpo^ rj kvkvo^ eyeveTO Kal &)? e'/c yvvaiKd<^ 
TL<^ eh opveov rj el<; dpKTOV fxeTeireaev, cti Be 

^ oi/dfr TOVTO y, omitting & ^i\6K\eis. 



Have you really noted any such men anywhere in 
whom this passion for lying is ingrained ? 


Yes, there are many such men. 


What other reason, then, than folly may they be 
said to have for telling untruths, since they choose 
the worst course instead of the best ? 


That too has nothing to do with the case, Philocles, 
for I could show you many men otherwise sensible 
and remarkable for their intelligence who have some- 
how become infected with this plague and are lovers 
of lying, so that it irks me when such men, excellent 
in every way, yet delight in deceiving themselves 
and their associates. Those of olden time should be 
known to you before I mention them — Herodotus, 
and Ctesias of Cnidus, and before them the poets, 
including Homer himself — men of renown, who made 
use of the written lie, so that they not only deceived 
those who listened to them then, but transmitted the 
falsehood from generation to generation even down 
to us, conserved in the choicest of diction and rhythm. 
For my part it often occurs to me to blush for them 
when they tell of the castration of Uranus, and the 
fetters of Prometheus, and the revolt of the Giants, 
and the whole sorry show in Hades, and how Zeus 
turned into a bull or a swan on account of a love- 
affair, and how some woman changed into a bird or a 



Ur}yd(TOv<i fcal 'yiifjuaipa^ koi Topy6va<; koI Ki;- 
K\(D'rra<; koX oaa rotavra, irdw dWoKora koX 
T€pd(TTLa /jbvOiSia TralBcov yjrvx^'i Krfkelv hvvdfxeva 
€Ti Tr)V MopfiOD Kal rr]v Ad/juiav BeSiorcov. 

3 KatTOfc rd /jlcv tcov ttoltjtmv tao)^ fierpca, to Be 
KOL 7roXet9 'fjBr] koX eOvr) oka ^ Koivfj koX Brjiioaia 
"y^revBeaOai 7r(b<; ov yekolov; el K/j^Jre? /xev tov 
Aio<i rdcfiov BeiKvvvTe<^ ovk ala'^^uvovrai, 'AdrjvaloL 
Be TOV ^^pL')(66viov eK T7J<; 77)9 dvaBoOrjvau (fyaaiv 
Kol Tov<; TTpooTOv; dvOpoo7rov<; €k Trj<; 'ArTtArr}? 
dva^vvat KaOdwep ra Xd-^ava, ttoXv aefivoTepov 
ovToL ye Tcop Srj^ai(0Vy 00 e'f o^ew? oBovtcov 
XirapTOv^; TLva<; dva^efiXacrTrjKevai Bu'qyovvTai. 
09 8' dv ovv ravTa KaTayekaara ovTa fj^rj OLrjTao 
aXrjOrj elvai, dXX ifKppovQ)'; i^eTd^cov avTCu Ko- 
poi^ov Tt,vo<; Tj IS/lapyLTOV vofii^rj^ to ireiOeaOaL r) 
TpLTTToXefiov eXdaaL Bed tov depo^ iirl BpaicovTwv 
vTTOTTTepwv Tj Udvu rjKeLV i^ ^ApKaBia<i avjjLjjba'Xpv 
eh M.apa06!)va rj ^flpeiOviav viro tov Hopeov 
dpTTaaOqvai, dae^r]^ ovto^ ye^ koi dv6r]T0<; 
avTOL<; eSo^ev ovtco tt poBrj\oL<i kol dXrjOecn irpdy- 
fiaaiv din(JTO)V' eh toctovtov eiTiKpaTel to 'yjrevBof;, 


4 'AXV ol fjiev TTOir^Tai, w Tvx^LdBrj, /cal al tto- 
Xet9 Be avyyv(ofirj(; elKOTcof; Tvy)(^dvoiev dp, 01 fiev 
TO eK TOV jjLvOov TepiTvov eiraywyoTaTOv ov ey- 
KaTayiiyvvvTe^ TJj ypa(f)fj, ovirep jJudXicTTa BeovTai 
7r/309 T0U9 aKpouTd^, 'AOrjvatot Be Kal Srj^alot 

^ iroAAci 7. "^ vofJ-iCv Bekker : vofilCoi MSS. 

' 7€ vulg. : T€ yp. 



bear ; yes, and of Pegasi, Chimaerae, Gorgons, Cyclopes, 
and so forth — very strange and wonderful fables, fit 
to enthrall the souls of children who still dread 
Mormo and Lamia. 

Yet as far as the poets are concerned, perha])s the 
case is not so bad ; but is it not ridiculous that even 
cities and whole peoples tell lies unanimously and 
officially ? The Cretans exhibit the tomb of Zeus and 
are not ashamed of it, and the Athenians assert that 
Erichthonius sprang from the earth and that the first 
men came up out of the soil of Attica like vegetables ; 
but at that their story is much more dignified than 
that of the Thebans, who relate that "Sown Men" 
grew up from serpents' teeth. If any man, however, 
does not think that these silly stories are true, but 
sanely puts them to the proof and holds that only a 
Coroebus or a Margites ^ can believe either that 
Triptolemus drove through the air behind winged 
serpents, or that Pan came from Arcadia to Marathon 
to take a hand in the battle, or that Oreithyia was 
carried off by Boreas, they consider that man a sacri- 
legious fool for doubting facts so evident and genuine ; 
to such an extent does falsehood prevail. 


Well, as far as the poets are concerned, Tychiades, 
and the cities too, they may properly be pardoned. 
The poets flavour their writings with the delectability 
that the fable yields, a most seductive thing, which 
they need above all else for the benefit of their 
readers ; and the Athenians, Thebans and others, if 

1 Coroebus is known as a typical fool only from this 
passage, and the scholion upon it, which attributes to him a 
story told elsewhere of Margites, the hero of the lost mock- 
epic ascribed to Homer. 


Kal €1 rt,ve<; dWoi (T€/jLVOTepa<; a7ro(j)aLVovT€<; ra<; 
7raTpiBa<; etc rcov toiovtcov. el yovp rt? dcjiiXoi, ra 
fjLvOcoBr} ravra ck tt)^ 'EXXaSo?, ovSev av kco\v- 
(T€L€ Xifio) rovfi 7r6pir)y7]Ta^ avrcov SiacfiOaprjvai 
/jbTjBe afXLadl tcov ^ivcov Ta\rjO€<; clkovelv iOeXrj- 
advTwv. ol he /jLrjSefiLd^i eveKa alTLa<; roiavrr]^ 
ofiax; ^at/joz^re? t& '^evafiarc TrayyeXoioi eUoTcof; 
BoKolev dv. 


5 EiV \e>y€i<;' iydo ye tol irapa l^vKpdTOv<i 'ijKco 
aoi rov rrdw, iroWd rd aTnara koI fivOcoBr} 
dKovaa<i' fidWov Be jxera^v Xeyo/xevcov dino^v 
wyo}xr]v ov (pepcov rov irpdyfiaro^ rrjv VTrep^oXtjv, 
dXXd fie odaTrep al ^Epivve<; e^rjXacrav iroXXd 
Tepdana Kal dXXoKora BL€^i6vTe<;^ 


KauTOL, w Tv^i'dBr), d^ioinaro^; TL<i 6 lEiVKpdrr]^ 
iarlv, Kal ovBel<; dv ovBe Trtarevaeiev fw? eKelvo<; 
ovTO) fiaOvv ircoycova KadeifMevo^ e^ijKovrovrrjf; 
dvrjpy en Kal ^iXoaoc^ia crvvoov rd iroXXd, vtto- 
fxeiveiev dv Kal dXXov rivo^ yJrevBo/jLevov eTruKOvcraL 
napcov, ou;^ otto)? avro^ ri roX/mrjaaL rowvrov. 


Ov yap dlcrOa, w eralpe, ola jxev elnev, ottcc; Be 
avrd eTTiarcoaaro, co? Be Kal eTrcofivvro roi<; 
7rXeL(Troi<;, Trapaa-rrjad/jievo^ rd iraiBia, ware fie 
diro^XeTTOvra eh avrov iroiKiXa evvoetv, dpn fiev 
0)9 fiefirjvoL Kal e^co etrj rov KaOearrjKoro^, dpn 
Be ft)? 70779 <*iv dpa roGovrov xpovov eXeXrjOet, /xe 



any there be, make their countries more impressive 
by such means. In fact, if these fabulous tales 
should be taken away from Greece, there would be 
nothing to prevent the guides there from starving to 
death, as the foreigners would not care to hear the 
truth, even gratis ! On the other hand, those who 
have no such motive and yet delight in lying may 
properly be thought utterly ridiculous. 


You are quite right in what you say. For example, 
I come to you from Eucrates the magnificent, having 
listened to a great lot of incredible yarns ; to put it 
more accurately, I took myself off in the midst of 
the conversation because I could not stand the 
exaggeration of the thing : they drove me out as if 
they had been the Furies by telling quantities of 
extraordinary miracles. 


But, Tychiades, Eucrates is a trustworthy person, 
and nobody could ever believe that he, with such a 
long beard, a man of sixty, and a great devotee of 
philosophy too, would abide even to hear someone 
else tell a lie in his presence, let alone venturing to 
do anything of that sort himself. 


Why, my dear fellow, you do not know what sort 
of statements he made, and how he confirmed them, 
and how he actually swore to most of them, taking 
oath upon his children, so that as I gazed at him all 
sorts of ideas came into my head, now that he was 
insane and out of his right mind, now that he was 
only a fraud, after all, and I had failed, in all these 



VTTO T^ Xeovrfi jeXolov riva ttIOtjkgv irepiarTek- 
\wv oi/TO)? aroTra BtrjyeiTO. 


Tlva ravra Trpo? t^? 'Ecrria?, w Tv^idSr); 
iOeXco yap elhevai rjVTLva ryv aka^oveiav viro 
rrjXiKovTfp TO) ircoycovi ea/cenev, 


6 RlcoOeLv^ fjuev koX aWore, c5 ^tXo/cXeif;, (jyoirav 

Trap* avTov, el vrore ttoXKtjv ttjv (T')(^oXr}v dyoi/bLi, 
T7]fjL€pov Be Aeoi'Tt^ft) auyyeveaOai h€6fjLevo<; — 
6TaLpo<; Be fxoi, co? olaOa — aKovaa^ rod ttulBo^; 
ft)9 irapa rov "EtVKpdrrjv ecoOev direkdoL voaovvra 
i'mafce^\r6iievo'i, d/x^oiv evcKu, co? kuI tw Aeov- 
TL^o) avyyevoijjbriv Kaiceivov XBoipui — rjyvot^KeLv yap 
0)9 voaoiT) — Trapayiyvo/jLai tt/oo? avrov. 

l^vpiaKoo Be avToOi top puev Ke6vTL')(pv ovfciri — 
i^6dK€L yap, CO? ec^aaKOV, 6\iyov irpoe^eKrjXvOoif; 
— dXXov^ Be (Tvxyov^, ev oh K\e6B7jfjL6<i re rjv 6 
€K Tov HepiTrdrov Kal A€tv6pa^o<i 6 ^TcoiAro? 
Kal "Icov, olaOa tov iirl roi? YlXdrcovo'^ \6yoL<; 
Oavfjbdl^eaOat d^iovvra co? fiovov dKpL/3oj<; Kara- 
vevoTjKora rrjv yvco/jut^v tov dvBpo<; Kal TOL<i 
aX.Xoi9 vTTOc^rjTevoraL Bvvdfievov. 6pa<; o'iov<; av- 
Bpa<; aoi (f)7j/jLL, 7Tava6(f)OV<i Kal TravapeTov<^, 6 tl 
irep TO K€(f}d\aiov avTO e'f e/cdcTTTjf; 7rpoaipecr€co<;, 
alB€aiiJLov<; airavTa'^ Kal jMOVovovyl (fio^epov^ ttjv 
TTpoao-^Lv; €Ti Kal 6 laTpb<; ^AvTLyovo<; iraprjv, 
KaTa 'ypelav, olpat, t/}? voaov i'jrLK\r)6ei<^. Kal 
paov eBoKeu rjBr] e^eiv 6 ^VKpdTT)^ Kal to voarj/na 
Twv avvTpocpcov rjv to pevfia yap eh Tov'i TroSa? 
avdt<; avTw KaTeXrjXvOei. 

^ elwda y. 


years, to notice that his lion's skin covered a silly 
ape ; so exti'avagant were the stories that he told. 


What were they, Tychiades, in the name of Hestia P^ 
I should like to know what sort of quackery he has 
been screening behind that great beard. 


I used to visit him previously, Philocles, when- 
ever I had a good deal of leisure; and to-day, when 1 
wanted to find Leontichus, a close friend of mine, as 
you know, and was told by his boy that he had gone 
off to the house of Eucrates in the early morning to 
pay him a call because he was ill, I went there for 
two reasons, both to find Leontichus and to see 
Eucrates, for I had not known that he was ill. 

I did not find Leontichus there, for he had just 
gone out a little while before, they said ; but I found 
plenty of others, among whom there was Cleodemus 
the Peripatetic, and Deinomachus the Stoic, and Ion 
— you know the one that thinks he ought to be 
admired for his mastery of Plato's doctrines as the 
only person who has accurately sensed the man's 
meaning and can expound it to the rest of the world. 
You see what sort of men I am naming to you, all- 
wise and all-virtuous, the very fore-front of each 
school, every one venerable, almost terrible, to look 
at. In addition, the physician Antigonus was there, 
called in, I suppose, by reason of the illness. Eucrates 
seemed to be feeling better already, and the ailment 
was of a chronic character; he had had another attack 
of rheumatism in his feet. 

* The oath amounts to "In the name of friendship." 



Kadi^eaOat ovv fxe Trap' avTOV eirl Trj<i K\iv^](; 
6 ^vKpdrrjf; eKeXevev, rjpe/ia eyKXlvat: rfj cfxovfj et? 
TO aadevLKOV oirore elSi /xe, Kairoi ^O(ovro<; 
avrov Kol hiaTSLVOfievov tl fxera^v elcnoiv iirr)- 
Kovov. Kayu) jxaka irecpyXayfievco';, JjLt) yjravaaifMi 
rolv iroSotv avrov, d7To\oyr]ad/jL€vo<; rd avvrjOr) 
ravra, 009 dyvoijaai/Jii voaovvra KaX tw? eVel 
e/jbaOov Spo/iaco^ eXOoipui, eKaOe^ojiirjv 7r\r)criov. 
7 0/ fiev Br] ervyyavov oI/jlul^ irepl rov voarj- 
/laTOf; rd fiev rjBrf iroXXd irpoeLprjKore^, rd he koI 
rore Bie^Lovref;, en he kol 6epaireia<; rivd<; 
€Kaaro<; VTTojBdWovr€<;. 6 yovv K\e6hrj/io<;, " Et 
roLVVvJ^ (fyrjaiv, " rfj dpiarepa ri<; dveXofievof; 
')(^aiJid6ev'^ rov ohovra t?}? /jivya\rj<; ovrco (jyovev- 
Oelo-)]^, 00? Trpoelirov, evhijaeiev el<; hepfia Xeovro^ 
dpri dirohapeVy elra TrepidyjreLe irepl rd <TKe\r}, 
avriKa iraverai ro dXyrj/jLa.*^ 

'' OvK eh Xeoi/T09," €(f)rj 6 Aecvofiaxo^, " iyo) 
r}K0V(Ta, eXd^ov he drfKeia^; en irapOevov KaX 
dfidrov /cal to irpdyixa ovrco Trcdavcorepov ookv 
ydp rj eXa(f)o<i KaX eppwrai /jidXtcrra eK rcov Trohcov. 
6 he Xecov dXKL/jLO<; fjuev, KaX ro XtVo? avrov KaX 
V X^^^P V he^id KaX at rpi)(^e<; €k rod 7ra)ycovo<; at 
opdaX fieydXa hvvavrai,^ el n<; iirlaraLro avrol<i 
'^pi^aOai jjberd t?)? olKeia<; errcphrjf; cKdaro)' irohSiv 
he Xaaiv rjKiara eirayyeXXeraiy 

" KaX avro^;,'* 77 8' 09 o K.Xe6hr}/io<;, " ovrco 

rrdXai eyiyvcoaKov, eXd^ov ')(^pr)vai ro hepfia elvai, 

^ hion o)Kv eXa(j)0<;' evayyof; he At/3f9 dvT^p (ro(po<; 

^ ^5rj 7. 

' Xa-i^adiv Cobet : x^Ma^f F marg. xo^*^^*" other /3 sources: 
XOMO^ 7. * fieydXa SvpaivTo y. But cf. Pise. 6. 


He bade me sit by him on the couch^ letting his 
voice drop a little to the tone of an invalid when he 
saw me, although as I was coming in I heard him 
shouting and vigorously pressing some point or other. 
I took very good care not to touch his feet, and 
after making the customary excuses that I did not 
know he was ill and that when I learned of it I 
came in hot haste, sat down beside him. 

It so happened that the company had already, I 
think, talked at some length about his ailment and 
were then discussing it further ; they were each 
suggesting certain remedies, moreover. At any rate 
Cleodemus said : " Well then, if you take up from the 
ground in your left hand the tooth of the weasel 
which has been killed in the way I have already 
described and wrap it up in the skin of a lion just 
flayed, and then bind it about your legs, the pain 
ceases instantly." 

"^ Not in a lion's skin, I was told," said Deino- 
machus, ^^but that of a hind still immature and 
unmated ; and the thing is more plausible that way, 
for the hind is fleet and her strength lies especially 
in her legs. The lion is brave, of course, and his fat 
and his right fore-paw and the stiff bristles of his 
whiskers are very potent if one knew how to use 
them with the incantation appropriate to each ; but 
for curing the feet he is not at all promising." 

" I myself," said Cleodemus, " was of that opinion 
formerly, that it ought to be the skin of a hind 
because the hind is fleet ; but recently a man from 



ra TOLavra fierehiha^e fie elirodv wKvrepov^ elvai 
rcbv iXdcpcov Toy? Xeovra^. ^AfxekeL, e(f>rjf kol 
alpovcTLV avTa<i 8t,ooKOVT€<;.^^ 

8 ^Kiryveaav ol '7rap6vT€<; w? ev elirovro'i rov 
AtySuo?. iycb Se, " OteaOe ydp,^' e^?;i/, *' eVwSat? 
Ti(Tiv ra TOLavra TraveaOat rj to?9 e^coOev irap- 
apT7]/jiaaiv rov KaKov evSov hiarpipovro<^r iyi- 
\aaav eVl rw Xoytp Kal SijXoi, rjaav /careyvcoKorefi 
/jLOV 'TToXXrjv rr]v avoiaVy el /jlt) iTTKTrai/Jbrjv ra 
TTpohrjXorara zeal rrrepl oyv ovSeh av ev (ppovwv^ 
dvT€L7roL fir) ov')(l ovrco<; 6')(eiv. 6 fievroL larpo<i 
^Avriyovo^i iSoxei /loi r}(TOr]vai rrj ipcorrja-ei fJLOv 
rrdXai yap 7][jLeXelro, olfiai, ^orjOelv d^LOiV rq> 
lEiVKpdret fierd rrj<; rexvf)^ otvov re rrapayyeX- 
Xcov d'JTe')(eG6ai Kal Xd')(ava (JireZadai Kal oX(£>^ 
v(f)aip€LV rov rovov. 

'O K ovv K.XeoBrjfio's virofieLhtSiv dfia, " Tt 
Xeyei^r ^cfirj, " w Tv)(^LdBr); dirtarov elvai croi 
hoKel ro e'/c rwv rotovrcov yiyveaOal riva<; wcjbe- 
Xelaf; eh ra voarjfiara;^^ ""Kfioiye,^' rjv S* eycoy 
** el fir) rrdvv Kopv^r)^ rr)V plva fiearo'; etrjv, o)? 
nvLareveiv rd e^co Kal firjBev KOLvwvovvra rot? 
evSoOev eireyeipovai. rd voarffiara fierd ptffxarlayv, 
CO? (pare, Kal yorjrela^ rivo<; evepyelv Kal rrjv 
XacTiv eiTtiTefjLTreLv tt poaaprcofieva. ro 3' ovk av 
yivoiro, ovS' r)v et? rov ^efieiov Xeovro^ ro Bepfia 
evSrjarj Ti? eKKaiBeKa 6Xa<; fJLvyaXd<i' eyd> yovv 
avrou rov ^ Xeovra elSov iroXXdKL^; 'x^ooiXevovra vtt* 
dXyr)B6v(ov ev oXoKXrjpw rw avrov BepfianT 

9 **Yidvv yap Ihtcorrf'^r ^4>V o ^eivofiaxo^, "el 
Kal rd Toiavra ovk ifieXrjae aoi eKfiadelv ovriva 

^ oifBe\s <ppovS}v 7. " rhv vulg. : not in MSS. 


Libya^ well informed in such things, taught me 
better, saying that lions were fleeter than deer. 
' No fear ! ' said he : ' They even chase and catch 
them ! ' " 

The company applauded, in the belief that the 
Libyan was right in what he said. But I said, " Do 
you really think that certain incantations put a stop to 
this sort of thing, or_external applications, when the 
trouble has its seat within ? " They laughed at my 
remark and clearly held me convicted of great stupidity 
if I did not know the most obvious things, of which 
nobody in his right mind would maintain that they 
were not so. The doctor Antigonus, however, 
seemed to me to be pleased with my question, for 
he had been overlooked a long time, I suppose, 
when he wanted to aid Eucrates in a professional 
way by advising him to abstain from wine, adopt a 
vegetarian diet, and in general to "lower his pitch." 

But Cleodemus, with a faint smile, said : " What 
is that, Tychiades? Do you consider it incredible 
that any alleviations of ailments are effected by 
such means?" "I do," said I, ''not being alto- 
gether full of drivel, so as to beHeve that external 
remedies which have nothing to do with the internal 
causes of the ailments, applied as you say in com- 
bination with set phrases and hocus-pocus of 
some sort, are efficacious and bring on the cure. 
That could never happen, not even if you should 
wrap sixteen entire weasels in the skin of the Nemean 
lion ; in fact I have often seen the lion himself 
limping in pain with his skin intact upon him ! " 

" You are a mere layman, you see," said Deino- 
machus, " and you have not made it a point to learn 



rpoTTOv ofiikel^ Tot9 vocrrjfxacn 7rpo(T(f)6p6/jL6vay 
KOLfioi BoK€L<; ovBe ra Trpocpavearara av irapa- 
Be^acrOav ravra, tmv €K irepLohov irupeTcov ra? 
a7ro7ro/jL7ra<i koX rcbv ipTrercov Ta<^ KaradeX^ei^i kol 
^ov^covcov lda€i<^ koX raWa oiroaa kol al ypde^f 
Tjhr] TTOiovcTiv. el Be eKelva yCyverai diravTa, ri 
Brj TTore ovyl ravra ol^ajj jiyveaOai viro twv 

" ^ Anrepavra,^^ ^v B' iyca, *' av irepaLvet^,^ w 
AcLvopax^, Kal tjXw, (f)aaiv, €KKpovei<; rov rfkov 
ovBe yap a 0^? ravra BrjXa p.era roiavrrjf; Bvvd- 
p,e(o<; yiyvopueva. tjv yovv pJr) ireLcryfi rrporepop 
iirdycdv ra> Xoyw Biort <f)vcnv e'^et ovrco yiyveadai, 
rov r€ iTVperov Kal rov olBijp,aro<; BeBi,6ro<i rj 6vop,a 
6 €(7776(7 Lov Tj pYjaLV ^ap^apLKTjv Kttl Bia rovro Ik 
rov Bovpoivo^ Bpairerevovro^, en aoL ypawv pvOoi 
rd \ey6pLevd iari.^ 

10 *'^v pot So/cet?," r/ B^ 0^ 6 Aetvopaxo^y " Ta 
roiavra Xiycov ovBe 6eov<^ elvai TTiareveiv et ye p>Tj 
otei rd<; Idaei*; olov re elvai viro lepcov ovopdrcov 
yiyveadai^ " Tovro puevT ^v 8* eyoa, " pur) Xeye, 
0) dpiare' KoyXvei yap ovBev Kal Oecov oprcov o/xo)? 
rd roiavra yjrevBr] elvai. iyco Be Kal Oeoix; ae/3(o 
Kal Idaet^ avrcjv opo) Kal d ev rroLovai rov(; 
Kdp.vovra<; viro (f)appdKO)v Kal larpLKTJ<; dviardvre^;'' 
6 yovv ^A(7K\rf7ri6<i avr6<; Kal oi TralBe^ avrov 
rjiTia (pdppaKa irdaaovre^ eOepdrrevov roix; voaovv- 
ra^i, ov Xeovrd^^ Kal p,vya\d^ irepidiTrovre^i. 

11 **"Ea rovrovy" e^r) 6 "1(dv, ** eyd) Be Oavpid- 

1 axpeXd N Vat. 87. 

* (TV TTfpaivfis Fritzsche : crv irapaipfls y, ^u/x7r«/)aiVp /3. 

' AfovTcis Cobet : Xfovras MSS. 



how such things agree with ailments when they are 
appUed. I do not suppose you would accept even 
the most obvious instances — periodic fevers driven 
off, snakes charmed, swellings cured, and whatever 
else even old wives do. But if all that takes 
place, why in the world will you not believe that 
this takes place by similar means ? " 

'* You are reasoning from false premises, Deino- 
machus," I replied, " and, as the saying goes, driving 
out one nail with another ; for it is not clear that 
precisely what you are speaking of takes place by 
the aid of any such power. If, then, you do not 
first convince me by logical proof that it takes place 
in this way naturally, because the fever or the inflam- 
mation is afraid of a holy name or a foreign phrase 
and so takes flight from the swelling, your stories 
still remain old wives' fables." 

" It seems to me," said Deinomachus, " that when 
you talk like that you do not believe in the gods, 
either, since you do not think that cures can be 
effected through holy names." " Don't say that, my 
dear sir! " I replied. "Even though the gods exist, 
there is nothing to prevent that sort of thing from 
being false just the same. For my part, I revere the 
gods and I see their cures and all the good that 
they do by restoring the sick to health ^i>tJh>4rug§ ^^ 
jind__doctoring;. In fact, Asclepius himself and his 
sons ministered to the sick by laying on healing 
drugs, not by fastening on lions' skins and weasels." ^ 

"Never mind him," said Ion, "and I will tell you 
1 Cf. Iliad 4, 218 ; 11, 830. 



aiov ri BLr)yr}(To/xac. rjv fiev iycb fieipdfciov ere 
dfi(pl rd TerrapaKaiheKa errj a^^^ov rjKev he tl<; 
dyyiXXcov tw irarpl MtSai^ tov dfjLireXovpyov, 
eppco/Jievov et9 rd dXXa oLKerrjv /cal epyariKov, 
dfi(f)l irXrjdovaav dyopdv viro e^i8v7)<; 8r]'^6evra 
KelaOaL rjSrj (reai^Trora to (TKeXo<;' dvahovvn yap 
avTW rd Kkr)fxara Koi Tat9 x^P^S^ irepiirXeKOvrL 
irpoaepTTvaav ro Orjplov haKelv Kard rov fjbeyav 
SaKrvXov, fcal ro [xev (pddaai koi Karahvvai av6i<i 
et? rov (^(oXeoVy rov he ol/noo^etv diroWviievov vir 

** Tavrd re ovv d7rr)yyeXXero kol rov MtSaj/ 
ecopco/jLev avrov eirl (JKiinToho^ viro rcov 6/jloSov- 
Xcov 7rpo(TKO/jLL^6/jievov, oXov (pSrjfcora, TreXcBvov, 
fjLvSayvra eVtTroX^?/ oXiyov en epuTTveovra. XeXv- 
jrriiiivw hrj rco rrarpl rcov (plXcov t^? TrapcoVf 
fil^dppet,' €<f>r), * iyo) yap aot civBpa ^a^uXcoviov 
rcov yiaXhalwVi m'^ (f)a(TLv, avrl/ca fiereipi, 09 
Idaerai rov dvOpwrrov.^ /cat iva firj hiarpl^w 
Xeycov, rJKev 6 lBaSvX(ovto<; koI dvecrrrjae rov 
M-iSav eTrayhrj rivt e^e\d<ja<; rov lov etc rod acopia- 
T09, en Kol TTpoaaprrjaa^ rw irohl ve/cpd^; ^ irap- 
Oevov Xidov diTO rr}<^ arrjXif]^ eKKoXd'^a<;. 

" Kol rovTO piev taw^ pberpiov Kairot 6 MtSa? 
avro<; dpdpevo^ rov aKipLTToBa e(j>* ov efceKopnaro 
o))(^ero et? rov dypov dirtcov' roaovrov r) eTrwhtj 
12 eBvvrjOrj koi 6 arr]Xirr)<; €Ketvo<; Xi6o<;, 6 he fcal 
dXXa erroir^ae Oeaireaia co? dXr)6o)<s' eU ydp rov 
dypov iXdoov ea)$ev, eirenroov lepariKa riva etc 
^ifiXov 7raXaid<; ovopuara eirrd Kal 6ei(p koI hqh\ 
KaOayvicra^ rov rorrov rrepieXOwv e? r/ot?, e^eKa- 

^ tV 67rt</>av6/av 7. ' redyrjKvlas 7. 



a wonderful story. I was still a young lad, about 
fourteen years old, when someone came and told 
my father that Midas the vine-dresser, ordinarily a 
strong and industrious servant, had been bitten by 
a viper toward midday and was lying down, with his 
leg already in a state of mortification. While he 
was tying up the runners and twining them about 
the poles, the creature had crawled up and bitten 
him on the great toe ; then it had quickly gone 
down again into its hole, and he was groaning in 
mortal anguish. 

" As this report was being made, we saw Midas 
himself being brought up on a litter by his fellow- 
slaves, all swollen and livid, with a clammy skin and 
but little breath left in him. Naturally my father 
was distressed, but a friend who was there said 
to him : ' Cheer up : 1 will at once go and get you 
a Babylonian, one of the so-called Chaldeans, who 
will cure the fellow.' Not to make a long story of 
it, the Babylonian came and brought Midas back 
to life, driving the poison out of his body by a 
spell, and also binding upon his foot a fragment 
which he broke from the tombstone of a dead 

" Perhaps this is nothing out of the common : 
although Midas himself picked up the litter 
which he had been carried and went oft' to the 
^so^ potent_w as the sp ell and the fragment 
tombstone. But the Babylonian did other things tliat 
were truly miraculous. Going to the farm in the early 
morning, he repeated seven sacred names out of an 
old book, purified the place with sulphur and torches, 
going about it three times, and called out all the 


ter on I 
5 farm, 1 
of the J 


Xecrev ^ oaa rjv eprrera eVro? twv opcov. t^kov ovv 
cdcnrep eX-KOfievoL 7r/30? ttjv eirwhrjv 6^6l<; iroWoi 
Kol acTTt^e? Kal e^tSi^at Kal Kepdcrrai koI aKovriai 
^pvvoi T€ Koi <j)V(Ta\oL, iXeLTrero Be eh Spdfccov 
iraXaLO^, viro y/jpcof;, ol/juai, e^epirvaaL /jltj Bvvd- 
fi€vo^ rj irapaKOvaa'^ rov Trpoardyfxaro'^' 6 he 
fidyo<; ovK €(f)r} Trapelvai diravra^, dXX eva riva 
Tcbv 6(j)e(i)V rov vedararov 'X^eipOTOvrjcra^ Trpea^evrrjv 
€iTe/jLyfr€V enl rov BpdKovra, Kal /juerd p^LKpov rjKe 
KaKelvof;. eireX 8e avvr^XiaOriaav,'^ eve<^varjae p,ev 
avroh 6 ^affvXcovio^;, ra Be avriKa p,dXa Kare- 
KavOr) diravTa viro t& ^vaij/jLarc, r^peh Be eOav- 
lo tjLTre p,oi, CO icov, rjv o ey(o, "o oq)i<; be o 

TTpea^evrr)^ 6 veo<; dpa Kal e')(eipay(i>yei rov Bpd- 
Kovra rjBif], co? ^779, yeyrjpaKora, rj aKLircova e^^ov 
eKelvo<i eTrearrjpu^ero;^^ 

" Xv p,ev Tratfet?," e(j)r) 6 KXeoBrjfjio^;, ** iya) Be Kal 
avro^; diriarorepo^ wv gov TrdXai ra roiavra — 
a^p7]v yap ovBevl Xoyw Bvvarov yiyveaOai av avrd — 
6p,co<i ore ro irpcorov elBov irerop^evov rov ^evov rov 
^dp^apov — e^ "TTrep^opecov Be rjv, o)<; e^aaKev — 
eiTLcrrevaa Kal €viK7]0r)v irrl iroXv dvria^cov. rl 
yap eBei TTOielv avrov opcovra Blol rov depo<; cjiepo- 
fievov r)fi€pa(; ovar]^ Kal ecj)' vBaro^ ^aBi^ovra Kal 
Bid 7rvpo<i Bie^iovra a'X,oXfj Kal ^dBrjv;^^ "Xv 
ravra eZ^e?," yv S' eyco, " rov 'TireplBopeov dvBpa 
irerop.evov rj eirl rov vBaro<i ^e/SrjKora;" " 
fidXa,'' T) B' o?, " VTToBeBe/jLevov ye Kap^ariva^, ola 
fjbdXiara eKelvov viroBovvrai. ra fiev yap ajXLKpd 

^ (rvvT)\l(TQr\(Tav du Soul : (TwrivXtadriaav MSS. 



reptiles that there were inside the boundaries. They 
came as if they were being drawn in response to the 
spell, snakes in great numbers, asps, vipers, horned 
snakes, darters, common toads, and puff-toads ; one 
old python, however, was missing, who on account 
of his age, I suppose, could not creep out and so 
failed to comply with the command. The magician 
said that not all were there, and electing one of the 
snakes messenger, the youngest, sent him after the 
python, who presently came too. When they were 
assembled, the Babylonian blew on them and they 
were all instantly burned up by the blast, and we 
were amazed." 

"Tell me. Ion," said I, "did the messenger snake, 
the young one, give his arm to the python, who you 
say was aged, or did the python have a stick and 
lean on it?" j^ 

" You are joking," said Cleodemus : " I myself S^n 
was formerly more incredulous than you in regard to^^'^^^Wj 
such things, for I thought it in no way possible that jif 

they could happen ; but when first I saw the foreign \y^ 
stranger fly — he came from the land of the Hyper- 
boreans, he said — , I believed and was conquered 
after long resistance. What was 1 to do when I saw \ 
him soar through the air in broad daylight and walk 1 

on the water and go through fire slowly on foot ? " \ 

" Did you see that ? " said I — " the Hyperborean 
flying, or stepping on the water?" "Certainly," 
said he, " with brogues on his feet such as people of 
that country commonly wear. As for the trivial 



ravTa rt XPV '^^'' ^^7661^ oaa iireSeLKVVTO, epwra^ 
iTTiirifiTrcov fcal 8aLfMova<; dvdycov koI vefcpov^ 
eooXof 9 dvaKoKwv koI rr)V 'Rkcitijv avrrjv ivapyrj 
14 irapicTTa^; Kal ttjv ^ekr^vrjv KaOaipwv;^ iyco yovv 
Birjyrjaofjiai vptZv a elBov ycyvofiepa vir avrov iv 
TXavKiov rod 'AXefiArXeou?. 

** ^'Apri yap 6 TXavKia^ tov Trar/oo? diTo6av6vTO<i 
TrapaXafiwv Tr)v ovaiav r/pdadrj XyOL'crtSo? T/79 
Arj/jLeov yvvaiKo^i. i/xol Be BihaaKaXw e^p^'^o 
TTpo^ TOV<; X6yov<;, Kal et ye jxr] 6 €pco<; eKelvo^ 
di:'Y](j')(o\'Y)Gev avrov, CLTravra dv rjBr) rd tov UepL- 
irdrov rjiriararo, 69 ica\ OKTcoKaLBeKairt]^ wv 
dviXve Kal Tr)v cfivaLKrjv dKpoacnv fMereXijXvOeL 
ei9 TeX.09. d/jLrj-)^avc()V Be Ofio)^ rw epcori jjiTjvvei 
fjLOi TO irdv, iycb Be wcrirep eiKo^ rjv, BiBdaKaXov 
ovra, TOV 'Tirep^opeov eKelvov fjudyov dyco nrap 
avTov iirl fival^i TeTTapai jxev to irapavriKa — 
eBei yap irpoTeXeaai ri eh Ta9 6vcjLa<; — eKKaiBeKa 
Be, el TV)(pi T?)9 ^pv(tlBo<;. 6 Be av^o/jLevrjv rripr)- 
aa<; ttjv aeXrjvrjv — t6t€ yap ox; eirl to ttoXv ra 
Tocavra TeXeatovpyelTat — ^oOpov re opv^dfievo^ 
iv vTraidpq) ^ tlvI ttj^ olKia<; irepl p.eaa<^ vvKTa<; 
dveKoXeaev tj/mv TrpcoTov jxev tov ^ AXe^iKXea tov 
iraTepa tov TXavKiov irpo eirrd /jlijvmv TedvewTa' 
TjyavdKTet Be yepcov eVt tm epwTi Kal wpyC^eTo, 
Ta TeXevT aca Be o/^aj9 ecfirJKev avTW epdv. fierd 
Be Trjv 'EiKdTTjV re dv^yayev eTTayop^eviiv tov K.ep- 
^epov Kal TTjv XeXrjvTjv KareairacreVy 7roXvp.op(f)6v 
Ti deafia Kal dXXoTe dXXolov tl (pavra^ofievov 
TO /JL€V yap TTpcoTov yvvuLKeiav /j,op(pr}v eTreBeL- 
KVVTO, elra y5oi)9 eyiyveTO irdyKaXo^, elra cTKvXa^ 

* Karaattuv y. ^ aidpi<ft y. 


feats, what is the use of telHng all that he performed, 
sending Cupids after people, bringing up super- 
natural beings, calling mouldy corpses to life, making 
Hecate herself appear in plain sight, and pulHng 
down the moon ? But after all, I will tell you what I 
saw him do in the house of Glaucias, son of Alexicles. 
'^ Immediately after Glaucias' father died and he 
acquired the property, he fell in love with Chrysis, 
the wife of Demeas. I was in his employ as his 
tutor in philosophy, and if that love-affair had not 
kept him too busy, he would have known all the 
teachings of the Peripatetic school, for even at 
eighteen he was solving fallacies and had completed 
the course of lectures on natural philosophy.^ At 
his wit's end, however, with his love-affair, he told 
me the whole story ; and as was natural, siiice_X_was-. 
his tutor, I brought him that Hyperborea^ magician_] 
at a fee of four minas down (it was necessary to pay 
something in advance towards the cost of the victims) 
and sixteen if he should obtain Chrysis. The man 
waited for the moon to wax, as it is then, for the 
most i)art, that such rites are performed ; and after 
digging a pit in an open court of the house, at about 
midnight he first summoned up for us Alexicles, 
Glaucias' father, who had died seven months before. 
The old gentleman was indignant over the love-affair 
and flew into a passion, but at length he permitted 
him to go on with it after all. Next he brought up 
Hecate, who fetched Cerberus with her, and he drew 
down the moon, a many-shaped spectacle, appearing 
differently at different times ; for at first she 
exhibited the form of a woman, then she turned into 
a handsome bull, and then she looked like a puppy. 

* Aristotle's Physics. 



€(f>aLV€TO. TeA-0? S* ovv 6 'T7rep/36p€0<; i/c tttjXov 
ipMTLov Tt ava7r\d(Ta<;, ^AnriOi, e^rj, kol ci'ye Xpu- 
aiha. Koi 6 fiev 7777X09 i^eirraro, fiera fjuiKpov he 
€7re(7T»7 KoiTTOvaa ty]v Ovpav eKeivT] kol elaekdovaa 
Trepi^dWei top TXavKiav co? av eKfiavearara 
ipcjoa fcal avvrjv ci')^pc Br) okeKrpvovwv rjKovaajMev 
dSovTcov. Tore hr] rj re ^eXrjvr] dveirraTO eh top 
ovpavov KOI r) *E/caT?7 eSv Kara rrjq 7^9 Kal ra 
dWa ^da-fjiara r)(^avLo-97] Kal rrjv X.puaL8a i^e- 
7r€/iiyjra/JL€v rrepl avrb irov (T^eBov to \vKavye<i. 
lb el ravra elBe'^, w Tu;^taS?7, ovk av ere i^7rLar7jaa<i 
elvai iroWd ev rah eirwBah y^pr^cjip-ar 

** Eu Xeyei^;,'' rjv 5' eyd)' " eiriarevov yap dv, et 
ye elBov avrd, vvp Be (TvyyvcofXT], oJ/juac, el firj rd 
o/jLOia v/jLLV o^vBopKelv ex^^'^ rrXrjv aX,V olBa yap 
rrjv ^pvaiBa rjv \ey6L<;, epacrrrjv yvvaiKa Kal 
7rp6')(eipov, ovy^ opS) Be rivo^ eveKa eBerj6r)re eir 
avrrjv rov irrfKivov iTpeaPevrov Kal /iidyov rod ef 
'Tirepffopecov Kal SeXrjvrjii avri)^, rjv elKOGi Bpa- 
jdJbwv dyayelv eU ^Tirep^opeov^; Bvvarov rjv. irdvu 
yap evBuBcoaiv 7rpo9 ravrrjv rijv eTrwBrjv rj yvvr) 
Kal TO evavrlov roh cf)da/iacnv TreirovOev eKelva 
fiev yap rjv '>^6^ov aKovarj ')(^a\KOV r) aiBrjpov, 
'TTe(^evye — Kal ravra yap vfieh (pare — avrr] Be dv 
dpyvpiov TTOV -y^ocpfi, ep^erai rrpo'^ rov riypv. dWcof; 
re Kal avrov Oav/jid^fo rov fidyov, el Bvvd/iievof; 
auT09 epdaOac 7rpo9 rcov TrXovaLcordrcov yvvaiKcov 
Kal rdXavra 6\a rrap avrMv \a/jil3dveLV, 6 Be 
rerrdpcdv fivcov rrdvv cr iiLKpo\6yo<; wv ^ VXavKiav 
eirepaarov epyd^erai'^ 

^ el fjL-f] ris rh ^/xota vixtv o|u86pK«r /3. 

2 rhv ixiKpoXoyov /3 (omitting tAvv and tbv\ 



Finally, the Hyperborean made a little Cupid out of 
clay and said : ^Go and fetch Chrysis.' The clay took 
wing, and before long Chrysis stood on the threshold 
knocking at the door, came in and embraced Glaucias 
as if she loved him furiously, and remained with him 
until we heard the cocks crowing. Then the moon 
flew up to the sky, Hecate plunged beneath the earth, 
the other phantasms disappeared, and we sent Chrysis 
home at just about dawn. If you had seen that, 
Tychiades, you would no longer have doubted that 
there is much good in spells." 

"Quite so," said I, "I should have believed if I 
had seen it, but as things are I may perhaps be 
pardoned if I am not able to see as clearly as you. 
However, I know the Chrysis whom you speak of, an 
J«^ amorous dame and an accessible one, and I do not 
r see why you needed the clay messenger and the 
\jiyperborean magician and the moon in person to 
fetch her, when for twenty drachmas she could have 
been brought to the Hyperboreans ! The woman 
is very susceptible to that spell, and her case is the 
opposite to that of ghosts ; if they hear a chink of 
bronze or iron, they take flight, so you say, but as 
for her, if silver chinks anywhere, she goes toward 
the sound. Besides, I am surprised at the magician 
himself, if he was able to have the love of the 
richest women and get whole talents from them, and 
yet made Glaucias fascinating, penny-wise that he is, 
for four minas." 



" FeXola TTOie??/' ecprj 6 "Icov, *' ainaTOiv UTracTiv, 

16 iyob yovp rjSecofi civ ipoi/jLrjv ere, tl irepl tovtcov 
(f>r]<; oaoL tou? Sai/jLov(opra<; aTraWdrrova-i tcov 
SeL/ndrcov ovtco aa<pa)^ e^ahovre'^ rd ^dcr/jLara. Kal 
ravra ovk i/ne xph ^eyeiv, dWd Trai^re? laacn 
Tov Svpov rov eK rrj^ IIa\aL(TTLvr](;, rov iirX rovro) 
<TO(f)L(TT^v, ocrov^ TTapaXajScbv Ka7a7rL7rT0VTa<; tt/jo? 
Tr)v creky^vqv Kal rco 6(pOa\juLcb hiaarpec^ovra'^ kol 
d(^pov 7rLfjL7r\afi6vov<i ro crrofia 6p,(o<; dviarrjcn 
Kal dTTOTre/jLTret dpriov^ rrjv yvco/jurjv, iirl fiLada) 
ueydXa) diraXkd^a^ roop Beivoov. iireiBdv yap 
eTna-rd^ Keipuevot'; epTjrac oOev elaekrfKvdaaiv eU 
TO acdfut, 6 jxev voacov avTb<; aiwira, 6 haifMov 
he aTTOKpiveTaL, eWrjvl^cov rj fiapjSapi^cov oiroOev^ 
av atiTO? j7, otto)? T€ koX 66ev elarfkOev eU tov 
dvOpcoTTov 6 he opKOv<; iirdyoav, el he fx-t] TreiaOelr], 
Kal aTrecXcov e^eXavpei tov halfiova. eyoo yovv 
Kal elhov e^iovra fieXava Kal Kairvcohr} t7]v xpoav.** 
" Ov fxeya,* rjv h^ eyco, " ra TotavTd ae opdvy co 
"IwT^, GO ye Kal at Iheai, avTal ^aivovTai a 6 rraTrjp 
vjxoyv YiXdTwv he'iKvvaLV, dfiavpov ti Oeafia 009 
7r/309 r)p,d<i Tov<; d/j,^Xv(t)TT0VTa<;.^* 

17 "M6vo<i yap "Icoz/," ecpr] 6 'EvKpdT7j<;, " ra tol- 
avTa elhev, ov)(l he Kal dXXot ttoXXoI haljiocrLV 
€VTeTVXV'^ci<^i'V ol fxev vvKTwp, ol he fied' rj/jLepav; 
iycb he ou% dira^ dXXd ixvpidKi^; rjhr] ax^hov to. 
Toiavra Tedeafxai' Kal to fxev irpcoTov eTapaTTO- 
/jL7)v 7rpo9 avTd, vvv he hrj viro tov edov^ ovhev ti 

^ ^ oOev y. 



'^ You act ridiculously," said Ion, " to doubt every- 
thing. For my part, I should like to ask you what 
you say to those who free possessed men from their 
terrors by exorcising the spirits so manifestly. I 
need not discuss this : everyone knows about the 
Syrian from Palestine, the adept in it,^ how many he 
takes in hand who fall down in the light of the moon 
and roll their eyes and fill their mouths with foam ; 
nevertheless, he restores them to health and sends 
them away normal in mind, delivering them from 
their straits for a large fee. When he stands beside 
them as they lie there and asks : ' Whence came 
you into his body ? ' the patient himself is silent, 
but the spirit answers in Greek or in the language of 
whatever foreign country he comes from, telling how 
and whence he entered into the man ; whereupon, by 
adjuring the spirit and if he does not obey, threaten- 
ing him, he drives him out. Indeed, I actually saw one 
coming out, black and smoky in colour," "It is 
nothing much," I remarked, " for you. Ion, to see 
that kind of sight, when even the ' forms ' ^ that the 
father of your school, Plato, points out are plain to 
you, a haz}' object of vision to the rest of us, whose 
eyes are weak." 

" Why, is Ion the only one who has seen that kind 
of sight?" said Eucrates. "Have not many others 
encountered spirits, some at night and some by day ? 
For myself, I have seen such things, not merely once 
but almost hundreds of times. At first I was 
disturbed by them, but now, of course, because of 

* A scholiast takes this as a reference to Christ, but he is 
surely in error. The Syrian is Lucian's contemporary, and 
probably not a Christian at all. Exorcists were common 
then. • i.e. the "ideas.'* 




irapaXoyov opav fioi Bokco, xal fiaXiara ef ov /loi 
Tov haKTvXiov 6 ^'Apayjr eSco/ce (lihrjpov rod ix tojv 
aravpodv TreTrocrj/ievov koX rrjp eTrcpSrjV iSlSa^ev 
Tr]v TroXvcovvfMOv, €kto(; el fir) Ka/jLol airiaTrjaeif;, 
w Tu^^ta^?;.*' ** Kal ttco? ar/' r)V 3' €70), *' aTriaTrj- 
aaLjiL l^vKpdrei t& A€lvcovo<^, ao(f)w dvSpl koI 
fiaXicTTa iXevOepiw^^ rd BoKOvvrd 01 XeyovTi olkoi 
18 Trap^ avrS) iir^ e^ov(TLa<;;'* "To yovv irepX tov 
dvhpuivTo<;,^^ rj B' o<i 6 FiVKpdrr)<i, " diraci, roL<i eVi 
tt}? 0LKLa<i oaat vvkt€<; (patvopevov koI iraiaX koX 
veaviau^ koX yepovat,, rovro ov Trap* epov povov 
UKOvaeia^ dv dWd koI irapd tmv rjp^erepcov dirdv- 
Tcov." " JJoiov" Tjv 8' €70;, " dvBpLdvTO<; ;^' 

" Ov^ kdypa-Ka^,^^ ecpr), " elaioov iv t^ av\y dve- 
arrjKOTa irdyKoXov dvBpidvra, Ar]p,r)TpLov epyov 
TOV dvOpcoTTOTTOLOv;^^ " M(ov TOV ScaKevovTa" r}v 
8* iyd), " ^r)'^, TOV €7rLK€KV(p6Ta Kara to <T')(rjpa 
TTJ? d(f)e(T€(o<;, direaTpappevov eU ttjv Bi(TKOcf)6pov, 
ypepa OKXd^ovra tw €Tep<p, ioiKOTa avpavaaTrj- 
(Topevw peTa t?5? ^o\r}<i;^^ " Ovk eKelvov^^ rj 8' 09, 
"eVel TMV yivpcovo^i epycov €v koX tovto iaTiv, 6 
Bia/co/SoXo^; ov \6yec<;' ovBe tov Trap* avTov (f)r}p,L, 
TOV SiaSovp.€Vov Tr)v K€(f)d\r)V ttj Taivia, tov koXoVj 
11o\vk\€ltov yap tovto epyov. dXkd tov<; p,ev 
eirl Ta Be^id elaiovTcov defies, iv oh kol tu Kpiriov 
Kal^ ^TjaLODTOv TrXdapiaTa eaTrjKev, at Tvpavvo- 
KTovoL' av Be et Tiva irapd to vBcop to eiTLppeov 
elSe? TrpoydaTOpa, (fyaXavTiav, 7)p,iyvpLvov ttjv dva- 
fio\7]v, r]vepwp.evov tov Trooywvo^ Td<; T/ot%a9 eVta?, 
eiriar^piov Td<i ^Xe/3a?, avToavOpcoira) opoiov, eKel- 

^ iKevBtpicft Fritzsclie : i\evdeplci>s 7 : fidXiffra /col i\ev6tp(f /3. 
* Kal Ross : rod MSS. 


their familiarity, I do not consider that I am seeing 
anything out of the way, especially since the Arab 
gave me the ring made of iron from crosses and 
taught me the spell of many names. But perhaps 
you will doubt me also, Tychiades." " How could I 
doubt Eucrates, the son of Deinon/' said I, "a learned 
and an uncommonly independent gentleman, express- 
ing his opinions in his own home, with complete 
liberty?" "Anyhow," said Eucrates, "the affair of 
the statue was observed every night by everybody 
in the house, boys, young men and old men, and 
you could hear about it not only from me but from 
all our people." "Statue!" said I, ''what do you 
mean ? " 

" Have you not observed on coming in," said he, 
" a very fine statue set up in the hall, the work of 
Demetrius, the maker of portrait-statues?" "Do 
you mean the discus-thrower," said I, "the one bent 
over in the position of the throw, with his head 
turned back toward the hand that holds the discus, 
with one leg slightly bent, looking as if he would 
spring up all at once with the cast? " "Not that 
one," said he, " for that is one of Myron's works, the 
discus-thrower you speak of. Neither do I mean the 
one beside it, the one binding his head with the 
fillet, the handsome lad, for that is Polycleitus' work. 
Never mind those to the right as you come in, among 
which stand the tyrant-slayers, modelled by Critius 
and Nesiotes ; but if you noticed one beside the 
fountain, pot-bellied, bald on the forehead, half 
bared by the hang of his cloak, with some of the 
hairs of his beard wind-blown and his veins prominent, 
the image of a real man, that is the one I mean ; 



vov Xeyw IleXXi^o? o l^opivOio^ aTparrjyo^ eivai 
5. ^ >> 


19 " N^ Ar," Tfv 8' eVco, " elhov riva iirl Be^ih tov 
Kpovvov,^ ratVLa^ koX areipdvov^ ^rjpov^i €)(^ovTa, 
KaTaK6')(^pv(Ta)/jLepov 7T6raXoi<; to arfjOo(;J^ "'£70) 
Be/* 6 KvKpdrijf; ecjyrj, " CKelva ixpyawaa, ottotc 
fx Idaaro Bia TpiTrj^ viro tov rjinaXov diroWv- 
fievov. n yap kul laTpo^, 7]V o eyco, 'o 

^e\TLaTO<i jjfjblv TieXki')(^o<^ ovt6<; eVrti^;" " M^ 
aKMTTTe,** rjB^ o<; 6 ^vKpuTi]^, " 7] ae ovk et9 /laKpav 
jxeTBLcnv o dvr)p' ol8a iyw ocrov SvvaTac ovto<; 6 
VTTo (TOV yekoifievo^ dvBptd<;. rj ov z/o/xtfei? tov 
avTOv elvai kol iinTrifnreLV '^iridXov^ oh av iOeXy, 
€c ye Koi diroireixireiv BvvaTov avTw;** "'^IXeo)?," 
Tjv B* iyct), " eaTco 6 dvBpia^; kuI rjTrto<; ovtco^ 
dvBp€LO<; Mv. TL B^ ovv Kol aWo nroLOVVTa opuTC 
avTOV diravTe<; ol iv tt} olKiar 

" ^FjireiBdv Tdyif^Tar ecf)!], " vif^ yevrjTai, 6 Be 
Ka7affd<; dirb t^? ^daeco^ 6^' y ecTTrjKe irepieLaiv 
iv kvkXw ttjv OLKLav, Kol irdvTe^ €VTvy')(dvo/jLev 
avTW evioTe koX aBovTi, Kal ovk ecxTiv ovriva 
rjBiKrjcTev' eKTpkireaOai yap ^PV f^ovov 6 Be irapep- 
X^'^^f' P'VB^v evoxXrjaa^ tov<; lB6vTa<i. Kal p,r]v 
Kal XoveTat tcl ttoWcl Kal irai^ei Bi 6\r]<; 7^9 
vvKTO^;, M(TT€ aKoveiv TOV vBaT0<; '\jro(f)ovpTO<;** 
*'"Opa Tolvvv,** rjv S' iyco, "fir} ov^l TleXXcxo^ o 
dvBpid'^y dXXa TaXco? o Kyo^? 6 tov MtVcoo? y' Ka\ 

* Kpovov y, 


he is thought to be Pellichus, the Corinthian 
general." ^ 

" Yes," I said, " I saw one to the right of the spout, 
wearing fillets and withered wreaths, his breast 
covered with gilt leaves." " I myself put on the gilt 
leaves," said Eucrates, ^^ when he cured me of the 
ague that was torturing me to death every other day." 
" Really, is our excellent Pellichus a doctor also.^" 
said I. " Do not mock," Eucrates replied, " or before 
long the man will punish you. I know what virtue 
there is in this statue that you make fun of. Don't 
you suppose that he can send fevers upon whomsoever 
he will, since it is possible for him to send them 
away?" "May the manikin be gracious and 
kindly," said I, " since he is so manful. But what 
else does everyone in the house see him doing ? " 

" As soon as night comes," he said, " he gets down 
from the pedestal on which he stands and goes all 
about the house ; we all encounter him, sometimes 
singing, and he has never harmed anybody. One has 
but to turn aside, and he passes without molesting in 
any way those who saw him. Upon my word, he 
often takes baths and disports himself all night, so 
that the water can be heard splashing." ^^See here, 
then," said I, "perhaps the statue is not Pellichus 
but Talos the Cretan, the son of Minos ; he was a 

1 Probably the Pellichus named as the father of Aristeus, 
a Corinthian general in the expedition against Epidamnus in 
434 B.C. The statue would thus be about contemporary 
with that of Simon by the same Demetrius of Alopece, which 
is mentioned in Aristophanes. It is surprisingly realistic 
for so early a period. Furtwangler thought the description 
inaccurate, but the statue may have been the work of soma 
later DemetriuF, Certainly its identification as a portrait ot 
Pellichus was conjectural (So/cel). 



^yap eKelvo^ ')(a\Kovf; ti<; rjv tt}? K/37;rt79 TTepiTToXo^. 
el he /jlt) ')(a\Kov, a> Eu/c^are?, aWa ^u\ov ireiTol- 
r^TO, ovhev avrov eKcoXvev ov Arj/jLrjrpiov epyov 
elvat-, aXXd tmv AatSakov T€)(vr}/jidrcov' Spaire- 

T€V€L yOVV, O)? (f>t]'i, CLTTO T/}? jSdaGCO^ KOI OVTO^.'' 

20 "''O/aa," ecjirj, " w TvxtdSrj, /jltj aoi /jLera/jbeXijarj 
Tov aKcojjL/JbaTO<; varepov. olha iyo) ola eiradev 6 
Tou? 6^o\ov<; v(j)e\6/ii6vo<; ov<; Kara rrjv vovfxr]viav 
€/cdarr]v TiOefiev avTW^ "Tiavhetva i'X^prjv," e(f>7) 
6 ^\cov, " lepoavkov ye ovra. ttw? S' ovp avrov 
ripuvvaTO, o) RvKpaT€<;; eOekco yap dKOvaat, el Kal 
OTL /JLaXiara ovroal TvXf'dBrj<; aTnarrjaei,^' 

*' IloXXot," rj 8' o9, " €K€iVTO o^oXol irpo rolv 
iroholv avrov Kal dWa vopLio-piara evia dpyvpa 
irpo^ rov pL7]pov Kr)pa> fceKoW7)p,eva Kal TreraXa ef 
dpyvpov, evyai nvo^; rj pLLa6b<; errl ry Idaet oirocoi 
St avrov eiravaavro rrvperSi eyopevoi, rjv Be 
r)p.LV At/Si;? Ti? olKerr)<; Kardparo^, ImroKoiJiO^;' 
ovro<; e'iTe')(eipr)(je vvKro<; v^eXeaOat rrdvra eKelva 
Kal vcfyeiXero Kara^e^rjKora rjBri rr]prjaa<; rov 
dvhpidvra. eirel Be eiraveXOoDV rd^ia-ra eyvco 
7repLae(TvXr)pevo^ 6 HeXXi^o^, opa otto)? rjp,vvaro 
Kal Kare<f)(iipaae rov Aij^vv Bl oXr]^ yap rij^ 
vvKro<; TrepLyei iv kvkXcd rrjv avXyv 6 ddXio^ ^ 
i^eXOelv ov Bvvdp,evo^ warrep et? Xa^vpivOov ifiTre- 
(Tcov, cixpi' Br) KareXrj(j)67] e%a)i^ ra (^(opca yevo- 
fxevt)^ r]/jLepa<;. Kal rore fiev 7rXr)ya<; ovk 6Xiya<; 
eXa^ev dXov^, ov iroXvv Be iTnjScov^; %/3oi/oz^ KaKo^ 
KaKO)<; drreOavev p,aarLyovp,evo<;, co? eXeyev, Kara 
rrjv vvKra eKacrrrjv, ware Kal /jbwXoyTra^ el<; rrjv 

1 6 &d\ios du Soul : &e\ios MSS. 


bronze man, you know, and made the rounds in Crete. 
If he were made of wood instead of bronze, there 
would be nothing to hinder his being one of the 
devices of Daedalus instead of a work of Demetrius ; 
anyhow, he is like them in playing truant from his 
pedestal, by what you say." " See here, Tychiades," 
said he, "perhaps you will be sorry for your joke 
later on. I know what happened to the man who 
stole the obols that we offer him on the first of each 
month." " It ought to have been something very 
dreadful/' said Ion, " since he committed a sacrilege. 
How was he punished, Eucrates ? I should like to 
hear about it, no matter how much Tychiades here 
is going to doubt it." 

"A number of obols," he said, "were lying at his 
feet, and some other small coins of silver had been 
stuck to his thigh with wax, and leaves of silver, 
votive offerings or payment for a cure from one or 
another of those who through him had ceased to be 
subject to fever. We had a plaguy Libyan servant, 
a groom ; the fellow undertook to steal and did steal 
everything that was there, at night, after waiting 
until the statue had descended. But as soon as 
Pellichus came back and discovered that he had been 
robbed, mark how he punished and exposed the 
Libyan ! The unhappy man ran about the hall the 
whole night long unable to get out, just as if he had 
been thrown into a labyrinth, until finally he was 
caught in possession of the stolen property when 
day came. He got a sound thrashing then, on being 
caught, and he did not long survive the incident, 
dying a rogue's death from being flogged, he said, 
every night, so that welts showed on his body the 



iinovaav (^aivedOai avrov iirl tov aa)fiaTo<^. irpo^ 
ravra, o) Tu^taSr;, kol tov IleXki')(^ov cr/^wTrre 
Kajxe wairep tov MtVcoo? rjXi/cidoTrjv Trapairaieiv 
rjBrj SoKei.'' "'AW', w EvA-/oaT69," yv B' iydo, 
" €(TT av %aX/co9 puev 6 x^Xko';, to Be epyov ArjfiTj- 
Tpio<s KXayTTeKTjOev elpyaapikvo^ fj, ov Oeoiroio^ 
Ti9 aW' avOpwiToiToio^ wv, ovTroTe (po^ijao/jLat top 
avBpidvTa neXXt^of, ov ovBe ^covTa Trdvv iBeBUiv 
av direiXovvT d p,oi.^ 

21 'EttI TOUTOi? 'AvTbyovo<; 6 laTpo^ elire, " Ka/iiol, 
€t) 'EvKpaT€<i, 'l7r7roKpdTr)(; iaTl ^(^aXKOv^ oaov 
irtjx^^^^^ '^^ /xe7e^09* ovto^; eireiBav puovov 77 6pv- 
aXX/9 diroa^fjy Trepieiaiv ttjv oIkluv oXrjv iv kvkXo) 
•>^o(^(ov Kol Ta9 TTV^iBa'^ dvaT peTrayv /cal to, <pdp- 
fiaKa Gvyxkixiv Kal ttjv Oviav^ •nepiTpeircov, koX 
fidXiGTa iireiBav ttjv dvcriav VTrep^aXcop^eOa, f)v 
KaTa TO 6T09 GKacTTov avTw 6vo/jLev.'^ " 'Afiot 
ydp,^^ Tjv 5' iyd), " Kal IrriroKpdTT]^ rjBr] 6 laTpo^ 
OveaOaL avTw, Kal dyavaKTel '^v fxr] KaTa Kaipov 
e(f> lepwv TeXeiwv ecTTiadfj; bv eBei dyaTrdv, et 
Tt9 ivayiaeiev avTw rj jjuekiKpaTov iincnreiaeLev rj 
aT€(f)avco(T€i,e ttjv aTyjXrjv^ ^ 

22 ""AkOVC Toivvvr €(j>7] 6 KvKpdTr}<;, " TOVTO fl€V 

Kal iirl fxapTvpwv — irpo ircov irevTe elBov eTvy- 
')(ave jiiev d/jL(f)l TpvyrjTov tov eTov<; ov, €70) Be 
dva TOV dypov fiecrovar]'^ r]ixepa<i TpvywvTa^ dtpeU 
T0U9 ipydTa^ KaT ifiavTOV 6l<; ttjv vXrjv aTrrjeiv 
fiCTa^v (ppovTL^ayv tl Kal dvacKOiroviievo^, eirel 3' 
Iv Tft) auvr}p€(f>€L rjv, to fiev irpcoTov vXayfio<i iye- 
veTO Kvvcbv, Kay (a eiKa^ov Mvdacova tov vlov, 
cdaTrep el(o6ei,7raL^€Lv Kal KvvrjyeTeiv el^i to Xdaiov 

^ dvpav 7. ^ Kt(px\r}v y. 


next day. In view of this, Tychiades, mock Pellichus 
and think me as senile as if I were a contemporary 
of Minos ! " " Well, Eucrates/' I said, " as long as 
bronze is bronze and the work a product of Demetrius 
of Alopece, who makes men, not gods, I shall never 
be afraid of the statue of Pellichus, whom I should 
not have feared very much even when he was alive 
if he threatened me." 

Thereupon Antigonus, the physician, said, " I 
myself, Eucrates, have a bronze Hippocrates about 
eighteen inches high. As soon as the light is 
out, he goes all about the house making noises, 
turning out the vials, mixing up the medicines, and 
overturning the mortar, particularly when we are 
behindhand with the sacrifice which we make to 
him every year." " Has it gone so far," said I, 
" that even Hippocrates the physician demands 
sacrifice in his honour and gets angry if he is not 
feasted on unblemished victims at the proper season ? 
He ought to be well content if anyone should 
bring food to his tomb or pour him a libation of 
milk and honey or put a wreath about his grave- 
stone ! " 

" Let me tell you," said Eucrates, " — this, I assure 
you, is supported by witnesses — what I saw five 
years ago. It happened to be the vintage season of 
the year ; passing through the farm at midday, 1 left 
the labourers gathering the grapes and went off by 
myself into the wood, thinking about something in 
the meantime and turning it over in my mind. 
When I was under cover, there came first a barking 
of dogs, and I supposed that my son Mnason was at 
his usual sport of following the hounds, and had 



fxera rcov tjXiklcotcov irapekOovra. ro 8' ovk el-)(ev 
ovTco's, aXka fier oXiyov aeta/iov nvo^ afia yevo- 
/juevov Kal /3or]<i olov eK ^povTr)^ 'yvvauKa opco irpoa- 
iovaav ^ofiepdv, rj/jLLo-raSLaiav a^eSov ro v^jro^. 
elx^v Be Kal SaSa iv rfj apiarepd koI ^L(po<; iv 
rfi he^LO. oaov elfcoaaTrrj^v, Kal ra p,ev evepdev 
o<^l6'ttov<^ rjv, ra Be dvco Topyovi e/jL(f)ep7]<;, to 
^XejjbjjLa (j>r}/M Kal to (j)pLK(oBe<; t^? irpoao-^ewf;, 
Kal avrl rri^ K6/jL'i]<; rov'^ BpaKovra^ ^oarpvxplBov 
KaOelro ^ elXovpevov^ irepl tov av')(eva Kal eirl 
Tcoi* a>p.o)v eviov<i eairetpapievov^;. opdre" ecfirj, 
** OTTft)? e(f)pL^a, 0) (fyiXot, fxera^i) Sc7]yovp,evo<;." Kal 
a/jua Xeycov eheiKwev 6 RvKpdTr]<i ra? iirl rov 
'Trrj')(ew<i TpL^a<; Bfjdev opOa^ viro tov <^6j3ov. 

23 Ot fxev ovv dp.<jn tov "Iwva Kal tov ^etvopia'X^ov 
Kal TOV KXeoBrj/jLov Ke^VvoTe^; aTevh 7rpoael')(ov 
avTM, yepovTe<; avBpe^ eXKOfievoi, rrj^ piv6<i, rjpefxa 
Trpoa KVvovvTe<; ovtco<; diTLOavov KoXoaaov, rj/jLiaTa- 
Bialav yvvacKa, ytydvTeiov ti fiopixoXvKeLov. eyo) 
Be ivevoovv fieTa^v olot 6vTe<; avTol veoL^ re 6/jii- 
Xovatv iirl (To<^ia Kal vtto ttoXXcov Oavfid^ovTai, 
fjLovrj TT] TToXta Kal Tw TTcoycovL Bia(f)epovTe^ twv 
^pe<f)(ov, Ta 8' dXXa Kal avTcov eKelvcov evaycoyo- 

24 Tepoi 7r/90? to -xjreuBof;. 6 yovv Aeiv6/ia)(o<;, " EtVe 
fioL," €(f>rj, " fy) Ei;/c/3aT69, ol Kvve^ Be Tr}<; Oeov 
TrrjXiKOL TO ixeye6o<i rjcrav;^^ 

'* 'EXe^ai^TOJi^," T) 3' 09, " v^TiXoTepoi tmv ^IvBi- 
Ka)v, /jLeXave<; Kal avTol Kal Xdaiot invapa Kal 
avXP'dxTy rfj Xd')(yr). — eyco puev ovv IBodv ecTTrjv 
dvaaTpe'yjra'i afxa ttjv acppaylBa rjv jxoL 6 "Apayjr 
eBwKev 6t9 TO ei'(7ft) tov BaKTvXov r] 'RKdrij Be 



entered the thicket with his companions. This was 
not the case, however ; but after a short time there 
came an earthquake and with it a noise as of thunder, 
and then I saw a terrible woman coming toward me, 
quite half a furlong in height. She had a torch in 
her left hand and a sword in her right, ten yards 
long ; below, she had snake-feet, and above she 
resembled the Gorgon, in her stare, I mean, and the 
frightfulness of her appearance ; moreover, instead 
of hair she had the snakes falling down in ringlets, 
twining about her neck, and some of them coiled 
upon her shoulders. — See," said he, " how my flesh 
creeps, friends, as I tell the story ! " And as he 
spoke he showed the hairs on his forearm standing 
on end (would you believe it r) because of his terror ! 

Ion, Deinomachus, Cleodemus, and the rest of 
them, open-mouthed, were giving him unwaver- 
ing attention, old men led by the nose, all but 
doing obeisance to so unconvincing a colossus, a 
woman half a furlong in height, a gigantic bugaboo ! 
For my part I was thinking in the meantime : " They 
associate with young men to make them wise and 
are admired by many, but what are they themselves ? 
Only their grey hair and their beard distinguishes 
them from infants, and for the rest of it, even infants 
are not so amenable to falsehood." Deinomachus, 
for instance, said: ^^ Tell me, Eucrates, the dogs of 
the goddess — how big were they ? " 

"Taller than Indian elephants," he replied; 
" black, like them, with a shaggy coat of filthy, 
tangled hair. — Well, at sight of her 1 stopped, at 
the same time turning the gem that the Arab gave 
me to the inside of my finger, and Hecate, stamping 



irard^aaa rw SpaKovrelfo ttoBI rov8a(f)0<; eTToir^aev 
')(^d(Tfxa 7Ta/jLfjLey€9€<;, rfKiKOv Taprdpeiov to ^dOo^' 
elra cpx^"^^ A*-^"^' oXlyop aXXofiivrj eh avro. ijo) 
Be 6app7]cra<; eTreKvyjra Xa^o/xepo^ SevSpov rivb^ 
irXrjaLov irei^VKOTO^, w? /x?) aKOTohividaa^ efxire- 
(TOLpt eVl Ke(f>a\r)V' elra ecopcjv ra iv " Aihov 
anravra, rov UvpL^XeyeOovra, rrjv Xl/j,V7)v, top 
'Kep^epov, TOv<i veKpov<^, ware yvwpi^eiv eviov<; 
avra)V' rov yovv irarepa elBov dKpi/3(o<; avra 
eKelva en d/XTrexofievov iv oU avrov KareOdyjra- 

"Tl Be eirparrov,^' 6 "Icov ecfyr), " o) YjVKpare^, 
al ylrvxa^r ** Tt S' aXXo,^' rj S' 09, "77 Kara (pvXa 
/cal (^pr)rpa<^ /xera royv ^iXwv xal avyyevcov Bia- 
rpi^ovaiv eVl rod d(T<^oB6Xov /caraKeLpevoiJ" 
*' WvriXeyercoaav vvv^ eri,^^ r) B^ o<; 6 "Iwv, " ol 
dp(f)l rov ^EirLKOVpov rep lepa> UXdrcovi Kal Ta> 
rrepl rwv yjrvxcov Xoyqy. av Be pur} Kal rov XcoKpd- 
rrjv avrov Kal rov UXdrcova elBef ev rol^ veKpoL<i;^* 
" Tov %(DKpdr7)V eycoye,^ y 8' 09, " ovBe rovrov 
cra<f>6i)<^, dXXa elKd^cov^ on <paXaKp6<^ Kal rrpoyd- 
arcop Tjv' rov TiXdrwva Be ovk eyvdipLda' XPV 
ydp, olpbai, 7r/309 <f)LXov<; dvBpa<^ rdXrjOrj Xeyeiv. 

"" Ap,a S* ovv eyco re drravra iKavojs ecopdKetv, 
Kal TO x^^/^^ (Tvvrjei Kal avvepLve' Kai nve<; rcov 
oLKercov dva^rjrovvTe^ pue, Kal IlvppLa<; ovro<; ev 
avrol^;, iTrearijaav ovrrw reXeov p,€p,VK6ro<i rov 
XdapLaro<;. elire, Hvppla, el dXTjOrj Xeyco.'^ " N^ 
At'," e(f)r] 6 T[vppia<;, "Kal vXaKfj<i Be rjKOvaa Bia 
rov ^a(7/xaT09 fcal irvp n vireXapiTrev, diro t^9 

1 vvv Cobet : olv MSS. 2 ^XKa^ov ^. 



on the ground with her serpent foot, made a 
tremendous chasm, as deep as Tartarus ; then after 
a httle she leaped into it and was gone. I plucked up 
courage and looked over, taking hold of a tree that 
grew close by, in order that I might not get a dizzy 
turn and fall into it headlong. Then I saw every- 
thing in Hades, the River of Blazing Fire, and the 
Lake, and Cerberus, and the dead, well enough to 
recognise some of them. My father, for instance, I 
saw distinctly, still wearing the same clothes in 
which we buried him." 

" What were the souls doing, Eucrates ? " said Ion. 
" What else would they be doing," he said, " except 
lying upon the asphodel to while away the time, along 
with their friends and kinsmen by tribes and clans .'' " 
*' Now let the Epicureans go on contradicting holy 
Plato," said Ion, " and his doctrine about the souls ! 
But you did not see Socrates himself and Plato among 
the dead?" "Socrates I saw," he replied, ^' and 
even him not for certain but by guess, because he 
was bald and pot-bellied ; Plato I could not recognise, 
for one must tell the truth to friends, I take it. 

" No sooner had I seen everything sufficiently well 
than the chasm came together and closed up ; and 
some of the servants who were seeking me, Pyrrhias 
here among them, came upon the scene before the 
chasm had completely closed. Tell them, Pyrrhias, 
whether I am speaking the truth or not." "Yes, 
by Heaven," said Pyrrhias, "and I heard barking, 
too, through the chasm and a gleam of fire was 



BaB6<i fiOL BoK6Lv.^^^ Kayo) eyiXao'a eTTLfierprjcravTO'; 
rod ixdpTvpo<s rrjv vXuktjv koI to irvp. 
25 'O KXeoBrjfjLO^ Be, '* Ov Kaivd,^' elirev, " ovBe 
aX\oL(; dopara ravra eZSe?, eVel /cal avTo<i ov irpo 
TToXXov voarja-a^ roLovBe tl ideacrd/jurjv' eirea-KoiTei 
Be fie Kal eOepdirevev ^ Avriyovo^ outo?. efiBofiTj 
fiev rjv rjfiepa, 6 Be 7rupero<i olo<; /cavao<; a<f)oBp6- 
TaTO<;. diravre^ Be fie d'jToXiiT6vTe<; iir eprj/jLLa^ 
eiTLKXeiadfjievoL rd^ Ovpa<; efco Trepcifievov ovtco 
rydp avro<; eKeXevaa'^, w ^Avriyove, el tto)? Bvvt}- 
OeiTjp eh VTTVOV TpaireaOai. Tore ovv i^iararai 
fjLOi veavia^i eyprjyopoTL irdyKaXo^ XevKov Ifidriov 
irepifie/BXrj/jievo^;, elra dvaari^aa^ dyei Bid nvo^ 
^(^daixaTO^ eU tov '^AiBrjv, o)? avri/ca eyvdipiaa 
TdvraXov IBcov Kal Tltvov koI Xiavcpov. Kal to, 
fjuev dXXa tl dv vfjucv Xeyoipbi; eirel Be Kara to 
BiKaaTrjpLov eyev6fX7]v — iraprjv Be Kal 6 Ata/co? Kal 
6 ^dp(ov Kal at yiolpai Kal at *Epi,vv€<; — o fiev 
TL^ coGirep ^acnXev^ (o YiXovTwv,^ /jlol BoKel) 
KaOrjaro e7riXey6/jL6VO<; tcjp reOprj^ofiepcov ra 6p6- 
fiaTa, 0U9 7]Br) VTrepij/nepovi rrj^ ^corj<; avpe^aipep 
etpai. 6 Be peapiaKO^ e/jue (f)epa)P Trapearrjaep 
avTW' 6 Be TLXovTcop i^yapdKTijaep t€ Kal tt/jo? 
TOP dyayoPTa /xe, ' Ovtto) ireirXrfpwTai^ ^tjctLp, 
* TO PTjfjia avT(p, cocrre dTrirco. av Be Brj top 
"^aXKea ArjpLvXop dye* virep yap top drpaKTOP 
fiiol,^ Kdyo) da/jLepo<; dpaBpa/jLoop avTO<; fiep rjBrj 
dirvpeTO's rjv, dinjyyeXXop Be diracnv d)<s redpr}- 
^eTai Ar]/jLvXo<s' ep yeiropcop Be tj/jllp MKei po<t(op 
TL Kal avTo^;, to? din^yyeXXeTo. Kal fierd fiiKpop 
TjKOVOiJLep oljjLQ3yfj<; oBvpo/JLepcop eir avTmJ** 

^ vTroXdfxvfiv airh ttjs S(}56s fioi iSdxfi y. ^ "AjStji j3. 



shining, from the torch, I suppose." I had to laugh 
when the witness, to give good measure, threw in 
the barking and the fire ! 

Cleodemus, however, said, "These sights that 
you saw are not novel and unseen by anyone else, 
for I myself when I was taken sick not long ago 
witnessed something similar. Antigonus here visited 
and attended me. It was the seventh day, and the 
fever was like a calenture of the most raging type. 
Leaving me by myself and shutting the door, they 
all were waiting outside ; for you had given orders to 
that effect, Antigonus, on the chance that I might 
fall asleep. Well, at that time there appeared at my 
side while I lay awake a very handsome young man, 
wearing a white cloak ; then, raising me to my feet, 
he led me through a chasm to Hades, as I realised 
at once when I saw Tantalus and Ixion and Tityus 
and Sisyphus. Why should I tell you all the details ? 
But when I came to the court — Aeacus and Charon 
and the Fates and the Furies were there — a person 
resembling a king (Pluto, I suppose) sat reading oft 
the names of those about to die because their lease 
of life chanced to have already expired. The young 
man speedily set me before him ; but Pluto was 
angry and said to my guide : ' His thread is not yet 
fully spun, so let him be off*, and bring me the 
blacksmith Demylus, for he is living beyond the 
spindle.' I hastened back with a joyful heart, and 
from that time was free from fever ; but I told every- 
one that Demylus would die. He lived next door 
to us, and himself had some illness, according to 
report. And after a little while we heard the 
wailing of his mourners," 



26 " T^ Oavfiaarov;^^ elirev 6 ^Avrlyovo^' " iyo) 
yap olSd TLva /lera elKoarrjv rj/jiepav 779 ^ ird^r) 
dvaaravra, depairevcra^; koI irpo rov Oavdrov koX 
iirel dveari] rov dvOpcoirov.^^ " Kal ttco?," rjp S* 
iyco, " iv eiKoatv r^p^ipai^ ovr i/ivBrjaev to awfia 
ovre a\k(D<^ viro Xtfiov Bie^ddpr]; el /ir'j riva 
^Riri/jLevLBrjv av ye iOepd7rev6<i.'^ 

27 ''Afia ravra Xeyovrcov ^ficov eTretarjXOov 01 rod 
EvKpdrov^; viol eK r?)? iraXaiarpa^;, 6 /juev rjSr] ef 
icfyij^cov, 6 Be €Tepo<i d/jL(j)l rd irevreKaiBeKa err;, 
Kol dcnraadjjLevoL r)fid<; i/caOe^ovro ewl tP]<; KXiprjf; 
irapd TM irarpi' i/uLol Be elaeKO/iiaOrj 6p6vo<^, Kal 
6 KvKpdTr)<; MCTirep dvafjLvr]aOel<; tt^oo? rrjv oyjriv 
Twi^ viecov, " OuTO)? opalfjitjv,'' e(f)7], *' tovtcov'' — 
eiTL^aXoyv avroiv rrjv %€t/c>a — ** dXr)6r], co Tv')(^tdBi], 
7Tp6(; ae ipco, ttjv fia/captrlv [xov yvvoLKa rrjv 
TOVTCov /jLijrepa 7rdvTe<; laaaiv ottco? rjydTrrjaa, 
eBrjXcocTa Be ol<^ irepl avrrjv eirpa^a ov ^coaav 
fiovov, dXXd Kal eirel diredavevy rov re Koapov 
diravra GvyKaraKavaa^ Kal rrjv iadPjra fj ^coaa 
e%ai/9ei^. e^B6p,7] Be p^erd rrjv reXevrrjv rjpepa 
iyo) pev evravOa eirl Trj<; KXLvrj<^ wairep vvv eKeip,rjv 
irapapLvOovpevo^i to irevdo^' dveylyvcoaKov yap to 
Tvepl '^VX')^ '^^^ IIXdTcopo<; pt^Xiov ecf) r)av)(^La(;' 
€7rei,(Tep^eTaL Be pueTa^v 77 Arjp^aiper^] avTr) eKeiprj 
Kal Kadi^eTai irXi^aiop wdTvep pup EvKpaTiBrj^; 
ovToaiy^ Bel^a<; top peooTepop tcop vUcop' 6 Be 
avTLKa e^pL^e pdXa iraiBiKO)^, Kal irdXat rjBt) 
ci)')(^po<; wp ^ 7rp6<; ttjp Bujyrjaip. " 'E^yco 5e,'' V S' 
09 FiVKpdT7]<;, ** o)? elBop, 7TepL7rXaKel<; avTy 

^ § /S. M^ 7. 



" What is there surprising in that ? " said 
Antigonus : " I know a man who came to life more 
than twenty days after his burial, having attended 
the fellow both before his death and after he came 
to life." ^'How was it," said I, "that in twenty 
days the body neither corrupted nor simply wasted 
away from inanition ? Unless it was an Epimenides ^ 
whom you attended. " 

While w^e were exchanging these words the sons 
of Eucrates came in upon us from the palaestra, one 
already of age, the other about fifteen years old, and 
after greeting us sat down upon the couch beside 
their father ; a chair was brought in for me. Then, 
as if reminded by the sight of his sons, Eucrates 
said : " As surely as I hope that these boys will be a 
joy to me " — and he laid his hand upon them — 
"what I am about to tell you, Tychiades, is true. 
Everyone knows how I loved their mother, my wife 
of blessed memory ; I made it plain by what I did 
for her not only while she was alive but even when 
she died, for I burned on the pyre with her all the 
ornaments and the clothing that she liked while she 
lived. On the seventh day after her death I was 
lying here on the couch, just as I am now, consoling 
my grief; for I was peacefully reading Plato's book 
about the soul. W^hile I was thus engaged, 
Demaenete herself in person came in upon me and 
sat down beside me, just as Eucratides here is sitting 
now" — with a gesture toward the younger of his 
sons, who at once shuddered in a very boyish way ; 
he had already been pale for some time over the 
story. " When I saw her," Eucrates continued, " I 

^ The Cretan priest who slept for forty years, or 



ihaKpvov avaKcoKvaa^' rj he ovk eXa ffodv, aXV 
TjTidTo fJLe on ra aWa rrdvra ^ 'X^apiadfjievo^ avrfj 
Odrepov toIv cravBdXoiv ^(^pvaoLV ovroLV ov Kara- 
Kavcrai/jLi, elvai he avrb €<j>aaK6v iiiro rfj ki/Sojto) 
irapaireaov. fcal Bia rovro r)/jL6L<; ov^ evpovre^ 
Odrepov p,6vov eKavaajJiev. en Be tj/jLcov StaXeyo- 
fievcov Kardparov n /cvvlBlov vtto rrj kXCvt) 6v 
M.eXi,raLov vXaKTijaev, rj Be r)(f)avia6rj Trpo^; rrjv 
vXaK7]v. TO /jievTOt, aavBdXiov evpedrj vtto ttj 
KL^coTO) KoX Karefcavdrj va-repov. 

28 ""Ert diriaTelv tovtol<;, &> Tv')(^idBr), d^iov evap- 
yeaiv ovaiv icaX Kara rrjv r/p^epav eKdarijv (f)aLvo- 
fievoi^i;^^ "Ma At'," rjv S' iyco' " eirel aavBdXw 
ye 'x^pvatp eh ra? 7rvyd<; wairep tcl iraiBla Traue- 
orOaL d^ioi av elev ol dinarovvTe^ koI oi/to)? 
dvaLa')(yvTovvre<^ 7rpo<; rr]v dXr]Qeiav^^ 

29 'EttI TOVTOL'i 6 UvOayoptfcb^ 'Apiyvcoroi; elarjX- 
Oev, 6 Kop,r)Tr)<;, 6 aepLVo^ diro rov irpoaoiirov, 
olada Tov dolBip^ov iirl rfj (To<pla, rov lepov eirovo- 
/la^ofievov. Kayo) fiev a)9 elBov avrov dveirvevaa, 
rovr eKelvo rjKeuv fJbOL vofxCaa^ ireXeicvv TLva Kara 
rcav '^Jrevo-jjidrcov. "^RTrtaro/jLiel yap avrov<^r ^Xe- 
yov, *' 6 <70^o? dvr)p ovroa repdana Bie^Lovra^i' " 
Kol TO TOV XoyoVy Oeov diro p.rjx^vr}<; eTretaKUKXr)- 
Orjvai fioL rovrov S/jltjv vtto rr}^ Tu^t;?* o Be eirel 
eKaOe^ero vireKdrdvro^ avro) rov KXeoByfMOv, 
rrpoira jjuev nrepl rrj<; voaov rjpero, Kal ft)9 paov 
ijBrj e%€ti^ TjKOvaev rrapa rov ^vKpdrov^, '*Tt Se," 
e<^77, *'7rpo<i avrov<;^ ecptXoao^eire; fxera^v yap 

1 voWa /S. 2 ahX-hKovs /3. 



caught her in my arms with a cry of grief and began 
to weep. She would not permit me to cry, liowever, 
but began to find fault with me because, although I 
had given her everything else, I had not burned one 
of her gilt sandals, which, she said, was under the 
chest, where it had been thrown aside. That was 
why we did not find it and burned only the one. 
We were continuing our conversation when a cursed 
toy dog that was under the couch, a Maltese, barked, 
and she vanished at his barking. The sandal, how- 
ever, was found under the chest and was burned 

" Is it right, Tychiades, to doubt these apparitions 
any longer, when they are distinctly seen and a 
matter of daily occurrence ? " " No, by Heaven," 
I said : " those who doubt and are so disrespectful 
toward truth deserve to be spanked like children, 
with a gilt sandal ! " 

At this juncture Arignotus the Pythagorean came 
in, the man with the long hair and the majestic 
face — you know the one who is renowned for wisdom, 
whom they call holy. As I caught sight of him, I 
drew a breath of relief, thinking : " There now, a 
broadaxe has come to hand to use against their 
lies. The wise man will stop their mouths when 
they tell such prodigious yarns." I thought that 
Fortune had trundled him in to me like a deus ex 
machina, as the phrase is. But when Cleodemus 
had made room for him and he was seated, he first 
asked about the illness, and when Eucrates told him 
that it was already less troublesome, said : " What 
were you debating among yourselves } As I came 



eiaiwp iirrJKovaa, /caC /jloc eBoKelre^ eh koXov 
BtareOrja-eaOat^ rrjv Bcarpt^ijv.'' 

**Tl 6* dWo,** elTrev 6 ^vKpdrijt}, " r) tovtovI 
TOP aSajaavTivov TreiOofiev'^ — ^etfa? ifie — " rjyel- 
crOat. Baifiovdf; riva<; elvai icai (fxiafiara /cal veicpcdv 
y^v^d^i TTepLiroXelv virep <yr]<; kuI (palveaOai ol? dv 
eOeXwaiv.^^ iyw /xev ovv r}pv6plaaa fcal Kdrco 
evevcra alBeaOel^; top ^Apiyvcorov. 6 Be, "'^Opa,^* 
ecprj, ** o) Eu/c/oare?, firj tovto (f)r]atv Tvxi'dBr)<;, ra? 
Tiwi^ ^Laiw^i dirodavovToav /Ji6va<; '\jrux^<; Trepivo- 
arelv, olov et tl<; dTnjy^aro rj direr pLJjdri rrjv 
Ke(f)aXr}v rj dveaKoXoTrlaOij rj dWw ye T(p rpoirw 
roLOVT(p dirrjXdev e/c rov ^iov, rd^; Be rayv Kara 
/uLolpav diToOavovTwv ovKerr rjv yap rovro Xeyrj, 
ov irdw diro^Xrjra (pija-eo.** " Ma AT," rj 8' o? 
o Aetv6/iaxo<;, " dXX ovBe oXco<; elvai rd roiaura 
ovBe avvecTTcoTa opdcrOaL oierai.'^ 
30 ** IIco? \e7et9," ?7 8' 09 ^ApiyvcoTo^, Bpi/iv 
aTTiBcov eh e/iie, ** ovBev aoi tovtcop yiyveaOai 
BoKel, Kal ravra irdvTcov, 009 elTrelv, opcovrcov;^^ 
" ^AiroXoyrjaai,^^ ^ r]v 3' eyd), ** virep ejjiov, el pbr] 
mcTTevco, Blotl /jurjBe opco /ji6vo<; rcov dXXayv el Be 
€(op(ov, Kal eiriarevov dp Br]XaBr} coairep vfiehy 
** 'AXX,a," rj S' 09, *' rjP Trore eh Kopipdop eXOr]^, 
epov evda earlp 77 l^v^aruBov ol/cLa, Kal eireiBdp 
aoi Beix^fj irapd to Kpdpeiov, irapeXOoov eh 
avrrjv Xeye 7rpo<; top Ovpcopop Ti^eiop 0)9 €OeXoL<; 

^ SoKctTe 7. 

2 Siarieeaeai j3. iiad'fjaea-eai Cobet, Fritzsche ; but cf. 
Scytha 9 fin. 

^ a.Tro\6y7)aai A.M.H.: airoXoyrj 7P (followed by a lacuna 
of 4 letters in P) : avo\e\6yr}<re€ N Vat. 87. 



in, I overheard you, and it seemed to me that you 
were on the point of giving a fine turn to the con- 
versation ! " 

" We are only trying to persuade this man of 
adamant," said Eucrates, pointing at me, " to believe 
that spirits and phantoms exist, and that souls of 
dead men go about above ground and appear to 
whomsoever they will." I flushed and lowered my 
eyes out of reverence for Arignotus. " Perhaps, 
Eucrates," he said, " Tychiades means that only the 
ghosts of those who died by violence walk, for ex- 
ample, if a man hanged himself, or had his head cut 
off, or was crucified, or departed life in some similar 
way ; and that those of men who died a natural 
death do not. If that is what he means, we cannot 
altogether reject what he says." ^'No, by Heaven," 
replied Deinomachus, " he thinks that such things do 
not exist at all and are not seen in bodily form." 

'^ What is that you say .'* " said Arignotus, with a 
sour look at me. " Do you think that none of 
these things happen, although everybody, I may say, 
sees them } " " Plead in my defence," said I, " if I 
do not believe in them, that I am the only one of all 
who does not see them ; if I saw them, I should be- 
lieve in them, of course, just as you do." " Come," 
said he, " if ever you go to Corinth, ask where the 
house of Eubatides is, and when it is pointed out to 
you beside Cornel Grove, enter it and say to the door- 
man Tibius that you should like to see where the 



ISelv odev Tov Bal/jLova 6 IlvOayopLKo<i *Apiyva>TO<; 
avopv^a^ aiTt'fKaae kol irpo^ to Xolttov olKelaOai 
Tr)v OLKuav eTTOirjaev.^^ 
31 ** Tt Be TOVTO r)v, o) ^ A piyvcoTe T rjpero 6 
^VKpaTTj^;. ** ^ AoLKr)ro<; rjv,^^ r) 5' 09, " iic ttoWov 
VTTO Bei/jbdrcov, el Si ti<; otKrjaetev evOv<; eKirXajeh 
ecpevyev, eKhLW')(6e\<; vtto tlvo^ cpofiepov koX ra- 
pa')((i)hov^ (f)dafiaTO<;. crvveimTrev ovv 7]Srj kol 77 
areyr] Kareppei, koI oXto? ovheX'^ tjv 6 Oapprjawv 
irapeXdelv eU avT'^v. 

"'£70) Be eVel ravra riKovaa, ra? ^l/SXov; 
Xa/Scov — elal Be /iol AlyvirTiai fidXa ttoXXoI irepl 
rwv TOLOVTWV — r]Kov €t9 Tr]V OLKLav TTepl irpojrov 


€7riXa/i/3avo/JL€vov, eTret ejiaOev 61 fiahl^OLfjii, eh 
TTpovTTTOv KaKov, &)9 (fCTO. iyo) Be Xv)(yov Xa^cov 
fiovof; elaep')(opLaL, kol ev tw pbeyiaTw olKi]fxaTL 
KaraOeU to <^&)9 dveyiyvwaKOV rjavxv X^f^^^ 
KaOe^ofievo^i' e(f)i(JTaTaL Be Bal/uLcov eiTL Tiva rwi^ 
TToXXcjv TjKeiV vo/jLL^(ov fcol BeBl^eaOai Kufxe iX- 
TTL^cov wairep tou9 aXXov<;, av'^^fxr] po<; Koi K0/jL7]Tr)<; 
Kol fjLeXdvTepo<; tov ^6(f)ov. fcal 6 fiep eiricTTd'; 
eTreipoLTo /jlov, 7ravTa')(^6dev irpoa^dXXcov et irodev 
fcpuT^aeiev, koI apTi jxev kvcov dpTC Be Tavpo^i 
yiyvo/xevoi; rj Xecov. eyo) Be 7rpox€ipiad/ievo<; ttjv 
<j)ptKO)BecrTdTr)v eTTLppijaiv alyvTiTi.d^wv Trj cpcovfj 
(TVvr)Xaaa KaTaBcov avTov 669 TLva yooviav gko- 
Teivov^ otVrj/xaT09* IBwv Be. avTov o\ kutcBv, to 
XoiTTov dve7rav6/jL7]v. 

""RcoOev Be TrdvTwv direyvcdKOToiv /cat veKpov 
evprjceiv /xe olop-evcov Kaddirep tov<; dXXov<;, irpo- 
^ HiKpov Tivos j3. Perhaps aKOTfiv^v (Fritzsche) p.iKpov rivos. 


Pythagorean Arignotus exhumed the spirit and 
drove it away, making the house habitable from 
that time on." 

" What was that, Arignotus ? " asked Eucrates. 
" It was uninhabitable," he replied, "for a long time 
because of terrors ; whenever anyone took up his 
abode in it, he fled in panic at once, chased out by a 
fearful, terrifying phantom. So it was falling in and 
the roof was tumbling down, and there was nobody 
at all who had the courage to enter it. 

"When I heard all this, I took my books — I have a 
great number of Egyptian works about such matters — 
and went into the house at bed-time, although my 
host tried to dissuade me and all but held me when 
he learned where I was going — into misfortune with 
my eyes open, he thought. But taking a lamp I went 
in alone ; in the largest room I put down the light 
and was reading peacefully, seated on the ground, 
when the spirit appeared, thinking that he was 
setting upon a man of the common sort and expect- 
ing to affright me as he had the others ; he was 
squalid and long-haired and blacker than the dark. 
Standing over me, he made attempts upon me, 
attacking me from all sides to see if he could get 
the best of me anywhere, and turning now into a 
dog, now into a bull or a lion. But I brought into 
play my most frightful imprecation, speaking the 
Egyptian language, pent him up in a certain corner 
of a dark room, and laid him. Then, having observed 
where he went down, I slept for the rest of the 

" In the morning, when everybody had given up 
hope and expected to find me dead like the others. 



ekOuiv aTTpocrhoKTjrof; airaai Trpocretfii ra> Rv- 
jSariBr), ev ayyiWcov on Kadapav avro) kol ahel- 
fjLavTOV 7]Br] i^rjv ^ rrjv oiKLav oIkclv. irapaXafiojv 
ovv avrov re kol tcov aWcov 7roXX,ov<; — clttovto 
ryap rov TrapaBo^ov eveKa — eKeXevov ayaycov eVt 
TOP TOTTOV ov KaraBeBvKOTa rov Bai/iova ecopaxeLV, 
cKaTrreiv Xtt/Soi/ra? BiKeWaf; kol (TKa(^etay koI 
eirecBr) inroir^aav, evpiOrj oaov 67r* opyvcav kuto- 
pcDpvyfjL6vo<; rt? v€Kpo<; ewXo? fjLOva ra oard Kara 
a^r]/uLa avyKcifievo'^. eKelvov p,ev ovv iddyjrafiev 
avopv^avre^, rj olKca Be to o-tt' eKeivov eTravaaro 
evoxKov fxevr) viro rSiv (f)acr/jLdra)V.^^ 
32 'll? Be ravra elireu 6 ^ ApLyvwTO^;, dvrjp Bai- 
fiovio^ rrjv <ro(f)Lav fcal aTraaiv alBeaL/xo<;,~ ouSet? 
^v en TCOV Trapovrcov 09 ol'%1 KareyiyvwaKe /jlov 
iroWrjv Tr)V dvoiav toi<; roiovTOc^i d7naTovvro<;, 
KoX Tavra ^Apuyvcorov Xeyovro^;. iyo) Be o/jLco<; 
ovBev Tpeaa<i ovre rrjv Kofxr^v ovre rrjv Bo^av rrjv 
irepl avrov, "Tl toOt'," €(I)7}v, " co ^ApiyvcoTc; kol 
(TV roiovTo^i TjcrOa, rj jjlovt] iXirl^ r^s dXrjOeia^ — 
KaTTVOv fxearo's fcal IvBaXfidrcov; to yovv rov 
\6yov €K€tvo, dv6paKe<^ t)pXv 6 drjcravpo^; 7re(/)?;z^e." 
" ^v 5e,'* Tj B^ 0^ 6 ^Apiyvcoro^, " el ixr)re ifiol 
TTKTrevei^ fxrjre A€tvo/id-)(a) 7) KXeoBij/j,(p rovrco'}; 
fiijre avrCp RvKpdrei, ^epe elire riva rrepl rcov 
roiovTcov d^Loinarorepov i^yfj rdvavria rjplv Xe- 
yovra'P ** N^ A^," y]v 8' eyw, *' pudXa Oavpuaarov 
dvBpa rov ^A^Brjpodev eKelvov Ayp^oKpcrov, 09 

^ €vayye\iC^fi€vos avr^ on KaOapkv avrov Ka\ aSeifiavrov ffS?; 
€|€t 7. Lucian borrows e5 a77fA.\a) from Plato; cf. Ruther- 
ford, New Phrynickus, p. 335. 

'^ QeoTtiaios flvai Sokuv /3. 



I came forth to the surprise of all and went to 
Eubatides with the good tidings that he could now 
inhabit his house, which was purged and free from 
terrors. So, taking him along and many of the 
others too — they went with us because the thing was 
so amazing — I led them to the place where I had seen 
that the spirit had gone down and told them to take 
picks and shovels and dig. When they did so, there 
was found buried about six feet deep a mouldering 
body of which only the bones lay together in order. 
We exhumed and buried it ; and the house from 
that time ceased to be troubled by the phantoms." 

When Arignotus, a man of superhuman wisdom, 
revered by all, told this story, there was no longer 
any one of those present who did not hold me 
convicted of gross folly if I doubted such things, 
especially as the narrator was Arignotus. Never- 
theless I did not blench either at his long hair or at 
the reputation which encompassed him, but said : 
" What is this, Arignotus ? Were you. Truth's only 
hope, just like the rest — full of moonshine and vain 
imaginings ? Indeed the saying has come true : our 
pot of gold has turned out to be nothing but coals." 

'' Come now," said Arignotus, "if you put no trust 
either in me or in Deinomachus or Cleodemus here 
or in Eucrates himself, tell whom you consider more 
trustworthy in such matters that maintains the oppo- 
site view to ours." " A very wonderful man," said I, 
"that Democritus who came from Abdera, who surely 



ovTci)<; apa iireTTeiGTo /jbrjBev olov re elvai avarijvac 
TOiOVTov wcrre, eVtiS^ Kadeip^a^ kavrov et? fivfjfjLa 
e^ft) TTvXwv ivravda SieriXeL ypdcjycov xal avv- 
Tarrcov koL vvKTcop fcal fieO^ rjfjb^pav, Kai TLve^ 
Tcov veavicTKcov ip6CT')(e\6lv avrov I3ov\6/jL€vol Kal 
heLfiarovv o-reiXd/jLevoi, veKpLKOd^; ^ iadijrt, fjueXaivrj 
Kal TTpoawireioL^ eh ra Kpavia fi€/jbt,/jL7}/i6i^0L<i irepi- 
cTOLVTe^ avTov irepie'X^opevov vno irvKvfj rfj ^daei 
dva7r7j8(bpT€<;, 6 he ovtc eSeiaev rrjv irpoaTTohicnif 
avrwv ovre 6\co<; dve^Xeyjrev tt/oo? avTov<^, dWa 
fiera^v ypd(j)cov, ' UavaaaOe,^ €(f)rj, ' 7ratfoi^T€9** 
ovTco pepai(jo<; eirlareue /jujBev elvai ra? -^u^a? 
en e^Q) yevo/jbiva^ twv acofidrcov.^^ 

LOVTO (prj<i, 97 09 o tiVKparrj^;, avorjrov 
Tt-va dvSpa /cal top Arj/jLOKpiTOv yeveaOat, et ye 

33 owTO)? eyiyvwGKev. eyo^ he vfilv kol dXko hiriyrf- 
aofiat avr6<; TraOcov, ov irap dWov dfcovcra';' 
rdxO' ydp av Kal av, w Tvx^LdSrj, ukovcov irpoa^L- 
fiaaOeirj^ 'TTpo<^ ttjv d\r}9eiav ttj? Birjyijcreoy^;. 

"'Ottotg yap ev AlyvTrro) Sirjyop eri. i/eo? a>v, 
VTTo Tov irarpo^; eirl iraLheia^ Trpo^daei diro- 
aTa\ei<i, eTreOv/iirja-a et? Kotttov dvairXevaa^ 
eKeWev eirl tov Me/xvova eXdcov aKovaac to dav- 
fxacTTOV eKetvo r]'XovvTa iTpo<; dvLa)(OVTa tov rjkiov, 
€K6ivov fxev ovv TjKovaa ov KaTa to kolvov Tol<i 
7roWoL<; dcnj/jiov Tiva (fxovijVf dWd /jlol Kal 
€')(pr}crev 6 ^lifivcov avTO^; dvoL^a<; ye to aTOfia ev 
eireaiv eTrra, Kal et ye /jlt) irepiTTov r)v, avTcu av 

34 vfxlv eliTOV to, ctttj. KaTa Be tov dvdirXovv eTV)(ev 
rjfuv (TV fJLirXewv Me/ic^/rT;? dvrjp tcov lepcov ypajJL- 

^ VfKpoh eiJ.<p€pe7s ^ (»'. iu<pfpus N). 


was thoroughly convinced that nothing of this kind 
can exist. He shut himself up in a tomb outside the 
gates, and constantly wrote and composed there by 
night and by day. Some of the young fellows, wish- 
ing to annoy and alarm him, dressed themselves up 
like dead men in black robes and masks patterned 
after skulls, encircled him and danced round and 
round, in quick time, leaping into the air. Yet he 
neither feared their travesty nor looked up at them at 
all, but as he wrote said : ' Stop your foolery ! ' So 
firmly did he believe that souls are nothing after 
they have gone out of their bodies." 

"That," said Eucrates, "amounts to your saying 
that Democritus, too, was a foolish man, if he really 
thought so. But I will tell you another incident 
derived from my own experience, not from hear- 
say. Perhaps even you, Tychiades, when you have 
heard it, may be convinced of the truth of the 

" When I was living in Egypt during my youth 
(my father had sent me travelling for the purpose of 
completing my education), I took it into my head to 
sail up to Koptos and go from there to the statue of 
Memnon in order to hear it sound that marvellous 
salutation to the rising sun. Well, what I heard 
from it was not a meaningless voice, as in the 
general experience of common people ; Memnon 
himself actually opened his mouth and delivered me 
an oracle in seven verses, and if it were not too much 
of a digression, I would have repeated the very 
verses for you. But on the voyage up, there 
chanced to be sailing with us a man from Memphis, 
one of the scribes ot the temple, wonderfully 



/jLarecov,^ Oav/idaio<; rrjv aocfilav koI rrjv TratBeiav 
Traaav €lB(t)<; rrjv AlyvTrriov i\ij€TO Be rpla Kal 
CLKoatv err) ev roh a8uT0L<; v7r6yeLO<; (pKr)K€vai 
liajevetv TraLSevofievo^; vtto rf]<; "I(rtSo9.*' 

" UayKpdrrjv,^' ecprj 6 ^ApuypcoTO^;, " \iy€i^ 
€/jl6v Bi,8d(TKa\ov, avBpa lepov, e^vprffjievov, ev 
odovLOt^, del voi]fjLova, ov Ka6ap(x)<; eWrjvL^ovTa, 
eTTLfiri'crj, ai/j-ov, irpo'X^eLKov, viroXeiTTOv rd a/ceXr].^^ 
**AuToz/," rj 8' 09, " eKetvov top TiayKpdrrjv Kal rd 
fiev TrpcoTa yyvooup 6(tti<; rjv^ eirel Be ecopcop 
avTOV €L TTore opfiiaaifiep to irXolop dXka t€ 
TToWd T€pd<JTLa ipya^ofiepop, Kal Br) Kal eirl 
KpoKoBeiXwp oypvixepop Kal crvvpioPTa toI^ Or}pLoi,<;, 
Ta Be VTTO ITT 7] a a OPT a Kal (raivoPTa rat? ovpal<;, 
eypcop lepop TLPa dpdpcoirop oPTa, KaTa fiiKpov Be 
(l)L\o(f)popov/JL€PO<; eXaOop eTalpo^ avTW Kal crvprj- 
Or]<; yepop^epo^y SaT€ ttuptcop eKoiPcopeL fioi, tcop 

" Kal TeXo9 TreWei pe to 1)9 pev OLK€Ta<; d7rapTa<i 
€P TT) M-ejucjiiBi, KaTaXiirelp, avTOP Be popop dKO- 
\ovOelp peT avTov, p>r) yap diropyjaeip r)pd<; twp 
BiaKOvrjcTopievcop' Kal to /xera tovto ovtco Bn]- 
35 yopep. eTreiBr) Be e\6oLp,ep et9 ti KaTaycoyiop, 
\a^d)V dv 6 dprjp rj top p,o^\ov T7}9 Ovpa^; rj to 
Koprjdpop rj Kal to virepop TrepiffaXoop Ip^aTiOLf; 
iireLTToov Tipa eTrwBrjp eTToiei fiaBl^eiP, toU aXXoL^; 
diraaip dvOpcoTrop elpai BoKovPTa- to Be diriop 
vBcop re epiriirXri - Kal df^oovei Kal iaKeua^ep Kal 
irdpTa Be^Lco^; v7rrjpeT€L Kal BirjKOpecTO rjplp' elTa 
eTreiBj] dXc^ e-^ot t?}9 BiaKOpla^i, av6i<i KopijOpov 

^ Upoypa/jLfxaT^Mv Fritzsche, Dindorf. 



learned, familiar with all the culture of the 
Egyptians. He was said to have lived underground 
for twenty-three years in their sanctuaries, learning 
magic from Isis." 

''You mean Pancrates," said Arignotus, "my 
own teacher, a holy man, clean shaven, in white 
linen, always deep in thought, speaking imperfect 
Greek, tall, flat-nosed, with protruding lips and 
thinnish legs." "That self-same Pancrates," he 
replied : "and at first I did not know who he was, 
but when I saw him working all sorts of wonders 
whenever we anchored the boat, particularly riding 
on crocodiles and swimming in company with the 
beasts, while they fawned and wagged their tails, I 
recognised that he was a holy man, and by degrees, 
through my friendly behaviour, I became his 
companion and associate, so that he shared all his 
secret knowledge with me. 

" At last he persuaded me to leave all my servants 
behind in Memphis and to go with him quite alone, 
for we should not lack people to wait upon us ; and 
thereafter we got on in that way. But whenever we 
came to a stopping-place, the man would take either 
the bar of the door or the broom or even the pestle, 
put clothes upon it, say a certain spell over it, and 
make it walk, appearing to everyone else to be a man. 
It would go off and draw water and buy provisions 
and prepare meals and in every way deftly serve and 
wait upon us. Then, when he was through with its 



TO KopTjOpov T) virepov TO vTrepov aWrjv eTrqyBrjv 
eTreLiroov eVotet av. 

" TovTO iyoj irdvv e(T7rov8a/cw<; ovfc el^op otto)? 
i/c/jbdOoLfxi Trap' avrov' i^dcTKaive ycip,^ Kalroi 
7rpo<i TO, dWa irpo'XjELpoTaTO^ wv. /jLta Be irore 
r}/jLepa \a6cbv ein^Kovaa t^9 eVcoSr)?, rjv Be rpi- 
avWa^o^ (T')(eB6v, iv (TKoreivo) vTroa-rd^;. koX 6 
fiev w'^ero et? rr]v dyopdv ivr€Lkdp.evo<s tcG virepo) 
36 a eSeu iroLelv. iyo) Be eh ttjv varepalav eKeivov 
Tt Kara rrjv dyopdv TrpayfiarevopLevov Xa^cop to 
virepov (TX^piaTiaa^ 6fjL0La)<;, iTrecirayp ra? avX- 
\a$d<;, eKekevaa vBpo(f)Opelv. eirel Be e/jL7r\y]ad- 
fievov TOP d/jL(popea iKo/jLLae, ' UeTravcro,^ ecprjv, 
* Kal fiTjfceTL vBpo^opei, dXhJ IgQi avOi^ virepov'* 
TO Be ovKeTi fjLOL ireideaOaL ijOeXev, dX}C vBpo(p6pei 
del, dxpi' Btj iveirXrjcrev rj/jitv vBaTof; ttjv olfciav 
iiravTXovv. iycb Be dfjbrj^avcjv tw Trpdyp,aTi — ■ 
eBeBieiv yap fir) 6 YiayKpdTrj^ iiraveXOcov dya- 
vaKTrjCTT), oirep Kal eyeveTO — d^Lvrjv Xa^cov Bia- 
KoiTTw TO virepov eh Bvo fiepr)' Ta Be, CKdTepov 
TO /xepofi,^ d/j,(f)opea<; Xa^ovTa vBpO(f>6pet Kal dvd^ 
€V0<; Bvo fjLOi eyeyevrjvTO ol Bidicovoi. ev tovtw Kal 
6 IlayKpdTr]<; icj^lcTTaTaL Kal avveh to yevofievov 
CKecva fiev avOi<; eirolrjcre ^vXa, a>air€p r)v irpb 
tt)? iircpBrj^, avTO<; Be diroXnrcav fie Xadcov ovk 
olB' oiroL d(f>avr)<^ ^^'x^^o dirocov.^^ 

"Nvv ow,'* ecpr) 6 ^eivofiaxo^, '* olaOa Kav 
eKelvo, dvOpcoirov irovelv eK tov virepov T ** N^ 
Ar," rj 8' 09, " e^ rjfiiaeia^ ye' ovkctc yap eh to 
dp')(^alov olov Te fioi dirdyeiv avTO, rjv dira^ 

1 iipdovei yap avrov j3. ' fKdrfpa Kara fxtpos y. 



services, he would again make the broom a broom or 
the pestle a pestle by saying another spell over it. 

" Though I vras very keen to learn this from him, 
I could not do so, for he was jealous, although most 
ready to oblige in everything else. But one day I 
secretly overheard the spell — it was just three 
syllables — by taking my stand in a dark place. He 
went off to the square after telling the pestle what it 
had to do, and on the next day, while he was 
transacting some business in the square, I took the 
pestle, dressed it up in the same way, said the 
syllables over it, and told it to carry water. When 
it had filled and brought in the jar, I said, ' Stop ! 
don't carry any more water : be a pestle again ! ' But 
it would not obey me now : it kept straight on 
carrying until it filled the house with water for us by 
pouring it in ! At my wit's end over the thing, for 
I feared that Pancrates might come back and be 
angry, as was indeed the case, I took an axe and cut 
the pestle in two ; but each part took a jar and began 
to carry water, with the result that instead of one 
servant I had now two. Meanwhile Pancrates 
appeared on the scene, and comprehending what 
had happened, turned them into wood again, just as 
they were before the spell, and then for his own 
part left me to my own devices without warning, 
taking himself off out of sight somewhere." 

" Then you still know how to turn the pestle into 
a man ? " said Deinomachus. " Yes," said he : 
" only half way, however, for I cannot bring it back 
to its original form if it once becomes a water- 



ryevijrai v8po(p6po<;, a\Xa Beijcrei rj/julv iiTLKXvcrdrj' 
vai Ttjv oUlap iTTavrXovfxevrjv.'^ 

37 ** Ou iraxxjeader "^v S' €70;, '' ra roiavTa repa- 
ro\oyovuT6<; 'yepovre^ avhpe^; el Be firj, aWa kolv 
TOVTwv je Twv fjL6LpaKLcov eveKa ei<; aXkov nva 
Kaipov vireppdWeade Ta<; 'irapaSo^ov^ TavTa<; 
KoX (f)o^epa<; BtrjyrjaeLf;, fir) ttco? XdOcoaiv rj/icv 
€fi'n'X7]a0€VTe<i heifidrwv Kal oXXokotcov /jlvOo- 
Xoyrj/jbdrcov. <f)eiBea6ai> ovv XPV civt(OV /JirjBe 
Toiavra iOi^eiv aKOveiv, a Bid rravTo<; rov ^iov 
cruvovra evoxXtjcreL Kal -v^ro^oSeeZ? TrottjaeL ttol- 
klX7]<; Tri<i BeiaiBaipLOvia^ ijjLTnirXdvTar 

38 *' Eu76 v7r€/jbVTjaa<;,^^ y B^ 0^ 6 KvKpdrrji;, " elircbv 
T7JV BeKTiBaiiJLOviav. ri yap aoi, o) Tvxi^dBrj, irepl 
Twv TOLOVTWV BoKel, X67Q) Bt) ')(^pr)a fxodv KOI Oeacjid- 
Tcov Kal ocra 6eocf)opovfievoL tiv€<; dvafiocoaiv rj ef 
dBvTwv aKOverat 7) 7rapOevo<i efM/xerpa cpOeyyo- 
jxevii TrpodeaTTL^eL rd fxeXXovra; rj BrfKaBi) tcaX 
TOL<; TOiovTOLf; aTTLarrjaeL';; iyco Be on jxev Kal 
BaKrvXiov nva lepov ej(co ^AiroXXcovo^i rod Uv- 
6iov eiKova eKTVirovvra ^ rrjv (TcppaylBa Kal ovto<; 
6 ^AttoXXcov (pOeyyeTai, tt/jo? e'/i-e, ov Xeyco, pui) aoi 
diriara Bo^co irepl i/iavrov [JLeyaXavxeladai' a Be 
^A/jL(f)tX6xov^ re ijKovaa ev MaXXo), rov rjpwo<^ 
virap BiaXex^^VTO^^ jiol Kal av/jL^ovXevo-avro^i 
irepl TO)v e/jLMV, Kal a elBov avro'i, eOeXco vpuv 
elirelv, elra e^rj<^ a ev Tiepydficp elBov Kal a 
r]K0vaa ev UardpoLf;. 

^ iKTvirovi'Ta Fritzsche : iKTvirovaav 7P : iKrvirovffTjs tjjs 
ffcppayiios N Vat. 87. 

'■^ 'AiJ.<pi\6xov P : iy ^Afx<pi\6xov 7N. 

' virap SioA^xdevTos Larcher : vTrepSjoAex^**"'"''^ MSS. 


carrier, but we shall be obliged to let the house be 
flooded with the water that is poured in ! " 

" Will you never stop telling such buncombe, old 
men as you are ? " said I. "If you will not, at 
least for the sake of these lads put your amazing 
and fearful tales off to some other time, so that they 
may not be filled up with terrors and strange 
figments before we realise it. You ought to be easy 
with them and not accustom them to hear things 
like this which will abide with them and annoy them 
their lives long and will make them afraid of every 
sound by filling them with all sorts of superstition." 

"Thank you," said Eucrates, "for putting me in 
mind of superstition by mentioning it. What is 
your opinion, Tychiades, about that sort of thing — 
I mean oracles, prophecies, outcries of men under 
divine possession, voices heard from inner shrines, or 
verses uttered by a maiden who foretells the future? 
Of course you doubt that sort of thing also ? For 
my own part, I say nothing of the fact that I have a 
holy ring with an image of Apollo Pythius engraved 
on the seal, and that this Apollo speaks to me : 
you might think that I was bragging about myself 
beyond belief. I should like, however, to tell you 
all what I heard from Amphilochus in Mallus,' when 
the hero conversed with me in broad day and 
advised me about my affairs, and what I myself saw, 
and then in due order what I saw at Pergamon and 
what I heard at Patara. 

^ A famous shrine in Cilicia. "After the death of his 
father Amphiaraus and his disappearance at Thebes, he 
(Amphilochus) was exiled from his own country and went to 
Cilicia, where he fared quite well, for he, like his father, 
foretold the future to the Cilicians and received two obols 
for each oracle." — Alexander 19. 

VOL. III. j^ 377 


"'OTTore fyap ef Alyvirrov irravrjeiv otKuBe 
cLKOvcov TO iu MoXXu) TOVTO fiavTelov eTTLCpavi- 
(Trarov t€ Kal aXfjOeararov elvai koI XP^^ 
€vap<y(0(i 7rpo9 eVo? diroKpivo/jievov oh civ iy- 
ypdylrwi rt? eh to ypap^pbarelov irapahw tm 
'irpo<f)r)Tr}, Ka\(o^ e%eiz/ r)yy]crdfjLr]v iv irapdirXw 
TreipaOrjvaL rov xPV^'^VP^ov Kai tl irepl rmv 
fxeXXovTCOv avfjupovXevaaaOai to5 Oew — " 
39 TaOra en rod ^vKpdrov; XeyovTo<; IBodv ol to 
IT pay pa irpox^^^pijaetv €p,€We Kal od<; ov pbLKpd^ 
ivy]p'X^TO T7]<; irepl rd XPV^'^VP^^ Tpaya)BLa<;, ov 
hofCLp^daa^^ p6vo<; avrCkeyeLV aTracnv, diroXiTrcbv 
avTov ere BtairXeovra ef Alyvirrov et? rrjv MaX- 
Xov — Kal yap avvieLv on fioi axOovrat irapovn 
KaOdirep dvnao<f)i(Trr] tS)v yfrevo-p^drcov — ** 'AW' 
€70) direLpLir €(1)7]^, " Aeovnxov dva^r]T7]ao)V 
heop^ai ydp n avrw cTvyyevecrOaL. vpeh Be 
iireiiTep ov^ Ifcavd r^yelaOe rd dvOpcoinva elvat, 
Kal avrov<; rjBj] rov<; Oeov<; KaXelre (TweiT iX'q'^o- 
fjievovf: vp.LV Tcov p^vOoXoyovpevcov" Kal dp,a Xeycov 
i^yeiv, ol Be dap^evoc eXevdepia<; XajSopevoL 
elariwv, 009 ro elKo^;, avrov^ Kal eve(^opovvro rcjv 

Taavrd aoi, oi ^iXoKXei'^t irapa ^vKpdrec 
uKOvaa^; rrepieLpbL^ vrj rov Ala axrirep ol rov yXev- 
Kov^ inovre^ ep.7re(f)va-r)pevo<; rr]v yaarepa ep,erov 
Beopevo'^. rjBeo)^ B' dv iroOev iirl iroXXo) eTrpidp^rjv 
XrjOeBavov n (f)dppaKov o)V iJKOVcra, to? p,y n 
KaKOV epydarjral p,e rj piVi]pLr] avrwv evovKovpovaa' 
repara yovv Kal BalpLova^; Kal *KKdra'i opdv p.ot 

^ oh hoKiiv olri6e)s dciv §. ^ ^kw /S. 


" When I was on my way home from Egypt I 
heard that this shrine in Mallus was very famous and 
very truthful, and that it responded clearly, answer- 
ing word for word whatever one wrote in liis tablet 
and turned over to the prophet. So I thought that it 
would be well to give the oracle a trial in passing and 
ask the god for some advice about the future — " 

While Eucrates was still saying these words^ since 
I could see how the business would turn out and that 
the cock-and-bull story about oracles upon which he 
was embarking would not be short, I left him sailing 
from Egypt to Mallus, not choosing to oppose every- 
one all alone : I was aware, too, that they were put 
out at my being there to criticise their lies. " I am 
going away," I said, " to look up Leontichus, for I 
want to speak to him about something. As for you, 
since you do not think that human experiences afford 
you a sufficient field, go ahead and call in the gods 
themselves to help you out in your romancing." 
With that I went out. They were glad to have a 
free hand, and continued, of course, to feast and to 
gorge themselves with lies. 

There you have it, Philocles ! After hearing all 
that at the house of Eucrates I am going about like 
a man who has drunk sweet must, with a swollen 
belly, craving an emetic. I should be glad if I 
could anywhere buy at a high price a dose of forget- 
fulness, so that the memory of what I heard may not 
stay with me and work me some harm. In fact, I 
think 1 see apparitions and spirits and Hecates ! 




40 Kat auT09, w Ti^^iaSr/, roiovrov ri direXavaa 
Trj<; 8i7]y7](T€a)(;. (^aai ye tol firj fxovov Xvrrdv fcal 
TO vBcop (^opeladaL oiroaov'^ av ol \vTT(0VTe<; Kvve<i 
SaKcoaiv, dWa kup nva 6 Brj'^6el<; ap0pay7ro<; 
hcLKYj, la a ra> kvvX hvvarai to Sijy/jLa, koX ra 
avrd KUKelvo^ (^o^elraL. koI av tolvvv eoiKa^; 
avTo^ iv E^v/cpdrovi hrj-^Oel^ viro ttoWcov 'sjrev- 
afxdrwv ixeraSeBoyKevai, ku/jloI rod hrjyfiaro^' ovro) 
haifJLovcdV fMOL Ty]v '^vxw iveirXr^aa^. 


'AWa Oappfafiev, c5 ^tXoT?;?, jJLeya tcov tolovtcov 
dXe^icpdppaKov e')(^ovT6^ ti]v dXrjdeiav koX top iirX 
Trdat \6yov opdov, o5 %/3a>yLiez/ou9 ?7/a.a? p.t]Bev 
fiT) Tapd^T) Twv Kevuiv KOL fxaraicjv tovtojv 

^ <t>aaru(iTuv $. 




Your story has had the same enjoyable effect upon 
me, Tychiades. They say, you know, that not only 
those who are bitten by mad dogs go mad and fear 
water, but if a man who has been bitten bites anyone 
else, his bite has the same effect as the dog's, and the 
other man has the same fears. It is likely, therefore, 
that having been bitten yourself by a multitude of 
lies in the house of Eucrates, you have passed the bite 
on to me ; you have filled my soul so full of spirits ! 


Well, never mind, my dear fellow ; we have a 
powerful antidote to such poisons in truth and in 
sound reason brought to bear everywhere. As long 
as we make use of this, none of these empty, foolish 
lies will disturb our peace. 



The judgement of Paris, reviewed by Lucian. 

Siuce the first edition, it has always been printed as the 
twentieth of the Dialogues of the Gods, but in all the MSS. 
it is a separate piece and has a separate caption of its own, 
whereas in the Dialogues of the Gods the individual dialogues 
are headed merely by the names of their interlocutors. 
Then too it is longer than any of these, and although sub- 
stantially of the same cloth, more markedly satirical than 
most of them. 

In connection with Lucian's dialogue, it is well worth one's 
while to read Apuleius' detailed description of a pantomime 
on the same subject {Metamorphoses 10, 232). The strong 
contrast between the two treatments shows how little Lucian 
was influenced by the contemporary theatre. 



1 ^Fipfirj, XafioDV rovrl ro jJbrjXov aTrcdt, eh rr)v 
^pvyiav irapa rov HpidfMOv iralha tov ^ovkoXov 
— V€/jL€i, Be T779 *'lBr](; ev tm Tapydpw — koI Xiye 
7r/)09 avTov, on. " Se, co YldpUy KeXevec 6 Zeu?, 
iireihr) KaX6<; re auro? el koL (T0(p6<i rd ipcoTLKd, 
SiKaaai Tal<i 6eal<^, rjri^ avrwv r) KaXXlarr) ecrriv' 
TOV Be dya)PO<; to aXOov t) viKOiaa Xa^eTco to 
firjXovy iopa he rjSrj kol vpuv avral^; aTnevai, 
Trapd TOV BLKacrTrjv 670) yap aTrwd ov jxai Tr)v 
hiaLTav eir t(7r}<; re uyLta? dyaircov, koX eX ye olov 
T€ r)v, r}Beco<i dv dirdaa'i vevc/crjKvla^; IBcov. dXXco<; 
T€ Koi dvdyK7]y p,ia to KaXXiaTelov diroBovTa 
7rdvT(i)<; aTTex^dveaOai TaU irXeiocnv. Bid TUVTa 
auTo? /juev^ ovtc eiriTijBeiof; vpuv BLKaaTri<;, 6 Be 
veavla^i ovto<; 6 ^pv^ e<^' 01^ UTrtTe fiaaiXLKo<; pev 
eaTi KoX Tavvp.i]Bov<; tovtovI avyyevr]^, Ta dXXa Be 
d^eXr)<; koI 6peL0<;, kovk dv ti<; avTOV dira^Lcoaeie 
T0iavT7}<; 6ea<;. 


2 '£70) pAv, 0} Zed, el koi tov MtopLov avTov 
€7naTija€ia<; rjp^LV BiKaaTrjv, dappovcra jBaBiovpai 
TTyOo? T->]V eTTiBei^iv' TL ydp dv kol pLwpLrjaaLTO 
pLOv; XPV ^^ ^^^ TavTai<i dpeaKeiv tov dvdp(oiTOV» 

Available in photographs : r, PN. P contains only c. 16 
fpaadfis — end. 

^ avrhs ixfv Fritzsche : /xfv avrhs 7j3. 




Hermes, take this apple ; go to Phrygia, to Priam's 
son, the herdsman — he is grazing his flock in the 
foothills of Ida, on Gargaron — and say to him : 
" Paris, as you are handsome yourself, and also well 
schooled in all that concerns love, Zeus bids you be 
judge for the goddesses, to decide which of them is 
the most beautiful. As the prize for the contest, let 
the victor take the apple." (To the Goddesses) You 
yourselves must now go and appear before your judge. 
I refuse to be umpire because I love you all alike and 
if it were possible, should be glad to see you all 
victorious. Moreover, it is sure that if I gave the 
guerdon of beauty to one, I should inevitably get into 
the bad graces of the majority. For those reasons I 
am not a proper judge for you, but the young 
Phrygian to whom you are going is of royal blood 
and near of kin to our Ganymede ; besides, he is 
ingenuous and unsophisticated, and one cannot con- 
sider him unworthy of a spectacle such as this. 


For my part, Zeus, even if you should appoint 
Momus himself to be our judge, I would go and face 
the inspection confidently, for what could he carp at 
in me ? The others, too, ought to be satisfied with 
the man. 




"Aprjf; 6 cro? iiTLTpaiT^ ttjv hlaLTav aWa he^o- 
fieOa KoX TOVTOV, oara av rj, top Hdpiv. 


H Kol (Tol ravra, w Ovyarep, avvZoKel; tl (j)r)^; 
aTToaTpe<f)r) koX ipudpia<;; ean fjuev lSlov to alSel- 
aOai TO, rotavra v/jlmv twv irapOevwv iirivevei,^ B* 
Oyaft)9. a7TLT€ ovv KOL jJLrj y^aXeirrjvr^Te t« BiKaarfj 
at veviKTjfievaL yLtrySe kukov ivrpu^rjcrde 7a> veavi- 
<TKa>' 01) yap olov re ctt' La7)<; 7rdaa<; elvai Ka\d<;. 


3 Upotcofiev evOiz r?}? ^pvjia<;, iyo) fxlv rjyovixevof;, 
vfjL€l<^ Be jur) ^paSecof; aKoXovdelri /jlol Kal Oappelre. 
olSa iyo) top TLdptv, veavia^ earl Ka\6<; Kal 
rdXka €pcorcKo<; Kal rd rotavra Kpivetv iKavco- 
TaT09. ovK av eK€ivo<; hiKdaeiev KaK(o<;. 


Tovro fiev dirav dyaOov Kal irpo^ e/jiov Xeyei^;, 
TO SiKaiov rj/jLLV elvac rov BiKaari]V' TTorepa Be 
dya/jLo^i eanv ovro<; rj Kal yvvr) rt? avrw crvveariv; 


Ov Traj/reXw? dya^xo^y w ' A(l>poBiT7j, 


IIco? \eyeL<;; 


AoKet Ti9 avro) (TVvoiKelv ^IBaia yvvr], LKavrj 
fiev, dypoiKO<; Be Kal Bei,vco<; opeio^, dX>C ov a(p6Bpa 
TTpoaex^tv avrfi eoiK€. rivo<i 3' ovv evexa ravra 




We are not afraid either, Aphrodite, not even if 
the arbitration is turned over to your own Ares. We 
accept this Paris, whoever he may be. 


Is that your view too, daughter ? What do you 
say ? You turn away and blush ? Of course, it is the 
way of a maid like you to be bashful in such matters, 
but you nod assent anyhow. Go, then, and do not 
get angry at your judge, those of you who are 
defeated, and do not inflict any harm on the lad. It 
is not possible for all of you to be equally beautiful. 


Let us make straight for Phrygia ; I will lead the 
way, and you follow me without delaying. Be of 
good courage ; I know Paris. He is young and 
handsome and in every way susceptible to love ; just 
the sort to decide such questions. He would not 
judge amiss, not he. 


What you say is all to the good and in my favour, 
that our judge is just. Is he unmarried, or does 
some woman live with him ? 


Not quite unmarried. Aphrodite. 


What do you mean by that ? 


Apparently someone is living with him, a woman 
from Mount Ida, well enough, but countrified and 
terribly unsophisticated ; however, he does not seem 
to think much of her.^ But why do you ask ? 

^ The reference ia to Oenone. 



*'AXXft)9 rjpOfl'qv, 


4 TIapa7rp6(T0€vei<;, w ovto<!, ISla irdXai ravrrj 


OvBev, (b ^Adrjva, Betvov ovSe Kad' v/jlcjv, aXX* 
rjpGTO fie el ayapLO^; 6 Ildpi<; iarlv. 


'n? Brj TL TOVTO iroXvirpayfJiovovaa; 


OvK olha' <l>r]al 8' ovv ori, dX\(o<; iirekOoVt ovK 
e^eTTirrjBe^ rjpero. 


TL ovv; dyafi6<; iariv; 

Ov B0K6l. 


Tt hi; TO)v TToXe/jLLKcbv iariv avro) e7nOvp.La Koi 
(j>iX6Bo^6'; Tt?, Tj TO TTCLV ^ovKoXo^i; 


To /jL€V dXrjde^ ovk e%ft) elirelv, elKa^eiv Be XPV 
veov ovra koX tovtwv opkyeaOai Tvyelv Kal ^ovXe- 
adai av Trpoorov avrov elvau Kara Td<; fxaxa^, 


'Opa?, ovBev iyo) /jL€p,(f)o/iai ovBe iy/caXo) <Toi ro 
TT/oo? ravTTjv IBia XaXelv fjue/juylnfioLpcov yap fcal 
OVK ^ A(f)poBLTT]^ rh rotavTa. 



It was just a casual question. 


I say^ you are betraying your trust in talking to 
her privately all this while. 


It was nothing alarming, Athena, or against you 
and Hera ; she asked me whether Paris is unmarried. 


Why was she inquisitive about that ? 


I don't know ; she says, however, that she asked 
because it came into her head casually, and not 
because she had anything definite in view. 


Well, what about it ? Is he unmarried r 


Apparently not. 


Tell me, does he covet success in war and is he 
fond of glory, or nothing but a herdsman .'' 


I can't say for certain, but it is fair to suppose 
that, being young, he yearns to acquire all that too, 
and would like to be first in war. 


You see, I am not making any complaint or 
reproaching you with talking confidentially to her ; 
that is the way of fault-finders, not of Aphrodite I 



Kat avTi] (T')(^ehov ra avrd fjLe rjpero' Bio firj 
%aX67rco? e%€ firjS' olov ^€i,ov€kt€lv, ec ri koI 
5 TavTTj Kara to airXovv dTreKpivdfirjv. dWa fiera^v 
Xoycov r]Srj ttoXv irpolovre^; direaTrdaafiev rwv 
darepcov kol ayehov ye /card ttjv ^pvycav iafiiv. 
iyo) 8e fcal rrjv "ISrjv opco koL to Tdpyapov 6\ov 
dKpL^(o<;, el he firj i^aTraTCJfjiac, kov avTov v/jUov 
top BiKacTTrfv top IldpLV. 


Uov Be icTTLv; ov yap /cdfiol (i>aLveTai. 


TauT77, w "Yipa, tt/oo? Ta \aid irepLaKoireL, fir) 
7rpo<i dfcpo) TO) opei, irapd Be ttjv TrXevpdv, ov to 
dvTpov, evda kol ttjv dyeXrjv 6pa<;. 

'Aw* ovx opcj Trjv dye\r]v. 


IT CO? </>7;9; ov^ opa<; fiolBia KaTa top ifiov 
ovTwaX BdKTvXov etc fjueaayv toov ireTpCdv Trpoep- 
Xo/JLeva Kai Tiva ex tov o-fcoweXov KaTaOeovTa 
KaXavpoira e^ovTa Koi dveipyovTa firj irpoaa) 
BiacFKiBvaaOai ttjv dyiXrjv; 


'Op(o vvv, €1 ye eKelvo^; iaTiv, 


'AXXa ifceipo^. eTreLBrj Be ttXtjo-lov tjBtj ea/Mep, 
€7rl Tr]<; 77)9, el Bo/cet, KaTaaTdvTe<; /SaBl^cofjLep, ipa 
fiT) BiaTapd^co/juev avTop dpcoOep i^ d<fiaPov^ KaOt- 





She herself asked me practically the same 
questions ; so do not be ill-tempered or think you 
are getting the worst of it if 1 answered her as I did 
you, in a straightforward way. But in the course of 
our conversation we have already left the stars far 
behind as we pressed on, and we are almost over 
Phrygia. Indeed I can see Ida and the whole of 
Gargaron plainly, and unless I am mistaken, even 
Paris himself, your judge. 


Where is he ? I do not see him. 


Look in this direction, Hera, to the left ; not near 
the mountain-top, but on the side, where the cavern 
is, near which you see the herd. 


But I do not see the herd. 


What ? Don't you see tiny cattle over here in the 
direction of my finger, coming out from among the 
rocks, and someone running down from the cliff, 
holding a crook and trying to prevent the herd from 
scattering out ahead of him ? 


I see now — if that is really he. 


Yes, it is he. As we are near now, let us alight 
upon the earth and walk, if it is your pleasure, so 
that we may not alarm him by flying suddenly down 
from above. 




Eu Xiyei'i, fcal ovt(o 7rot(o/Ji€v. iirel Be Kara- 
^e/SijKafjLev, a>pa ctol, cj ^AcfypoBirr), Trpole.vai fcal 
rjyeiaOai, r)/j,LP rrj^ oSov' crv yap &>? to et/tfo? 
6p,7r€ipo<; el rov ^(^(opiov iroWaKL^y o)? \6yo^, 
KarekOovaa 7rp6<i A.y')(iar)v. 


Ov oi^ohpay ct) '^Hpa, tovtoi<; a^Oofiai rot? 


6 AX\' ovv iyoa v/xlv r]yriGop,ai' Kol yap avrb^ 
ivSierpiyjra rfj "IS?/, oirore Br} 6 Zei;? ijpa rov 
fjLetpaKLOv rov ^pvyo^, koI ttoWclkl'^ Bevpo rjXOov 
VTT cKelvov KaTairefK^Oel^ eU iinafcoTrrjv rod irai- 
So9. teal 07roT6 ye ■tjBrj ev tw aero) rjv, avpirapi- 
irra/irjv avrw Kat <7vv€Kov(f)t^ov rov koXop, koI 
€L ye /Ji€/jLvr]/j,ai,, cltto ravrijal ri}^ irerpa'^ avrov 
dvijpTraaev. 6 puep yap ervx^ rore avpL^cov 7rp09 
TO iToip.VLov, Karairrdp^evo^ Be omaOev avrov 6 
Zeu? Kov<^(o^ fiaXa rol^ ovv^c TrepifiaXcov Kal rw 
orop^ari rrjv cttI rrj K6(f)a\fj ridpav e-^cov dve^epe 
rov iraiBa rerapay/ievov Kal rw rpa')(rj\w dire- 
arpa/ji/nevo) et? avrov drro^Xeirovra. rore ovv 
iya> rrjv avptyya Xa^cov, dirojSe^XrjKeL yap avrrjv 
VTTO rod Beov^i — dWd yap 6 BLaLr'r)rr)<i ovrocrl 

7 ifXTjaiov, ware TrpoaeLTrto/JLev avrov. ^alpe, w 

N^ Kal (TV ye, w veaviaKe. tZ? Be oiv Bevpo 
€L<^l^at 7rpo<i rjfjidf;; rj rLva<; ravra<; dyei'i Ta? 
^vvalKa^; ov yap eiriri^Beiat, opeorroXelv, ovrci}<i 
ye ova at KaXai. 



You are right: let us do so . . . Now that we 
have descended, it is in order, Aphrodite, for you to 
go in front and lead the way for us. You are probably 
acquainted with the countryside, since by common 
report you often came down to visit Anchises. 


These jokes do not vex me greatly, Hera. 


No matter : I will lead you, for I myself spent 
some time on Ida when Zeus was in love with his 
Phrygian lad, and I often came here when he sent 
me down to watch the boy. Indeed, when he was 
in the eagle, I flew beside him and helped him to lift 
the pretty fellow, and if my memory serves me, it 
was from this rock just here that Zeus caught him 
up. You see, he chanced to be piping to his flock 
then, and Zeus, flying down behind him, grasped 
him very delicately in his talons, held in his beak 
the pointed cap which was on the boy's head, and 
bore him on high, terrified and staring at him with 
his head turned backwards. So then I took the 
syrinx, for he had let it fall in his fright — but here 
is your umpire close by, so let us speak to him. Good 
day, herdsman. 


Good day to you also, young man. But who are 
you, to have come here to see me, and who are these 
women whom you have with you ? They are not of a 
sort to roam the mountains, being so beautiful. 




*A\X' ov ^vvoLKh elatv/YLpav Be, w Hdpi, Kal 

^AOrjvav KoX ' AcppoBirrjv opa^;' Ka/jue top 'Epp,r]v 
airearetXev o Zeu9 — aWa tl rpepet^ koX oo')(^pLafi; 
pr) EeBidr ')(^a\e'irov jap ovSiv. KeXevei he ae 
BiKaarrjv yeveo-dai rov KaX\,ov<; avrutv " EttcI 
ydpj' (fyrjai, " KaX6<; re avTb<; el koI (T0(f>6<i ra 
epayrLKa, aol rrjv yvcjoriv iinr peTrco .^* rov Se dyco- 
vo<; TO ddXov elcrr) dvayvov^ to p^rfkov. 


^ep tSft) TL Kol povkeTai. **'H Koki^r <t>r](jiv, 
Xa^ero)/' ttco? av ovv, w BecriroTa ^Fjpp,r], Svvt]- 
delrjv eyo) 6v7jto<; avTO<; /cat dypoLKo<; cov 8LfcacrTrj<; 
yeveaOai TrapaBo^ov Oea<; koI pei^ovo<; rj KaTa 
0ovk6\ov; to, yap TOiavTa Kpiveiv tcov d^pcjv 
pudWov Kal daTLKOiv to Be epov, alya pev alyo<i 
oTTOTepa T)^ KaWiCDV /cal BdpaXcv dX\7]<; Bapd- 
8 Xeo)?, Td^ civ Bc/cdo-aLpn, /caTa tyjv Tex^V^' avTai 
Be irdaai re opoiw^ KaXal /cal ovfc olS' otto)? dv 
Tt9 drro T^9 eTepa<; eVl ttjv eTepav pueTaydyoi ttjv 
O'sjnv d7ro(T7rd(Ta<;' ov yap eOekei d<pl(TTaa6at 
paBiw^f dXK* evda dv direpeicrr} to irpcoTOv, tovtov 
e^erai KaX to irapov erraivel' Kav eV dWo peTa^ij, 
Kdfeelvo KaXov opa /cal irapapevei, /cal viro tcov 
7rXr)(TL0v TrapaXapjSdveTai. Kal oXw^ irepi/cexvTal 
poL TO /cdXXo<; auTwv /cal oXov irepieLXrjcjie pe Kal 
dx^opuL, OTL pr) Kal avTO<i wairep 6 "Apyo? oXcp 
jSXeTreLv Bvvapau tS> aoopaTt. Bokco 3' dv p,ot 
KaX(o<; BiKdc^ai irdaai'i drroBov<; to p,rjXov. koI 
yap av Kal ToBe, TavTrjv p.ev eJvai avp^e/3r]K€v 

^ 7] Fritzsche : ^t yfi. 




They are not women ; it is Hera and Athena and 
Aphrodite whom you see, Paris, and I am Hermes, 
sent by Zeus — but why do you tremble and turn 
pale ? Don't be afraid ; it is nothing terrible. He 
bids you be judge of their beauty, saying that as you 
are handsome yourself and also well schooled in all 
that concerns love, he turns over the decision to you. 
You will find out the prize for the contest if you 
read the writing on the apple. 


Come, let me see what it says ; " The fairest 
may have me." — How could I, Lord Hermes, a mere 
mortal and a countryman, be judge of an extra- 
ordinary spectacle, too sublime for a herdsman ? To 
decide such matters better befits dainty, city-bred 
folk. As for me, I could perhaps pass judgement as 
an expert between two she-goats, as to which is the 
more beautiful, or between two heifers ; but these 
goddesses are all equally beautiful and I do not know 
how a man could withdraw his eyes from one and 
transfer them to another. They are not inclined to 
come away readily, but wherever one directs them 
first, they take firm hold and commend what is before 
them ; and if they pass over to something else, they 
see that this too is beautiful and linger upon it, 
mastered by what is near. In short, their beauty 
encompasses and completely enthralls me, and I am 
distressed that I cannot see with my whole body 
as Argus did. I think I should pass a becoming 
judgement if I should give the apple to them all. — 
Another thing : one of them is Zeus' sister and wife. 



Tov Aio? dSeX^rjv Kol yvvaiKa, ravra^ Be Ovja- 
T€pa9' TTW? ovu ov ^^'Xewr} koX ovtw^ r) Kpicn<;; 


OvK olBa' ttXtjv ov^ olov re avahuvai iTpo<^ tov 
Ato9 KeKeKevdfievov. 

9 '^Et' TOVTO, CO 'EpfjLrj, irelaov avrd^, fjurj x^Xeirox; 
€X€iv /jiOL rd^i Suo Td<^ i'€ViKr)/jLera<;, aXXd jjlovwv 
TOiv 6(j}6a\jji(av Tjyelcrdai ttjv BiajjLaprLav. 

Out CO (j)a(rl Troiijaeiv' wpa Be (tol tjBtj irepaiveiv 

Trjv KpicTLV. 

Tleipaao/jLeOa' tL yap dv koI ttuOol Ti?; eKelvo 
Be TTpoTepov elBevai ^ovXofiai, iroTep' e^apKeaet 
(TKOTrelv avTa^ o)? exovaiv, r) teal dTToBvaat Berjcrei, 
TT/oo? TO dxpi^e^; t% i^eTaaeox;; 

TovTO fiev (TOV dv etrj tov BiKaaTov, koX Trpou- 
rarre oirr] kol Oekei'^. 

"OTrr; Kal 6e\(o; yvfjLvd<; IBelv fiovXo/juai, 


'AttoSutc, CO avTar crv S* eTncTKOTrer eycb Be 


10 KaXo)?, w Udpr Kal TrpcoTrj ye diroBvcrofiai, 
OTTcof; fidOy^; otl fir] fiova^ e)((o ra? coXez/a? XeuAra? 

^ A*POAITH vulg.: HPA MSS. editors since Jacobitz. 


and the other two are his daughters ! How, then, 
could the decision help being hazardous from that 
point of view also ? 


I do not know ; but it is impossible to escape 
carrying out what Zeus has commanded. 


Do me this one favour, Hermes : persuade them 
not to be angry with me, the two that are defeated, 
but to think that only my sight is at fault. 


They say they will do so, and now it is high time 
for you to get your j udging done. 


I shall try ; what else can one do ? But first I 
want to know whether it will satisfy the requirements 
to look them over just as they are, or must I have 
them undress for a thorough examination .'* 


That is your affair, as you are the judge. Give 
your orders as you will. 


As I will ? 1 want to see them naked. 


Undress, goddesses. Make your inspection, Paris. 
I have turned my back. 


Very well, Paris. I shall undress first, so that you 
may discover that I am not just "white-armed" 



firjBe TO) ySowTTfc? elvai, fieya (ftpovco, eir' Xarj^i Be 
elfJLL iraaa koX 6/jloi(o<; KaXr)} 


M^ irporepov arrohv(Tr]<; avrrjv, o) JJdpi, irplv 
av TOP Kearov airoOr^raL — (pap/jLUKU ycip eariv — 
firj ae KarayotjTevcrr} Sl avTov. Kairot ye i'X^prjv 
fjLTjBe ovTOi KefcaWcoTTLcr/jLevTjv Trapelvai firjBk Toaav- 
ra ivT€TpifjL/jL6V7]v 'X^pcojJLara KaOdirep co? d\r)da)<; 
kraipav rivd, dWa yvfivov to KdX\o<i eTnBeLKVveiv. 


Eu XeyovcTC to Trepl rov /cecnov, koI diroOov. 


Tt ovv ov)(l KoX av, w ^A0r)vd, rrjv Kopvv a^e- 
Xovcra ^jrtXrjv ri-jv Ke<f)a\r)v €7nB6LKvvec<i, aXV 
eTnaeieis top \6(f)ov Kal top BiKuarrjp ^opel^; 
Tj BeBia<i jirj aoi iXiyx^rjTac to yXavKop tcop opu' 
fiaTwv dpev rov <^o^epov ^Xeiropepov; 

^IBov (JOb 7] fcopv^i avTT} d<f>r]prjTaL. 


*\Bov Kai aoi 6 Kearo^. 

^ Most editors insert, with the Juntine edition, ITAP. 
'AiroSvei Kal av, & 'AtppoSir-n, for which there is no MSS. autho- 
rity. Giving the preceding speech to Aphrodite makes this 
unnecessary. Hemsterhuys' note should have settled the 

^ Aphrodite, vexed at Hera for twitting her about 
Anchises, makes fun of her by implying that she has no other 
beauties than those habitually comm.endei in her by Homer. 



and vain of " ox-eyes/' but that I am equally and 
uniformly beautiful all over.^ 


Do not let her undress, Paris, until she puts aside 
her girdle, for she is an enchantress ; otherwise 
she may bewitch you with it.^ And indeed she ought 
not to appear before you made up to that extent and 
bedaubed with all those colours, as if she were a 
courtesan in earnest : she ought to show her beauty 


They are right about the girdle, so lay it aside. 


Then why do not you take off your helmet, Athena, 
and show your head bare, instead of tossing your 
plumes at the judge and frightening him? Are you 
afraid that you may be criticized for the green glare 
of your eyes if it is seen without trappings that inspire 
terror ? ^ 


There is the helmet for you : I have taken it off. 


There is the girdle for you. 

2 See Iliad 14, 214 fiF. 

' The word with which Homer describes the eyes of Athena 
had an uncomplimentary sense in Lucian's time. "Don't let 
it trouble you that her eyes are very green {-naw y\avKovs), 
or that they squint and look at each other ! " says a girl to 
her lover about a rival {Dial. Mer. 2, 1). And Hephaestus 
finds Athena very beautiful, but must except her eyes : "To 
be sure, slie has green eyes, but the helmet makes even that 
a mark of beauty" (Dial. Dtor. 13 (vulg. 8)). So caesiua in 
Latin ; cf. Lucretius 4, 116L 




'AWa airoBvaoojiieOa. 

11 *fl Zev TcpdaTie Trj<; 6ea<;, rod KoWovt;, tt)? 
r}Bovi]<;. oia fiev rj TrapOevo^i, cb? Be ^aatXiKov 
avTt] Kol cre/JLvov diroXdaTret koI aX7)6(o<i d^iov 
TOV Ato9, rjBe ^ Be opa rjBv rt kol <y\a(j)vp6v, kuI 
Trpocraycoyov efieiBiaaev — dXX ijBrj fiev d\L<; e;i^a) 
T?}? €uBaL/jLovia<;' el Bo/cel Be, Koi IBia KaO' efcd- 
arrjv einBelv fiovXofiat, co? vvv ye d/j,(f)L/3o\6^ elfit 
Koi ovK. olBa TTpo^ 6 Ti diro^Xey^o), irdvTT] tu^ 
6yjr€i<i 7r€pia7rot)/jLevo<;. 

OvTCO 7rOL(0/Ji€V. 

"ATTtre ovv at Bvo' av Be, w'^Hpa, TrepL/ieve, 


HepL/ievM, KaTTeiBdv fxe dKpL^(o<; iBrj^i, (opa aoi 
KOL rdWa i)Br] CKOirelv el Kokd aoi, rd BSipa ttj^ 
yjrrjcpov rrj<; e'yLt?)?. rjv ydp /le, w Hdpi, BiKdarj^; 
elvai KoXrjv, dirdarjf; ear) t?)? ^Acrla^ Bea-iroTTj^;. 

OvK irrl Bd)poi(; pev rd rjperepa. TrXrjv drnOr 
12 TreTrpd^erai yap direp dv Boktj. av Be Trpoaidi rj 


UapearrjKd aoL, kol i]p pe, cj Udpi, BiKdarj<; 
Ka\i]V, ovTTOTe TjTTcoif diTet i/c pd-)(ri<^, dXX del 

1 7)5€ A.M.H. : ^Se'os T. The /3 MSS. read bpq. 5e ^Se'os koX 
y\a<pvp6u Ti. Editors read ws Se 6p^ ^5« r)5(us, koI y\a<pvp6v ri 




Come, let us undress. 


O Zeus, ^od of miracles ! What a spectacle ! What 
beauty ! What rapture ! How fair the maiden is ! 
How royal and majestic and truly worthy of Zeus is 
the matron's splendour ! How sweet and delicious 
is the other's gaze, and how seductively she smiled I 
But I have more than enough of bliss already ; and if 
you please, I should like to examine each of you 
separately, for at present I am all at sea and do not 
know what to look at ; my eyes are ravished in every 


Let us do that. 


Then you two go away, and you, Hera, stay here. 


Very well, and when you have examined me 
thoroughly, you must further consider whether the 
rewards of a vote in my favour are also beautiful in 
your eyes. If you judge me to be beautiful, Paris, 
you shall be lord of all Asia. 


My decisions are not to be influenced by rewards. 
But go; 1 shall do whatever seems best. Come, 


I am at your side, and if you judge me beautiful, 
Paris, you shall never leave the field of battle 



KparSyv TroXefiKrrijv <ydp ae Kal vtfcr](f)6pov 

OuSei;, w 'Kdrjvdy Bel jjlol rroXefJuov Kal /j,d)(^rj<;' 
elprjVT) ydp, co? 6pa(;, rd vvv eiTe')(6L rr)v ^pvyiav 
T€ Koi Avhiav Koi d7ro\6/Jb7]TO<; r]fuv rj rov Trarpb^ 
dp'xrj. Odppei Si' ov /neiovexTTJaei^; ydp, kolv [irj 
€7rl S(opoi,<; SiKd^o)/JL€V. dX)C evhvdi t^Stj Kal 

eTTiOoV TTjV KOpVV IKaVO)^ rydp clSoV. TTJP A(f)pO' 

Blrrjv irapelvai KaLp6<;. 


13 Avrr] (TOL iyo) irXirjaiov, Kal aKoirei KaB* ev 
aKpL^m /jL7]Bev Traparpex^v, aXX* ivStarpi^cov 
CKdarq) roiv fiepcov. el B^ e^eXci?, &> KaXi, Kal 
rdBe /JLOV aKovaov. eyco yap irdXai opcocrd ae 
viov ovra Kal KaXov ottolov ovk olBa et nva 
€T€pov T) ^pvyla Tpicpec, fiaKapL^w fiev rov koX- 
\ov<;, alrico/JLai Be to /irj diroXiirovTa rovf; o-Korre- 
Xou? Kal Tavraal Td<i irerpa^ Kar darv ^ijv, 
dWd Bia^deipeiv to /caXXo? ev iprjfiia. tl fxev 
yap dv (TV aTToXavcreia^; tcov opcov; tl S* dv diro- 
vaiVTO Tov aov KdWov^ at ySoe?; eirpeirev Be tjBt) 
(TOL Kal yeyafirjKevai, fxt] /jl€vtol dypocKov Tiva Kal 
')((i)plTiVy olai KaTa Tr)v "IBtjv at yvvaiKe^i, dWd 
Tiva eK T^9 'EXXa8o9, rj *Apy6$ev rj eK K^oplvOov 
Tj AdKaivav oiairep 77 '"^iKevt) eaTiv, via Te Kal 
KoXrj Kal KaT ovBev eXdTTcov ifiov, Kal to Bt} 
/jbiytaTov, epwTLKrj. eKeivij yap el Kal fiovov 6ed- 
aaiTo ae, ev olBa ey(b 609 diravTa diroXiTTOvaa 
Kal nrapaa'xovaa eavTrjv ckBotov ey^reTai Kal 
avvoLK'^aei. 7rdvTa)<; Be Kal av dKrjKod<; tl irepl 


defeated, but always victorious, for I shall make you 
a warrior and a conqueror. 


I have no use, Athena, for war and battle. As you 
see, peace reigns at present over Phrygia and Lydia, 
and my father's realm is free from wars. But have 
no fear ; you shall not be treated unfairly, even if my 
judgement is not to be influenced by gifts. Dress 
yourself now, and put on your helmet, for I have seen 
enough. It is time for Aphrodite to appear. 


Here I am close by ; examine me thoroughly, part 
by part, slighting none, but lingering upon each. 
And if you will be so good, my handsome lad, let me 
tell you this. I have long seen that you are young 
and more handsome than perhaps anyone else whom 
Phrygia nurtures. While I congratulate you upon 
your beauty, I find fault with you because, instead 
of abandoning these crags and cliffs and living in 
town, you are letting your beauty go to waste in 
the solitude. What joy can you get of the moun- 
tains .'' What good can your beauty do the kine ? 
Moreover, you ought to have married by this time — 
not a country girl, however, a peasant, like the 
women about Ida, but someone from Greece, either 
from Argos or Corinth or a Spartan like Helen, who 
is young and beautiful and not a bit inferior to me, 
and above all, susceptible to love. If she but saw 
you, I know very well that, abandoning everything 
and surrendering without conditions, she would 
follow you and make her home with you. No doubt 
you yourself have heard something of her. 



OvBev, o) ^A<j)poSLryy vvv he rjheoi^ av clkov- 
aai/jLL aov ra irdvra Bi7}yov/jL6vr]<;. 


14 AvTTj BvyaTrjp fxev iari Arjha^ eVetVr;? ttJ? 
KaXr]<; 6(j) rjv 6 Zeu? KareTrrrj kv/cvo<; <yev6fjLevo<i. 

Tioia he rr)V oyfnv ecrri; 


AevKT) /JL6V, oiav eiKo^ eK kvkvov yeyevr^fievrjVt 
cLTTaXr} he, a)9 ev (Lw rpa^elaa, yvfivaf; ra ttoWo, 
KoX TrdXaLariKi], koL ovtod hrj rt irepiairovhacrrof; 
ware /cal TroXepuov afjL<^^ avrfj yeveadai, rov 
(&r)o-e(o<; dcopov ere dpirdaavrof;. ov prjv dXX* 
eTvethrjirep et? aKprjv Karearrj, iravTe^; ol dpiaroi 
rS)v ^ Ayaiwv eiri rrjv /jLvrjareiav dTr7]VT7]aav, irpo- 
eKpiOr] he Mei^eXeo)? rov YleXoinhcop yevov<;. el 
hr} 6e\oL<;, eyco aoi /caraTrpd^o/jLai tov ydpuov. 

Ilai? 4>rj^; TOV tt}? yeyafirjfjievrjf;; 


Neo9 e2 av koX dypolKo<;, eyco he olha co? ^(^prj 
ra TOiavra hpdv» 

IIw?; ideXo) yap Kal auro<; elhevai, 


15 Su p,ev d'rrohr}/j,rja-ei<; co? eirl Oeav T779 'EWaSo?, 
Kaireihav dfpLfCij et? rrjv AaKehaijjiOva, oylrerai ae 
7) 'EXevrj, Tovvrevdev he e/Jiov dv eh] to epyov, 
07ray<i epaadrjaeTai aov Kal aKoXovdrjaeL, 




Nothing, Aphrodite, but I should be glad to hear 
you tell all about her now. 


In the first place, she is the daughter of that 
lovely Leda to whom Zeus flew down in the form of 
a swan. 


What is her appearance ? 


She is white, as is natural in the daughter of a 
swan, and delicate, since she was nurtured in an egg- 
shell, much given to exercise and athletics, and so 
very much sought for that a war actually broke out 
over her because Theseus carried her off while she was 
still a young girl. Moreover, when she came to 
maturity, all the noblest of the Achaeans assembled 
to woo her, and Menelaus, of the line of Pelops, was 
given the preference. If you like, I will arrange the 
marriage for you. 


What do you mean ? With a married woman .'' 


You are young and countrified, but I know how 
such things are to be managed. 


How ? I too want to know. 


You will go abroad on the pretext of seeing 
Greece, and when you come to Sparta, Helen will 
see you. From that time on it will be my look-out 
that she falls in love with you and follows you. 



Tovro avro Kav airiarov elvai /not BoKec, to 
aTToXiTTOvcrav rov dvSpa ideXrjaat, fiapffdp<p koX 
^ev(p avveKTrXevaai. 


Sdppet TOVTOV y€ eveKU. iralZe yap fiov iarov 
Bvo Ka\co, "IyLte/309 Kal "E/j&j?, tovtco <tol irapa- 
Bcoaco rjye/JLOve rr}? oBov yevr](Top,6va)' /cat 6 pev 
"E/)©? 0X09 TrapeXOoDV eh avrr^v dvayKaaei rrjv 
yvvacKa epav, 6 5' "Ip.epo<; avrw aot Trepi'^^uOeh 
TOvO^ oirep iariv, i/Mcprov re O^aec kol epdapiov. 
Kal avTT) Be crvfiTrapovaa Be't] Kal rcov 
^apLTcov cLKoXovOeiv Kal ovtq)^ diravrefi avrrjv 


''Otto)? /lev ravra ')(a>p'r)aei, ciBrfKov, &> ^Acfypo- 
Bltt)' ifkr/v epcj ye TjBrj r?}? 'EXeV?;? Kal ovk olB^ 
oTTCix; Kal opav avrrjv oiop^ai Kal irXeco ev6v rrjf; 
'EXXaSo? Kal rfi '^^Trdprr) eTriBrip^S) Kal eTrdveipi 
ex^ov TTjv yvvalKa — Kal d'x^ on p^rj ravra 
i/Brf irdvra ttoico. 


16 M^ TTporepov €paa6^<;, w Udpt, Trplv ep,e rr/v 
irpopvYjarpiav Kal vvpL<f)ay(oyov dpeLyjraaOat rfj 
Kpiaei' TTpeiroL yap av Kap^e vLKrj^opop vpuv avp,- 
irapelvai Kal eoprd^eiv dp,a Kal rov<; ydp,ov<; Kal 
ra eTTivLKia. irdvra yap eveart aoi — rov epcora, 
ro KdWo^, rov ydpLOV — rovrovl rov pLrjXov irpi- 

AiBoiKa pLTj /jLov dp,eXi](TT}<; p,era rr/v Kpicnv, 



That is just the thing that seems downright 
incredible to me, that she should be willing to 
abandon her husband and sail away with a foreigner 
and a stranger. 


Be easy on that score ; I have two beautiful pages. 
Desire and Love ; these I shall give you to be your 
guides on the journey. Love will enter wholly into 
her heart and compel the woman to love you, while 
Desire will encompass you and make you what he is 
himself, desirable and charming. I myself shall be 
there too, and I shall ask the Graces to go with me ; 
and in this way, by united effort, we shall prevail 
upon her. 


How this affair will turn out is uncertain. 
Aphrodite ; but, anyhow, I am in love with Helen 
already ; somehow or other I think I see her; I am 
sailing direct to Greece, visiting Sparta, coming back 
again with the woman — and it irks me not to be 
doing all this now ! 


Do not fall in love, Paris, until you have requited 
me, your match-maker and maid of honour, with the 
decision. It would be only fitting that when I am 
there with you, I too should be triumphant, and that 
we should celebrate at the same time your marriage 
and my victory. It is in your power to buy every- 
thing — her love, her beauty, and her hand — at the 
price of this apple. 


I am afraid you may dismiss me from your mind 
after the decision. 




BouXet ovv eTTOfioao/iaL; 


'T'7Ti<T')(vov/jLai Bij aoL T7JV 'EiXivrjv irapaScocreiv 
yvvaiKa, koX aKoiXovOrjcreiv ye croi, avrrjv Koi 
d(f)i^ea6ai, Trap' vfid^i el<; rrjv *'l\iov' kol avrrj 
Trapeao/iaL kol avpurpd^w ra irdvra. 

Kal Tov "Epcora koI top "Ifiepov koI Td<; Xa- 
pLTw; d^€i<;; 


tappet, Koi TOV TloOov fcal tov "Tfievaiov ert 
7rpo9 TOVTOL<; Trapdkrjyjro/jLac. 

OvKovv eVt TovTOL^ Bl8(d/jli TO firjXov cttI tov- 
TOi? \dp.^av€. 




Do you want me to take an oath ? 


Not at all ; but promise once again. 


I do promise that I will give you Helen to wife, 
and that she shall follow you and come to your 
people in Troy ; and I myself will be there and help 
in arranging it all. 


And shall you bring Love and Desire and the 
Graces .'' 


Have no fear ; I shall take with me Longing and 
Wedlock as well. 


Then on these conditions I award you the apple : 
take it on these conditions. 

VOL. III. O 409 


A Hogarthian sketch of the life led by educated Greeks 
who attached themselves to the households of great Roman 
lords — and ladies. Lucian feigns to be advising a young 
friend, whom he dubs Timocles (Master Ambitious), against 
such a career — a most effective stratagem, since by giving 
him a pretext for his criticism, it relieves him from all 
semblance of personal animus and even enables him to appear 
sympathetic toward the varlets while he du«?t8 their jackets. 

In after years, when Lucian went into the Roman civil 
service in Egypt, this essay rose up to haunt him, and he 
had to write his Ajiology in order to lay its ghost. 

nEPi THN Eni Mi5:©ai ^tnonthn 

1 Kal Tt aoi TTpcoTov, (a (piXorrj^, vj rl vararov, 
(^aai, KaraXe^o) rourcov a 'TTda')(eiv rj iroielv 
dvdyKrj tov<; iirl /jLLaOu) avv6vTa<^ kclv rai<; rcov 
evBaifiovcov tovtcov cfyiXiai'^ e^€Ta^o/nevov<; — el 
')(^pr] (ptXiav rr)v roiavTqv avTcop hovXeiav iiro- 
vojid^eiv; olSa yap iroXXa koI cr^eSov rd irXelara 
T(x)v av/jL^aivovrajv avrol^, ovk auTO<; fid Ala rov 
TOLOVTOV Treipadel^;, ov yap ev dvdyicrj pboi r) 
irelpa iyeyevrjro, p^rjSi, m 0€ol, yevoiro' dXXu 
TToXXol rcov et? rov ^lov rov rov ep^ireirrcoKorwv 
i^rjyopevov irpo^; /xe, ol fjtev en ev ra> xafca) ovre^, 
drroSvpopevoL oiroaa koI oirola erracr'^ov, ol he 
wairep i/c Secr/jbwrrjplou rLvo<; diTohpdvre<i ovk 
dr]Sa)<^ pLV7]p,ov6vovre<^ a)V eireiTOvOeaav' dXXd yap 
eix^palvovro dvaXoyi^ofievoL o'lcov d-mfXXdyrjaav. 

A^LOTTiarorepOL he rjaav ovtol Bid irdar]^, 609 
elTTelv, rr}? reXer7]<; Sie^eXrjXvdore^; Kal irdvra e^ 
dp')(r}<^ eh reXo<; €7ro7rr€vaavr6<^. ov Trapepywf; 
ovv ovBe dfjLeXa)<; iinfjKovov avrcov KaOdrrep vava- 
yiav nvd Kal (Tcorrjplav avrwv rrapdXoyov Birjyov- 
/jbevcov, oloi elaiv ol 7rpo<; rot? lepoh e^vprjp^evot 
Ta9 K€(j)aXd<; avvdp^ iroXXol rd<; rpLKvp.ia<i Kal 
^dXa<i Kal aKpcorripia Kal ifc^oXdf; Kal larov xXd- 

Available in photographs : r, UN. 


"Where shall I make a beginning," my friend, 
"and where make an end of relating"^ all that must 
be done and suffered by those who take salaried posts 
and are put on trial in the friendship of our wealthy 
men — if the name of friendship may be applied to 
that sort of slavery on their part ? 1 am familiar with 
much, I may say most, of their experiences, not 
because I myself have ever tried anything of that kind, 
for it never became a necessity for me to try it, and, 
ye gods ! I pray it never may ; but many of those who 
have blundered into this existence have talked to me 
freely, some, who were still in their misery, bewailing 
the many bitter sufferings which they were then 
undergoing, and others, who had broken jail, as it 
were, recalling not without pleasure those they had 
undergone ; in fact they joyed in recounting what 
they had escaped from. 

These latter were the more trustworthy because 
they had gone through all the degrees of the ritual, so 
to speak, and had been initiated into everything from 
beginning to end. So it was not without interest 
and attention that I listened to them while they 
spun yarns about their shipwreck and unlooked-for 
deliverance, just like the men with shaven heads who 
gather in crowds at the temples and tell of third 
waves, tempests, headlands, strand ings, masts carried 
1 Cf. Odyssey 9, 14. 



<T€t9 KOL TnjBaXicov cLTTOKavXiaeL^ Bie^Lovre^;, cttI 
Traai he tou? AioaKovpov<; €7ri(j)au>o/iei>ov<i, — 
oIksIol 'yap t?}? roiavrr]^ rpa'y^phia^ ovroi ye — ^ 
Tcv dXXov eK fi7)')(^avr]<; Oeov iirl tw Kapxv^^V 
Kade^ojievov rj tt/do? rot? Trr^haXioL^ earwra kol 
7r/)09 Tiva rjova /jLaXa/cr]v airevOvvovTa rrjv vavv, 
ol irpoaeve')(6e'Laa e/xeXXev avrrj fxev '^pepua koI 
Kara a'^^oXrjv SiaXvOijcreaOaL, avrol Se aac^aXoi^ 
aiTo^yjcyeaOaL '^dpLTL Kal evfievela rou Oeov. 

^EKetvot p,ev ovv ra ttoXXol ravra 7rpo<i rrjv 
')(^peiav rrjv irapavTLKa eTTtrpaywSovaiv w? irapa 
TrXetovcov Xapb^dvoiev, ov hvaTV')(el<; pLovov dXXa 
2 Ka\ 6eo(^iXel<; rLve<^ elvai hoKovvre^' ol he Tov'i ev 
Tat? olKiatf; ')(^eipiMva<s Kal rd<; rpiKvp^ia^; Kal vrj 
Ala TrevraKvpia^ re Kal heKaKvpLa^, el olov re 
elirelv, htr]yovpLevoi, Kal ft)9 to irpwrov elaeirXev- 
aav, yaXrjvov viro^aLvopevov rov ireXdyov^;, Kal 
oaa irpdypara irapa rov ttXovt oXov virepieivav tj 
hiy^oivre^ rj vavTLcovTe<; rj virepavrXovpevoi, rfj dXprj, 
Kal T6Xo<; &)? 77/309 irerpav riva v(j)aXov fj o-KonreXov 
ciTTOKpripLVOv TTepipprj^avTe^; ro hvcTTrjvov aKacplhiov 
aOXioL KaKco^ e^evrj^avTO yvpLvol Kal Trdvrcov evhe- 
€t9 Twv dvayKaiwv — eV hr) rovTOi<i Kal rfj rovrcov 
htrjyijaei ehoKovv pLOi rd TToXXd ovtol vtt alax^VH^ 
iTriKpvTTTeaOaL, Kal eKovre^; elvai iircXavOdveaOat 

'AXX' eycoye KaKelva Kal ei riv ^ dXXa €k rov 
Xoyov cTVvridel'^ evpiaKW rrpoaovra ral<^ roiavrai<} 
(TvvovaiaL^;, ovk OKVi^aco aot rrdvra, o) KaXe Tipo- 
KXei<i, hie^eXOelv hoKw ydp pLot eK ttoXXov 7]h7j 
KaravevorjKevai, ae rovra rw /9t'ft) iTTijSovXevovra, 

* 6? Ttv' Halm : fo-riv y, riya N. 


away, rudders broken, and to cap it all, how the Twin 
Brethren appeared (they are peculiar to this sort 
of rhodomontade), or how some other deus ex machina 
sat on the masthead or stood at the helm and 
steered the ship to a soft beach where she might 
break up gradually and slowly and they themselves 
get ashore safely by the grace and favour of the god. 

Those men, to be sure, invent the greater part of 
their tragical histories to meet their temporary need, 
in order that they may receive alms from a greater 
number of people by seeming not only unfortunate 
but dear to the gods ; but when the others told of 
household tempests and third waves — yes, by Zeus, 
fifth and tenth waves, if one may say so — and how 
they first sailed in, with the sea apparently calm, and 
how many troubles they endured through the whole 
voyage by reason of thirst or sea-sickness or inunda- 
tions of brine, and finally how they stove their un- 
lucky lugger on a submerged ledge or a sheer 
pinnacle and swam ashore, poor fellows, in a wretched 
plight, naked and in want of every necessity — in 
these adventures and their account of them it seemed 
to me that they concealed the greater part out of 
shame, and voluntarily forgot it. 

For my part I shall not hesitate to tell you every- 
thing, my dear Timocles, not only their stories but 
whatever else I find by logical inference to be 
characteristic of such household positions ; for I think 
I detected long ago that you are entertaining designs 



3 Kat TTpcJTOv <ye oinjvifca irepX roov roLOvrayv 6 Xo-yo? 
eveneaev, elra eTrrjveae t^? rcov irapovTcov rrju 
TOLavTTjv iiLa6o(f)opdv, Tpia€vSai/JLOva<; etvat Xiycov 
049 p.€Ta Tov <j)i\ov<; e'X^eiv tol'9 apLarov<; 'Vcofiaicov 
KoX heiTTvelv helirva TroXvreXrj kol davfi^oXa kol 
ol/C€LV iv Kokw zeal aiTohrjpLeZv fjLera irdar]<^ pa- 
(TT(t)vr]<; KOL r)8ovr]<; iirl Xev/cov ^evyov<;, el Tif^^oL, 
i^vTrrid^ovra^, irpoaeri fcal jxiaOov rrj^; (f>L\ia^ 
KaX u)v €V 'TTda-)(ov<TLV TOVTWV XapL^dveiv ovk 
oXiyov icTTLV dTe^vo)<^ yap aarropa kol avrfpora 
Tot9 TOLOVTOL^ TO, irdvTa (f)veadai,. ottotg ovv 
raura koI to, roiavra r}KOV€<i, eoypcov oVct)? i/cex^' 
j/et9 7r/)09 avra kol irdvv (T(j)68pa 7rp6<i to BeXeap 
dvaTreTTTa/jLivov irapelx^'i "^^ arofia. 

'n9 ovv TO 76 rjfierepov elaavdi<; ttotg dvairLov 17 
pb7)he €)Q]<; ^ Xeyeip £09 6poiVTe<^ ae Tr]XiKovTO jxeTO, 
rrj<; KapiBo^ ayKiarpov Karairivovra ovk iireXa- 
pofieOa ovSe irplv ifjLTrecrelv rw XaipLw Trepiea-Trd- 
aafxev ovhe TrpoeSrjXcocra/jLei', dXXd 7repL/jLeLvavT€<i 
ef iXKOfiivov ^ kol i/jLTreTnjyorofi ^Brj avpofievov 
KoX iTpo^ dvdyKr]v dyop^vov opdv, or ovSev 0^6X09 
e<7TC0T69 eTTeBaKpvo/jiev oircof; fir) ravra X€y7j<; iroTe, 
irdvv evXoya, tjv XeyrjTai, kol dcpVKTa r][uv, 009 
OVK dBcKOVjUiev firj 7rpofMr}vvaavTe<i, clkovctov i^ 
dpx^^ dirdvTcov, Kal to Blktvov re avrb koI twv 
KvpTcov TO dBLe^oBov €KTO(70€V cttI <TXoXr]<;, dXXa 

1 ^XV^ Fritzsche : ^xots MSS. 

* il 'kKKonhov A.M.H.: 4^€\Kon4yov MSS. 



upon that life. I detected it first one time when oui 
conversation turned to that theme, and then someone 
of the company praised this kind of wage-earning, 
saying that men were thrice happy when, besides 
having the noblest of the Romans for their friends, 
eating expensive dinners without paying any scot, 
living in a handsome establishment, and travelling in 
all comfort and luxury, behind a span of white horses, 
perhaps, with their noses in the air,^ they could also 
get no inconsiderable amount of pay for the friendship 
which the)'^ enjoyed and the kindly treatment which 
tliey received ; really everything grew without sowing 
and ploughing for such as they. When you heard all 
that and more of the same nature, I saw how you 
gaped at it and held your mouth very wide open for 
the bait. 

In order, then, that as far as I am concerned I may 
be free from blame in future and you may not be 
able to say that when I saw you swallowing up that 
great hook along with the bait I did not hold you 
back or pull it away before it got into your throat or 
give you forewarning, but waited until I saw you 
dragged along by it and forcibly lialed away when at 
last it was pulled and had set itself firmly, and then, 
when it was no use, stood and wept — in order that you 
may not say this, which would be a very sound plea if 
you should say it, and impossible for me to controvert 
on the ground that I had done no wrong by not 
warning you in advance — listen to everything at the 
outset ; examine the net itself and the impermea- 
bility of the pounds beforehand, from the outside at 

^ That this is the meaning of i^vTrnd^oi'Tes, and not " lolling 
at ease," is clear from Book-Collector 21 and Downward 
Jotu~ney 16. 



[ir} evhoOev i/c rov /jlvxov TrpoeTriaKOTnjaov, Kal 
Tov dyKtarpov Se to djKvXov Kal rrjv et? to 
e/Jb7ra\tv rov ctkoXotto^ avaarpo^rjv kol t^? rpiai- 
V7)<^ Td<; dKiMa<^ et? Ta? 'X^elpa^ Xaficov Kal irpo^ rrjv 
yvdOov irecjyvaTjfieuyv diroTreipdipevo^;, rjv /jltj irdw 
o^ea p.ijSe dcpvKTa /jLrjSe dvtapa iv Tot? rpavfiaai 
(f)aLvr)rat ^Lalco^ (nrcovra Kal dfjLd-x(o<; dpriXa/JL^a- 
vojjieva, r}/jLd<; /juev iv roL<; B6lXol<; Kal Std tovto 
TTeivoiatv dvdypa^e, aeavrov Se irapaKaXeaaf; 
Oappelv €7rLX€ip€C ttj aypa, el OeXei^y KaOdirep 6 
Xdpo<; oXov irepLX^vcov to BiXeap. 
4 'Prjdrjaerai, Be 6 irdf; X0709 to fxev oXov t(7co<i 
Sid ae, TrXrjv aXX,' ov ye irepl rcov (piXocro(povvT(ov 
vfjLcov fiovov, ovBe oiroaoi cnrovhaioTepav ttjv 
Trpoaipeaiv ir poeiXovro iv ra> ^i(p, dXXd Kal irepl 
ypa/jL/nariarayv Kal prjropcov Kal p,ovaiKa)v Kal 
oX,a)9 rcov iirl iracSeLat,'; avvelvau Kal /jLi(T6o(f>op€LV 
d^iovfievcov. KotVMV Se co? iiTLiTav ovrcov Kal 
Ofioicov Tcbv crvp^aLvovTwv diraai, hrjXov o)? ovk 
i^aipera pev, alax^w he rd avrd ovra ylyverai 
TOt? cf)tXo(TO(povai,v, el tmv opLOiow ro?(; dXXoi<; 
d^toiVTO Kal p.r]Sev avTov<; crepvorepov 01 pbiaOo- 
Sorai dyoiev. 6 tl B' dv ovv 6 X070? avTO<i iiridiv 
i^evpL(TK7j, TOVTOV TTjv alrlav pdXi(TTa p,ev ol 
7roLovvre<} avroi, eireira Be ol v7rop.evovre<; avrd 
BiKaioL e^eiv iyco Be dvaLTCo<;, el pur) dXr]dela<; Kal 
wapprjala^ eTrnipuiov ri iariv. 

Tou9 pLevTOi TOV dXXov TvXr^Oov^, olov yvp,va- 
<TTa9 TLva^ rj K6XaKa<;, IBtcoTa^ Kal piKpov^ Ta? 
yvcop,a^ Kal TaiTeivov<; avToOev dvOpci)7rov<i, ovts 
dTTOTpeireiv d^iov tcov tolovtcov ctvvovo-lcov, ovBe 
ydp dv irecaOelev, ovt€ p>7)v alTLaaOai KaXoi^ e%6i 
pbT] drroXenropLevov'; tcov piaOoBoTOiv el Kal irdvv 


your leisure, not from tlie inside after you are in the 
fyke ; take in your hands the bend of the hook and 
the barb of its point, and the tines of the harpoon ; 
puff out your cheek and try them on it, and if they 
do not prove very keen and unescapable and painful 
in one's wounds, pulling hard and gripping irresistibly, 
then write me down a coward who goes hungry for 
that reason, and, exhorting yourself to be bold, 
attack your prey if you will, swallowing the bait 
whole like a gull ! 

The whole story will be told for your sake, no 
doubt, in the main, but it will concern not only 
students of philosophy like yourself, and those who 
have chosen one of the more strenuous vocations in 
life, but also grammarians, rhetoricians, musicians, and 
in a word all who think fit to enter families and serve 
for hire as educators. Since the experiences of all 
are for the most part common and similar, it is clear 
that the treatment accorded the philosophers, so far 
from being preferential, is more contumelious for 
being the same, if it is thought that what is good 
enough for the others is good enough for them, and 
they are not handled with any greater respect by 
their paymasters. Moreover, the blame for what- 
ever the discussion itself brings out in its advance 
ought to be given primarily to the men themselves 
who do such things and secondarily to those who put 
up with them. I am not to blame, unless there is 
something censurable in truth and frankness. 

As to those who make up the rest of the mob, such 
as athletic instructors and parasites, ignorant, petty- 
minded, naturally abject fellows, it is not worth while 
to try to turn them away from such household posi- 
tions, for they would not heed, nor indeed is it proper 
to blame them for not leaving their paymasters, 



TToWa v/SpL^oiVTO viT avToov, eiT LTrjheiOL yap Kal 
ov/c avd^LOi TY)^ roiavrrjf; Siarpiffrj^;' aXXw? re 
ou8e a^olev av tl aWo irpo^ 6 rt "Xprj airoKXi- 
vavTa<; avTOv<; irapex^i'V avTOV<i ivepyov^,^ aXV i]v 
TL<; avTMV a<j)e\r) tovto, aT€)(V0L avriKa Kal apyol 
Kal rrepiTToi eldiv. ouSev ovv our avrol Seivov 
irdaxoiev av out i/celpoc v/SpLcrral SoKoleu ei? rrjv 
dfiiSa, (j>aaLV, ivovpovvre^' inl yap tol tj-jv v^piv 
ravTrjv ef d,p-)(fj^ irapep^ovTai eU rag olKLa<;, Kal 
r) T€xvrj (pipetv Kal dvexeo'Oai ra yiyvo/ieva. irepl 
he Mv irpoelirov rcov ireTraiSeu/jLevcov d^iov dyava- 
KTelv Kal TreipdaOai co? evt /judXtara jjuerdyetv 
avrov<; Kal tt/jo? eXevOepiav dc^aipelaOai. 
5 AoKco Be /jLOL Ka\(a<i dv iroirjcrat, el rd^ alTLa<; 
d<^ wv eVl Tov roiovTov ^lov d^LKVovvrai tlvs's 
irpoe^erdaa^ Zei^aiixi ov Trdvv ^laiov; ovS* dvay- 
Kala^' ovro) yap dv avTol<; r) diroXoyia irpoavai- 
polro Kal 77 irpcoTTj v7r60e(Ti<; t^9 e^eXoSoi'Xfta?. 
ol fiev Brj TToWol TTjv ireviav Kal rrjv rcov dvay- 
Kaicov ')(^peLav TrpoOifievoL iKavov tovto irpoKdXvfJL^a 
oiovTaL irpo^e^XijaOat T779 7rpo9 tov ^lov tovtov 
avTOfioXia^, Kal diro^prjv avTol'^ vofii^ovaiv el 
Xeyoiev o)? (Tvyyvco/jL7](; d^tov Troiovaiv to 'x^aXeTrdi- 
TUTov T(bv ev T(p pi(p, TTjv TTcvlav, hia^vyelv 
^r)TovvT€^' eiTa 6 SeoyvL^ 'irp6)(eLpo<^ Kal iroXu to, 

7ra9 yap dvr}p Trevlrj BeBp,7j/jLevo<i 

^ 6.\Ka>s T6 ouSe ff^o^ev tiv irphs 2 ri &\\o airoKXivavrfs trapi- 
Xoifv avTovs ivepyovs Hartman, 



however much they may be insulted by them, for 
they are adapted to this kind of occupation and not 
too good for it. Besides, they would not have any- 
thint^ else to which they might turn in order to keep 
themselves busy, but if they should be deprived of 
this, they would be without a trade at once and out 
of work and superfluous. So they themselves cannot 
suffer any wrong nor their employers be thought 
insulting for using a pot, as the saying goes, for a 
pot's use. They enter households in the first instance 
to encounter this insolence, and it is their trade to 
bear and tolerate it. But in the case of the educated 
men whom I mentioned before, it is worth while to 
be indignant and to put forth every effort to bring 
them back and redeem them to freedom. 

It seems to me that I should do well to examine in 
advance the motives for which some men go into 
this sort of life and show that they are not at all 
urgent or necessary. In that way their defence and 
the primary object of their voluntary slavery would 
be done away with in advance. Most of them plead 
their poverty and their lack of necessities, and think 
that in this way they have set up an adequate screen 
for their desertion to this life. They consider that it 
quite suffices them if they say that they act pardon- 
ably in seeking to escape poverty, the bitterest thing 
in life. Then Theognis comes to hand, and time and 
again we hear : 

''All men held in subjection to Poverty," ^ 

» Theognis 173 flF. : 

''AvSp' ayaOhv irevlr) irdvrwv Sd/jLVTjffi fi<i\t(TTa, 

Kal yrjpus iroXiov, Kvpvf, kuI rjiridXcv, 
^v 5tj XP^ (pfvyovra Kal is ^aOvK-nrfa trSvrov 
pLirruv kcCl irfTpecov, Kupvt, kot' riXi^aTov. 
Kol yap avTjp trevlr} SeS/XTj/xfVos otfTf ri €nre7y 
ov9' fp^ai Suyarai, yXaxraa Zi oi S«5«to*. 



Kol oaa aWa Bel/JLara irrrep r?}? irevia'; ol ayevvi- 
araroL rcov ttoitjtojv e^€vi)v6')(^a(JLv. 

'Eyo) S' el fi€v €(opQ)v avTOv<; (pvy/jv nva co? 
a\rj6a)<; Tfj<; irevia^ €vptaKOfjLevov<; ix rcov roiovrayv 
a-vvov(TL(xiV, ovK av virep rri<; dyav i\.€v6€pLa<; 
i/uKpoXoyov/njv irpo^ avTOv<;' iirel 8e — ax? 6 Ka\6<; 
TTOV ptjrcop €(f)y] — rol^ rcov voaovvrcov o-ltloi,^ ioi- 
Kora Xa^ifidvovai, rt? en fi'qy^avrj firj ovx'' f^cu 
TTpo? TOVTO KaK(t)<; ^e^ovXevaOat, BoKelv avTov<;, 
del fi€vovar)<; avTo2<i 6fioLa<i t^9 viroOecrecti^i rov 
fiiov; irevia yap elaael koL to Xafifidpecv dvay- 
Kolov Koi diroOerov ovSev ovBe Trepirrov el<; <j>v\a- 
Ktjv, dWd TO BoOev, Kav Bodfj, xdv dOpocof; \yj<f)0^, 
irdv aKpi^oy; koI rrj<i ')(^peia^ evBeo)<; KaravaXl- 
(TKerai,. KaX(o<; Be elx^ P'h TOLavTa<; TLvd<; d<^opp.d<; 
eiTLVoelv at rrjp ireviav rtjpovai Trapa^orjOovaat 
fjbovov avT^y dXX^ at reXeov e^aipijaovaiv, Kal 
inrep ye rod toiovtov Kal eh fiaOvKrjrea ttovtov 
i(Tco<; pLTTrelvy el Bel, &» Seoyvi, xal ireTpeeov, o)? 
(ptj^, Kar ^XijSdrayv. el Be Tt? del 7revr)<; xal 
evBer)<; Kal v7r6/jLia0o<; wv oierai ireviav avTq> rovro) 
Bia7re(f>evyevaL, ovk olBa ttox; 6 roiouTO<; ovk dv 
Bo^eiev eavrov e^airardv. 
6 "AXXoi Be ireviav p^v avrijv ovk di> (po^yOT^vai 
ovBe KaraTrXayrjval (f^ao'tv, el eBvvavro toI<; d\XoL<s 
6p,OL(o<i iTovovvTe'^ eKiropi^eiv rd dX<f)LTa, vvv Be, 
TreTTovrjKevai. yap avTOt<; rd aco/juiTa vj vtto y-qpw*; 
1] VTTO vu(T(0Vy eVl Ti]vB€ pacrTt]v ovaav rrjv puaOo- 
<f>opdv d7rt]VTi]Kevai. (f>ep ovv XBwp^v el dXijOij 
Xeyovacv Kal eK rov paaroVy p.r) iroXXd p,r}Be TrXelco 
ro)v dXKwv ttoi ovcrc, irepLyiyi'erai axnol^ rd BiBo- 
fjLevw ev)^fj yap dv eoiKora eii] ravrd ye, p>rf 



and all the other alarming statements about poverty 
that the most spiritless of the poets have put forth. 

If I saw that they truly found any refuge from 
poverty in such household positions, I should not 
quibble with them in behalf of excessive liberty; but 
when they receive what resembles " the diet of in- 
valids," as our splendid orator once said/ how can one 
avoid thinking that even in this particular they are ill 
advised, inasmuch as their condition in life always 
remains the same ? They are always poor, they must 
continue to receive, there is nothing put by, no 
surplus to save : on the contrary, what is given, even 
if it is given, even if payment is received in full, is all 
spent to the last copper and without satisfying their 
need. It would have been better not to excogitate 
any such measures, which keep poverty going by 
simply giving first aid against it, but such as will do 
away with it altogether — yes, and to that end perhaps 
even to plunge into the deep-bosomed sea if one 
must, Theognis, and down precipitous cliffs, as you 
say. But if a man who is always poor and needy 
and on an allowance thinks tliat thereby he has 
escaped poverty, I do not know how one can avoid 
thinking that such a man deludes himself. 

Others say that poverty in itself would not frighten 
or cow them if they could get their daily bread by 
working like the rest, but as things are, since their 
bodies have been debilitated by old age or by illnesses, 
they have resorted to this form of wage-earning, 
which is the easiest. Come, then, let us see if what 
they say is true and they secure their gifts easily, 
without working much, or any more than the rest. 
It would indeed be a godsend to get money readily 

1 Demosthenes 3, 33. 



irovrjaavra fjbrjhe Kafiovra eroLfiov apyvpiov Xafielv. 
TO ^' iarl Kol prjOrjvat xar a^iav aSvvarov 
Tocravra Trovovaiv fcal Kafivovaiv iv ral^ avvov- 
aiat<;, ware 7r\eLOvo<^ ivravOa /cal ijrl rovro 
IxdXicTTa Trj<; vyieiaf; Setadai, fivplcov ovrcov oar)- 
fiepai T03V 6TTLTpL^6vTwv TO acdfjLa KOL TT/oo? ia^d- 
T7JV uTToyvcoaiv KaTairovovvTcov. Xi^ofiev Be avra 
ev T(p irpoarjKOVTL Kaipw, eireihav kol ra? aWa^ 
avTOiv Bva'X^epeia'; Ste^icopev to Se vvv elvai Uavov 
rjv vTToSel^ai &>? ouS' ol Blo, ravrr^v \eyovTe<; avTov^ 
dTToBiBoaO ai rr)v irpocfiaaLV dXTjdevoiev dv. 

AoiTTov Brj KOL dXrjOeaTaTov fiev, ^Ktara Be 
Trpo? avTWv Xeyopevov, r)Bovrj<i eveKa koI tojv 
ttoXXmv Kal dOpowv eXiriBcov elairr^Bdv avTov<; eh 
Ta9 ol/cia<;, KaraTrXayivra'^ pev to TrXrjOo^ rov 
^(^pvaov fcal rov dpyvpov, evBatpovrjaavra^ Be iirl 
Tot? Beiirvoi's kol ttj dXXr) rpvipy, iXTriaavra^ Be 
oaov avTi/ca 'X.^vBov ovBevo<; eTnaropl^ovTo^ irie- 
aOat rov 'x^pvaiov. ravra vrrdyei avrov<; Kal 
BovXov^; dvrl iXevOepcov ridrjaiv — ov^ V '^^^ dvay- 
Kalcov %/9eta, r]V e^aaKov^ dXJC r) rayv ovk dvay- 
Kaiwv i'jTcdvp.ia /cal 6 roiv ttoXXwv Kal TToXvreXwv 
eK€LVCi)V frjXo?. roiyapovv (oairep Bvaep(ora<; av- 
Tou? Kal KaKoBaipiova^ epaard^ evre')(yoi rive<; Kal 
rpi^(ove<; ip^pevoc rrapaXap6vre<; virepoirnKOi^ 
TrepieTTOvaLV, otto)? del epaaOjjaovraL avrcov depa- 
irevovre^i, diroXavaai Be rwv TraiBiKwy aW' ovBe 
P'e\pi (juXrjpLaro^ aKpov pueraBiBovre^' laaac yap 
ev rw rvxelv rrjv BidXvaiv rov epcoro^ yevrjao- 
pbivTjv. ravrrjv ovv diroKXeiovaLv Kal ^rjXorvTro)'; 
(f)vXdrrovaiv' rd Be dXXa ctt eXmSo? del rov 
epaarrjv e^ovaiv, BeBlaai yap p,r) avrov t] diro- 


without toiling and moiling. As a matter of fact, 
the thing cannot even be put into adequate words. 
They toil and moil so much in their household posi- 
tions that they need better health there and need 
health more than anything else for that occupation, 
since there are a thousand things every day that 
fret the body and wear it down to the lowest depths 
of despair. We shall speak of these at the proper 
time, when we recount their other hardships. For 
the present it is enough to indicate that those 
who allege this reason for selling themselves are not 
telling the truth either. 

One motive remains, which is exceedingly genuine 
but not mentioned at all by them, namely, that they 
plunge into these households for the sake of pleasure 
and on account of their many extravagant expect- 
ations, dazzled by the wealth of gold and silver, 
enraptured over the dinners and the other forms of 
indulgence, and assured that they will immediately 
drink gold in copious draughts, and that nobody 
will stop their mouths. That is what seduces them 
and makes them slaves instead of freemen — not 
lack of necessaries, as they alleged, but desire for un- 
necessaries and envy of that abundance and luxury. 
Therefore, like unsuccessful and unhappy lovers, 
they fall into the hands of shrewd, experienced 
minions who treat them superciliously, taking good 
care that they shall always love them, but not per- 
mitting them to enjoy the objects of their affection 
even to the extent of a meagre kiss ; for they know 
that success will involve the dissolution of love. So 
they hold that under lock and key and guard it 
jealously, but otherwise they keep their lover always 
hopeful, since they fear that despair may wean hin? 



yvcoaifi airaydyrj tt}? uyap e7ndv/iia<; koX ave- 
paarof; avrol^ yivrjrar Trpoa/jLeiSicoaiv ovv Ka\ 
viria^vovvTai Koi ael eii^ iroLi^aovcn Koi ')(^cipiovv- 
rac Kal iiTifjieX'tjcrovraL TroXfreXw?. elr eXaOov 
afJL<f>co yqpdcFavre^, e^wpoL yevofievoi, koI outo? tov 
ipdv fcdK€Lvo<; TOV [lerahihovaL, TreTrpa/crai 5' ovv 
avro2<; ovSev iv diravri rw ^l(p jrepa rrj^; 6X77/809. 
8 To /jL€V Stj Bt r]hovrj<; iTrcOvfiiav diravra iirro- 
fi€V€tv ov irdvv tao)^ virainov, dWd avyyvcofirj et 
T£9 rjBovfj ')(^aLpeL koX tovto ef diravro^ OepaiTevei 
07rco<i fiede^eL avrrj^;. kultoi al(T')(pov I'cro)? kuI 
dvSpa7roB(oBe<; diToBoadaL Bid ravrrjv eavTOV iroXv 
yap rjBicov r) eK Tr]<; iXevOepLa^ rjBovi]. ofiw^; S' ovv 
€^€7(0 Tivd avyyv CO /iirjv avrol^, el i7rLTvyx<^voLTO' 
TO Be Bl rjBovrj<; eXiruBa puovov iroXXd^ dt]BLa<; 
VTrofieveiv yeXolov olfjiai, Kal dvorjrov, Kal ravra 
6pa>VTa<; co? ol fxev ttovol aacfyel^ Kal irpoBrfKoL Kal 
dvayKaloL, to Be eXTTL^o/JLevov eKclvo, oriBijirore 
iariv TO rjBv, ovre iyevero ttco togovtov ')(p6vov, 
TTpoa-eTL Be ovBe yevrjcreadai eoiKev, et Ti9 eK T?J9 
dXrjOeLa^ Xoyi^oLTO. ol pAv ye rod ^OBvaaea)<; 
eralpoL yXvKvv Tiva tov Xcotov eaOlovTe^i rjp,eXovv 
Tcav dXXwv Kal 7r/0O9 to irapov rjBv twv KaX(o<; 
i')(^ovT(ov KaT€(j)p6vovv' waT€ ov TrdvTt] dXoyo<; 
avTUiv 77 XrjOr) tov KaXov, irpo^ tw rjBel eKeivw 
T779 '^VXV'* BtaTpi^ovar]<;. to Be Xip,(p avvovTa 
TrapeaTCOTa dXX(p tov Xcotov e/jL(j)OpovfJL€va) /jLrjBev 

1 €5 Bekker : not in MSS. 


from his overmastering desire, and that he may grow 
out of love for them. They smile upon him, then, 
and make promises, and are always on the point of 
being good to him, and generous, and lavish with 
their attentions. Then before they know it, they 
both are old, the one has passed the season for 
loving, the other for yielding to love. Consequently 
they have done nothing in all their life except to 

Now to put up with everything on account of 
desire for pleasure is perhaps not altogether blame- 
worthy, even excusable, if a man likes pleasure and 
makes it his aim above all else to partake of it. Yet 
perhaps it is shameful and ignoble for him to sell 
himself on that account ; for the pleasure of freedom 
is far sweeter. Nevertheless, let us grant that he 
would be excusable in a measure, if he obtained it. 
But to put up with many unpleasantnesses just on 
account of the hope of pleasure is ridiculous in my 
opinion and senseless, particularly when men see 
that the discomforts are definite and patent in 
advance and inevitable, while the pleasure that is 
hoped for, whatever it is, has never yet come in all 
the past, and what is more, is not even likely to 
come in the future, if one should figure the matter 
out on the basis of hard fact. The companions of 
Odysseus neglected all else because they were eating 
the lotus and found it sweet, and they contemned 
what was honourable because they contrasted it 
with their immediate pleasure ; therefore it was not 
entirely unreasonable of them to forget honour while 
their souls dwelt upon that sweetness. But for a 
man in hunger to stand beside another who eats his 
fill of lotus without giving him any, and to be chained 



ficrahchovrt vtto eXiriho'i f.t6vr)<; rov Kav avrov 
TrapayevaaaOai irore BeBeadaL, t6)v KaXw^ koI 
6p6o)<; k'ypvTwv e7n'\€\r}a/jLevov/}r{pdK\€L';,ci}(; Kara- 
yeXaarov koX TrXrjycov tlvoov 'O^rjpiKOJp 009 aXrjOw^ 
9 Ta fiev roivvv irpo^ ra^ avvovaia<i avTov<; 
dyovra kol a^' wv avTOv<; (j)6povT6<; eTTirpeirova-L 
rol^ irK-ovaioi^ y^prjcrOai irpo^ o tl av ideXcoaiv, 
ravrd ianv rj otl iyyvrara tovtcov, irXrjv el fir] 
KCLKeu'cov Tfc9 ixepLvrjaOai d^Lcoaeiev twv koI fiovrj 
TTj So^rj iiraipojJLevaiv rov cvvelvat evirarpiBai^; re 
zeal 6V7rapv(j)0L<; dvBpdaiv elaXv yap 01 /cal tovto 
irepi^XeTnov koX vrrep rov<; 7roWov<^ vo/xi^ovcnv, 
d}<; eycoye tov/jlov XBlov ovBe ffaaiket tw /neydXay 
avro jxovov crvvelvat koI ovvwv opacrOai /jbrjBev 
'^prjCTTOv aTToXavcov r?}? (TVV0V<jia<; Be^alfnjv dv. 
10 Toio-uT^? Be avTol^ tt)? vTroOeaeco^; ovcrrj^;, (pepe 
rjBr) irpo^i r)/jLd<; avTov<; eTnaKOTrrjcrcDfxev ola piev 
irpo Tov ela-Be^^dijvac kuI rv^elv viropbevovcnv, ola 
Be ev avT(p rjBr] 6vre<; irdaxovcnv, eirl Trdat Be 
7]TL<; avToi<i T} KaracrrpocpT) tov Bpdp.aro<; ylyverat. 
ov yap Br) exelvo ye elirelv i(TTLv, co? el koI 
irovrjpd ravra, evXrjTrra yovv kol ov ttoXXov 
Berjaei tov irovov, dXXd OeXijaat Bel pLovov, eiTa 
(TOi TreTTpa/CTai to irdv €vpapco<;' dXXd TroXXrjf; 
puev tt}? BiaBpopbTif; Bel} (Tvve')(,ov<i Be t^? Ovpav- 
\ia<;, ewOev tg e^aviaTdpievov TrepipLeveiv oaQov- 
pevov Kal aTTOKXeiopLevov Kal dvaL(T')(yvTOV evioTe 

1 56? ^, du Soul : not in best MSS. 


to the spot, forgetful of all that is honourable and 
right, by the mere hope that he himself may get a 
taste some day — Heracles ! how ridiculous and in 
very truth deserving of a proper Homeric thrashing I^ 

Well, the motives which attract them to these 
household positions, which cause them to put them- 
selves eagerly into the power of the rich to treat as 
they will, are these or as near as may be to these, 
unless one should think it worth while to mention also 
those men who are impelled by the mere name of 
associating with men of noble family and high social 
position. There are people who think that even 
this confers distinction and exalts them above the 
masses, just as in my own case, were it even the 
Great King, merely to associate with him and to be 
seen associating with him without getting any real 
benefit out of the association would not be acceptable 
to me. 

So much for their object. Let us now consider 
between ourselves what they put up with before 
they are received and gain their end, and what they 
endure when they are fairly in the thing, and to cap 
■the climax, what the outcome of the drama proves to 
be. For surely it cannot be said that even if all this 
is unworthy, at least it is easy to get and will not 
call for much trouble ; that you need only wish, and 
then the whole thing is accomplished for you without 
any effort. No, it calls for much running hither and 
thither, and for continual camping on doorsteps ; 
you must get up early and wait about ; meanwhile 
you are elbowed, you are kept locked out, you are 
sometimes thought impudent and annoying, you are 

1 Like that bestowed upon Thersites by Odysseus [Iliad 
% 199, 265). 



Kol 6)(\r}pov hoKovvra /cat viro Ovpwpw KaK(o<; 


Kal fXiaOov TeXovvra rrj<; fJivrjfJir]^ tov ovo/jbaro'?. 
KoX /Jirjv Kal €(T0F]TO<; virep rrjv v'TTdp')(ovaav 
BvvafjLLv iiTiiiek'qOrjvai ^PV '^po^ to '^ov Gepairevo- 
fievov a^icojia, Kal 'x^ponixara alpeladat oh av 
iK€ivo<^ TjhrjTai, co? fxr] airahrj^i fMrjBe irpocrKpovT]^ 
^X€7r6fi€VO(;, Kal ^CKottovcd^ eireaOai, fidWov Be 
rjyelaOai, viro tmv olKeroiv irpocoOovfievop Kal 
oyairep riva Tro/jLTrrjv avaTrXrjpovvra. 

'O Be ovBe Trpoa^XeTrei iroXkcov €^rj<; rj/jbepcoi'. 
11 Yjv Be TTore Kal ra apLara irpd^j)';, Kal tBj) ere Kal 
7rpoaKa\eaa<; epTjral tl oiv av rvxv* Tore Brj rore 
TToXu? fiev 6 iBp(o<;, dOpoo^ Be 6 1X47709 Kal rpo/jio^ 
aKaipo^; Kal 76X0)9 tmv irapovrcov eirl rfj diropia. 
Kal 7roXXa«-t9 diroKpivaadaL Beov, " T/9 y)v ^a- 
(jiXev^ Tcbv 'A^aicoi^," otl " XtXiat vrje<; rjaav 
avToh" XejeL^;. tovto ol fxev ')(prjaTol alBco eKa- 
Xeaav, ol Be roXfirjpol BeiXlav, ol Be KaKorjOei^ 
diraLBevaiav. av 5' ovv eTno-^aXeaTdrr)^ ireipa- 
Oeh Tr)9 7rpoor7]<; (j)iXo(f)po(Tvvr](; d7rf]X6e<; Kara- 
BiKdaa^ aeavTov 7roXX7]V rrjv diroyvcoaiv, 
^ETreiBdv Be 

7roXXa9 fiev dv7ri'0V<; vvKTa<; laixrrjq 
rj/jbara 8' al/jLaroevra 

Biaydy7}<;, ov fia Ala rrjf; 'EX€vr]<; evcKa ouBe rcav 
UpidfjLov Uepyd/jLcov, dXXd tmv iXTri^o/jLevcov Trevre 
60oX(ov, Tv-^r,^ Be kol TpayiKov TLvo<i deov avvt- 
(Trdvro^i e^eraaif; rovvrevOev el olaOa rd fiadrj- 
/lara, Kal rw fieu irXovalw r) Biarpt^T] ovk 



subordinate to a door-man with a vile Syrian accent 
and to a Libyan master of ceremonies, and you tip 
them for remembering your name. Moreover you 
must provide yourself with clothing beyond the 
means at your command, to correspond with the 
dignity of the man whom you are cultivating, and 
choose whatever colours he likes in order that you 
may not be out of harmony or in discord when he 
looks at you, and you must follow him zealously, or 
rather, lead the way, shoved on by the servants and 
filling out a guard of honour, as it were. 

But your man does not even look at you for many 
days on end. And if ever you have a rare stroke of 
luck — if he sees you, calls you up and asks you a 
casual question, then, ah ! then you sweat profusely, 
your head swims confusedly, you tremble inoppor- 
tunely, and the company laughs at you for your 
embarrassment. Many a time, when you should 
reply to the question : " Who was the king of the 
Achaeans," you say, "They had a thousand ships ! " 
Good men call this modesty, forward men cowardice, 
and unkind men lack of breeding. So, having found 
the beginning of friendly relations very unstable 
footing, you go away doomed by your own verdict 
to great despair. 

When " many a sleepless night you have pillowed " 
and have lived through " many a blood-stained day," i 
not for the sake of Helen or of Priam's Trojan 
citadel, but the five obols that you hope for, and 
when you have secured the backing of a tragedy 
god,^ there follows an examination to see if you are 
learned in the arts. For the rich man that way of 

1 Iliad 9, 325. 

2 Some person, as opportune and powerful as a deua ex 
machina, to press your suit. 



ar)Sr)<; iiraLVOv/ievfo Kal evhaifxovL^oiJLevw, aol he 6 
VTTep TYjf; "^f %>}9 dyoi)v Kal virep airavro^ rov ^iov 
Tore TrpofcelaOai. So/cel' vTretaep^^erai yap eiKOTOx; 
TO /jLTjS' VTT aXkov av KaraSex^V^ciL tt/oo? rov 
irporepov airo^XrjOevra Kal So^avra elvat aho- 
KifiLOV. avdyKT) rolvvv eU fjuvpia hiaipeOrjvaL rore, 
T0i9 /xev avre^era^ofJievoL^ (f)Oovovvra, — ridet yap 
Kal aWov<; elvai rcov avrwv dvrcTroiov/xevov; — 
avrov Be iravra ivSeS)^; elprjKevai. vofiL^ovra, 
(po^ov/xevov Se Kal eXirL^ovra Kal 7rpo9 to eKeivov 
TrpoawiTOv drevi^ovra Kal el jiev eK(f)av\L^ot ri 
rcov \eyofxevwv, diroWv fxevov , el he fjiethioiv cukovol, 
12 yeyr)66ra Kal eveXiriv KaOiardfievov. elKo<i he 
TToXXoy? elvai rov<^ evavria aoi cj)povovura^ Kal 
dWov<; dvrl aov riOe/jLevov<;, oiv eKaaro^i wairep €k 
Xo-^ov ro^evcov XeXrjOev. elr ivvo-qaov dvhpa ev 
SaOel TToyywvL Kal ttoXlo. rfj Ko/iirj e^era^ofievov el 
n olhev oDCJ^eXL/jLov, Kal roL<; fiev hoKOvvra elheuat, 
TOt? he jMYj, 

Mecro? ev roaovrw %/do^'O?, Kal iroXvirpay- 
fiovelral crov dnra^ 6 TrapeXTjXvOoo^; ySt09, Kav fxev 
Ti9 rj 7ToXLrr]<; virb ^Oovov r} yeirwv e/c TtJ^09 
evreXov<; alria^ TrpoaKeKpovKox; dvaKpivojJLei'O^ 
elirrj fjioi'xpv rj 7raihepa(m]V, rovr eKelvo, €k twj^ 
A£09 heXrcov 6 fidprv;, av he irdvre^ d/xa ef^9 
eiratvcoaiv, viroirroi Kal dfKpi^oXoi Kal hehe- 
Kaa/ievoi. XPV '^oivvv iroXXd evrvxv^cLi' f<^CLl 
fMTjhev oXa>9 evavriwOrjvat,' fjuovcof; yap dv ovr(o<i 

Kiev Kal hr] evrvXT^cii aoi rrdvra evxv^ ^ 
fi€i^6voi)<i' avro^ re yap iir^vecre rov^ Xoyov^; Kal 
^ ivxvs du Soul : evTvxh^ ( — V^, — ^^s) MSS. 


passing time is not unpleasant, since he is praised 
and felicitated, but you feel that you have then 
before you the struggle for your life and for your 
entire existence, for the thought of course steals into 
your mind that no one else would receive you if you 
were rejected by his predecessor and considered 
unacceptable. So you cannot help being infinitely 
distracted then ; for you are jealous of your rivals 
(let us suppose that there are others competing with 
you for the same object) ; you think that every- 
thing you yourself have said has been inadequate, 
you fear, you hope, you watch his face with straining 
eyes ; if he scouts anything you say, you are in dis- 
tress, but if he smiles as he listens, you rejoice and 
become hopeful. No doubt there are many who side 
against you and favour others in your stead, and 
each of them stealthily shoots at you, so to speak 
from ambush. Then too imagine a man with a long 
beard and grey hair undergoing examination to see 
if he knows anything worth while, and some think- 
ing that he does, others that he does iiot ! 

Then a period intervenes, and your whole past life 
is pried into. If a fellow-countryman out of jealousy 
or a neighbour offended for some insignificant reason 
says, when questioned, that you are a follower of 
women or boys, there they have it ! the witness speaks 
by the book of Zeus ; but if all with one accord 
commend you, they are considered questionable, 
dubious, and suborned. You must have great good 
fortune, then, and no opposition at all ; for that is 
the only way in which you can win. 

Well, suppose you have been fortunate in every- 
thing beyond your fondest hopes. The master him- 
self has commended your discussions, and those of 



TMV (f)i\(ov ol ivrtfioTaroL KaX 61^ /ndXiara ttl- 
arevei ra roiaura ov/c direr peyjrav €ti he koI rj 
yvvT) ^ovXeraif ovk avrcXeyet Be ovtg 6 €7rLTpo7ro<; 
ovre o ol/covo/JLO<;' ovSe Tt9 ifie/iyjraro aov rbv l3iov, 
dWd Trdvra Tkeco koI TravTayoOev alaia rd lepd. 

13 Ke/cpdrr]Ka(; ovv, co /jua/cdpie, koL eareyjrat rd 
^OXvfXTTca, /jLoXXov Be Ba/3v\6jva ecXrjcpai; rj rrjv 
^dpBewv dfcpoTToXiv KaOrjpi-jKa^, kol 6^6i<s to t?}? 
^ ApLaXOela^ K6pa<; koX a/xeXfet? opvuOcov ydXa. 
Bel Bi] aot dvrl rcov to<tovtcov ttovwv /leytara 
rfXifca yevecrdai rdyaOd, Xva pJi) (J)vXXlvo<; p.6vov 
6 (TTe^avo^ y, kol rov re fxiaOov ovk evKara- 
<j)p6vrjrov 6pLa6r)vai Ka\ rovrov ev Katpo) r?)? 
Xp€ia<; dirpayixovw^ diroBlBoaOaL koX rrjv dXXrjv 
rifxrjv virep rov^ ttoXXov^; V7rdp')(eiv, ttovwv Be 
€/ceiV(ov KOL irrjXov kol Bpoficov /cat dypvirvioyv 
dvaiTeiTavcrOaL, koI rovro Brj ro Trj<; ev')(ri<^, drro- 
reivavra rco rroBe KaOevBeiv, p-ova e/celva rrpdr- 
rovra o)V eveKa rrjv dp')(r]V 7rapeX/](pdr](; /cat cov 
€/jLp,LaOo<; el. ^XP^l^ f^^^ ovrw';, co TtyLto/cXet?, Kal 
ovBev dv rjv p,eya KaKov vTroKvyjravra (pepeiv rov 
^vyop eXa(j>p6v re Kal €V(f)opov koI to pbeyLarov, 
iiTiXpvcrov ovra. dXXd iroXXov, p,dXXov Be rov 
TTavro^ Bel' jjuvpia ydp iariv d(f>6pr]ra eXevdepw 
dvBpl ev avral<i rjBr] ral^ avvovaiai^ ytyvofieva. 
<7Keyjrat Be avro<^ e^rj<;^ dKOvcov, et rt? dv avrd 
VTro/jielvat Bvvairo iraiBeia Kav eir iXd^tc'rov 

14 Q)fj,i,Xr}K(ii)<;. dp^ofiat Be diro rov Trpcorov Beiirvov, 

1 TO e|p5? e|py fKacra Fritzsche. 



his friends whom he holds in the highest esteem 
and trusts most implicitly in such matters have not 
advised him against you. Besides, his wife is willing, 
and neither his attorney nor his steward objects, nor 
has anyone criticized your past ; everything is 
propitious and from every point of view the omens 
are good. You have won, then, lucky man, and 
have gained the Olympic crown — nay, you have 
taken Babylon or stormed the citadel of Sardis ; you 
shall have the horn of Plenty and fill your pails with 
pigeon's milk. It is indeed fitting that in return for 
all your labours you should have the very greatest of 
blessings, in order that your crown may not be mere 
leaves ; that your salary should be set at a consider- 
able figure and paid you when you need it, without 
ado ; that in other ways you should be honoured 
beyond ordinary folk; that you should get respite 
from your former exertions and muddiness and 
running about and loss of sleep, and that in accordance 
with your prayer you should " sleep with your legs 
stretched out," ^ doing only what you were engaged 
for at the outset and what you are paid for. That 
ought to be the way of it, Timocles, and there would 
be no great harm in stooping and bearing the yoke 
if it were light and comfortable and, best of all, gilded ! 
But the case is very different — yes, totally different. 
There are thousands of things insupportable to a free 
man that take place even after one has entered the 
household. Consider for yourself, as you hear a list 
of them, whether anyone could put up with them 
who is even to the slightest degree cultured. I shall 
begin, if you like, with the first dinner which will be 

* A proverbial expression for " taking it easy." 



rjv SoKTJ, 6 <T€ elKo<i SecTrvqcreiv ra TrporeXeia 
T% /leWovarjf; (TvvovaLa<;. 

Eu^u? ovv TTpoaeia-iv rrapayyeWcov Ti? '^/ceiv 
iirl TO SelTTVOv, ovk avo/j,i\7}TO<; olKerr}<^, ov ^PV 
irpcoTOV XXecov iroirjaaaOai, 7rapa/3vaavra eZ? Tr]v 
')(elpa, ci)9 P''f] aSe^to<; elvat, BoKf]<;, Tovkd')(^LaTov 
irevre BpaxP'd^' o 8e aKici(Td[X€vo<^ Kai, ** "Airaye, 
irapd aou Be iyco;^' Kai, " 'Hpa/cXet?, p^rj yevocro" 
vireiTTODV TeXo? eireiaOT], /cal diretai aot TrXarv 
iy')(^av(t)v. av Be iadijra KaOapav irpo'xeipiad- 
p,€VO<; Kai creavTOV co? Koap^LoaraTa a')(i^pLaTiaa<; 
\ovadp,evo(; rjKei<^, 3e5ta)? p,r] Trpb tmv dWcov 
dt^iKOio' direLpoKaXov ydp, oyairep Kai to vararov 
rjKetv (popriKov. avro ovv rripr}aa<i to p^eaov tov 
Kaipov €laeK,rfk'u6a<^, Kai ae irdvv €VTLp,co<; iBe^aTO, 
Kai 7rapa\afid)v rt? KaTeKXive pcKpov virep tov 
rrXovaiov p^Ta Bvo ttov o-^^Bov tmv TraXatwv 
lb (l>i\cov. (TV S* axTirep et? ^ tov Afo? tov oIkov 
irapeXOcbv irdvTa Te6avpaKa<i Kai e<^' eKacTTCo tmv 
TTpaTTopievwv p,€T60)po<i €0' ^€va ydp aoi Kai 
dyvwaTa irdvTa' Kai tj tc OiKCTeia eh are diro- 
PXeirei Kai Toiiv irapovTcov 6KaaT0<i 6 ti irpd^ei'^ 
iTTiTTjpovaiVf ovBe avTW Be ayLteXe? to) TrXovaiw 
TOVTO, aXXa koI irpoeiTre tlctl TOiV olkctmv 
eTTiaKOTrelv et ttw?^ el<; tou9 Trat^a? 17 et? Trjv 
yvvaiKa 7roXXdKi<i €k 7repi(07rP]<; d7ro/3Xeylr€c<;. ol 
p,€v ydp Tcov avvBeinfTvwv ukoXovOol 6poiVTe<; CKire- 
irXi-)yp,evov 6t? Trjv direipiav tmv Bpcop^evcov diro- 

(TKOHTTTOVdl, TeKp.r]pLOv'^ TOV p^T) TTap* dXX(p 

* els Coraes : not in MSS. 

■ eX irws Fritzsche : 'dirus MSS. adding ci before TroWaKis. 

^ reKLL-qpiov Cobet : reKwl^pLov iroiov/xevoi MSS. 


given you, no doubt, as a formal prelude to your 
future intimacy. 

Very soon, then, someone calls, bringing an in- 
vitation to the dinner, a servant not unfamiliar with 
the world, whom you must first [)ropitiate by slipping 
at least five drachmas into his hand casually so as not 
to appear awkward. He puts on airs and murmurs: 
"Tut, tut ! / take money from^ow^ " and : " Heracles! 
I hope it may never come to that ! " ; but in the end 
he is prevailed upon and goes away with a broad grin 
at your expense. Providing yourself with clean 
clothing and dressing yourself as neatly as you can, 
you pay your visit to the bath and go, afraid of 
getting there before the rest, for that would be 
gauche, just as to come last would be ill-mannered. So 
you wait until the middle moment of the right time, 
and then go in. He receives you with much dis- 
tinction, and someone takes you in charge and gives 
you a place at table a little above the rich man, with 
perhaps two of his old friends. As though you had 
entered the mansion of Zeus, you admire everything 
and are amazed at all that is done, for everything is 
strange and unfamiliar to you. The servants stare 
at you, and everybody in the company keeps an eye 
on you to see what you are going to do. Even the 
rich man himself is not without concern on this score ; 
he has previously directed some of the servants to 
watch whether you often gaze from afar at his sons 
or his wife. The attendants of your fellow-guests, 
seeing that you are impressed, crack jokes about 
your unfamiliarity with what is doing and conjecture 



irporepov ae BeBetTrprjKevac to kulvov elvai aoi to 
')(eip6iJbaKTpov TiOefJievoL. 

" D^cnrep ovv evKo^;, ihieiv re (iiuiyKij vtt^ airopia^i 
KoX fxrjTe BiyfrcovTa inetv alrelv ToXfxdv, fir) B6^r](; 
olv6(p\v^ Tt? elvai, firjre tcop o'^uyv irapaTedevTwv 

TTOL/ciXoDV Kal 7Tp6<; TiVa TCL^LV €a-K6Va<T/Ji€VC0V 

elBevai 6^' o tl irpwTov r) Bevrepov Tr)v %etyoa 
ip€yKr}<;' viTO^XeTreiv ovv eU tov TrXrjaiov Ber]aeL 
KCLKelvov t,rfkovv Kal fiavOdveiv tov Beiirvov ttjv 
16 cLKoXovOiav. to. S' dXXa iroLKiXo^ el Kal Oopv^ov 
TrXeco? Tr]v '^v'^tjv, Trpo? CKaara tmv irpaTTO- 
fievcov iK7r€7rXr}y/jL€vo(;, Kal apTi fi€v evBaifiovi^eLf; 
TOV TrXovcnov tov ^P^^^ov Kal tov iXecpavTo^; Kal 
Trj<s ToaavT7j(i t/ouc^?)?, apTi Be OLKTclpei^ aeavTov, 
0)9 TO fiijBev o)v ecTa l^rjv v7roXa/jLfidv6L<;. ivioTe 
Be KUKelvo elaep\eTai ae, co? ^tjXcotov Tiva ^icocrjj 
TOV ^Lov diraatv eKeivoi^ ivTpvcfirjaeov Kal fxede^wv 
avTOiv ef laoTL/jLiaf;' otet yap elaael Acovuaia 
eopTciaetv. Kai irou Kal fieipaKia aypala BiaKo- 
vovfieva Kal ype/xa Trpoa/iieiBLcovTa yXa^vpcoTcpav 
v7roypd(f)eL aoi Tr)v fieXXovaav BiaTpc^-tjv, a><TT€ 
Gvvex^^ TO 'OjJLT^pLKov CKeLVo iiTLfpOeyyeadaL, 

ov ve/uLecTLf; Tpcba<; Kal €VKvr]/jLLBa<; 'A%<xiou9 

TToXXa TTovelv Kal vrrojieveiv virep Tf}<; ToaavTrj^ 

^iXoTrjalai to eVl tovtw, Kal aKV(f)ov evfieyeOrj 



that you have never before dined anywhere because 
your napkin is new.^ 

As is natural, then, you inevitably break out in a 
cold sweat for perplexity ; you do not dare to ask for 
something to drink when you are thirsty for fear of 
being thought a toper, and you do not know which 
of the dishes that have been put before you in great 
variety, made to be eaten in a definite order, you should 
put out your hand to get first, or which second ; so you 
will be obliged to cast stealthy glances at your neigh- 
bour, copy him, and find out the proper sequence of 
the dinner. In general, you are in a chaotic state 
and your soul is full of agitation, for you are lost in 
amazement at everything that goes on. Now you 
call Dives lucky for his gold and his ivory and all his 
luxury, and now you pity yourself for imagining that 
you are alive when you are really nothing at all. 
Sometimes, too, it comes into your head that you are 
going to lead an enviable life, since you will revel in 
all that and share in it equally ; you expect to enjoy 
perpetual Bacchic revels. Perhaps, too, pretty boys 
waiting upon you and faintly smiling at you paint the 
picture of your future life in more attractive colours, 
so that you are forever quoting that line of Homer : 

" Small blame to the fighters of Troy and the bright- 
greaved men of Achaea" ^ 

that they endure great toil and suffering for such 
happiness as this. 

Then come the toasts, and, calling for a large bowl, 

^ Guests brought their own napkins. 

^ Said of Helen by the Trojan elders ; Iliad 3, 156. They 
continue : 

"That for a woman like this they long have endured tribu- 



Ttva alTi](Ta<; irpoviriev aot ro) BiBaa-KoXw, ^ 
oTiSrJTTOTe TTpoaeiiToov' av he Xa^cov, on fiev tl 
<T€ Kal avTOV vTrenretv eSei -^yvorjaa^ vir aireLpia^;, 
17 Ka\ dypocKLa^ Bo^av &j</)Xe9. ird^dovo'^ 8' ovv 
anro t^? 7rp07r6cr6co<; ifceivrj^; ttoXXoZ? tcov iraXaitav 
<pi\o3V ^yeyevrjaai, Kal irporepov iwl rrj KaraxXLaec 
Xvirrjaa^^ riva<^ avTCJV, ore rrjfiepov tjkwv irpov- 
Kpi6ri<^ avBpcov iroXverrj SouXeiav rjvrXrjKOTCov. 
evdu^; ovv /cat towvto<; rt? iv avTol<i irepX aov 
Xoyof;' *' TovTO rj/ijutv 7r/309 toI<; aX\oL<i Beivoi^; 
iXeLTrero, Kal ro)v dprt elaeXrfKvdoTwv et? Tr]v 
olKiav Bevrepovi elvai,, Kal /Jb6voL<i rot? "FjXXrjaL 
TOvroL<; avewKTai r] Vwjjiaiwv ttoXl^;' KairoL ri 
ear IV e^' otw Trport/HMVTai, rj/juMp; ov'^ prj/jbdria 
Bv(rTi]vaXeyovT€^ oXovral tl TrayLt/xe^e^e? oi^eXelv;^^ 
dXXo<; Be, " Ov yap elBe<; oaa fiev eiriev, 67rco<; Be 
TO, irapareOevra avXXaficbv KaTe(f>ayev; direipo- 
KoXo^ dv6p(i)TT0<^ Kal Xl/jlou TrXeo)?, ovS* ovap 
XevKou TTore dprov €/ji(f)opr)del(i, ovtl ye Nofia- 
Blkov Tj <i>aaiavov opviOo^;, a)v /uoXt? rd oard 
r]jjuv KaraXeXoLTrev. ' tpLto<; dXXo<;, ***n fid- 
raLoiy^ <f)r]aLv, *' irevre ovB^ oXcov rjfiepcov o^eaOe 
avTOV ivravOd ttov ev rj/juv rd ofjLOia TrorvLco/jLevov' 
vvv fiev yap wa-Trep rd Kaivd tmv vTroBrj/uLarcov ev 
Ti/jbfj TLVL Kal eTTLfjLeXela eariv, eireiBav Be TrarijOfj 
TToXXaKi*; Kal virb rov TrrjXov dvairXaaOf), vtto 
rfi KXivrj d6Xl(o<i epplyfrerai Kopecov cocnrep r^fielf; 

^EtKelvoi, jjL€V ovv Toiavra noXXd irepl aov arpe- 

* Xvirrjaas Bekker : iKvifqcas MSS. 
■ oi Naber. 



he drinks your health, addressing you as " the 
professor" or whatever it may be. You take the 
bowl, but because of inexperience you do not know 
that you should say something in reply, and you get 
a bad name for boorishness. Moreover, that toast 
has made many of his old friends jealous of you, 
some of whom you had previously offended when the 
places at table were assigned because you, who had 
only just come, were given precedence over men 
who for years had drained the dregs of servitude. 
So at once they begin to talk about you after this 
fashion : " That was still left for us in addition to 
our other afflictions, to play second fiddle to men 
who have just come into the household, and it is only 
these Greeks who have the freedom of the city of 
Rome. And yet, why is it that they are preferred 
to us? Isn't it true that they think they confer a 
tremendous benefit by turning wretched phrases ? " 
Another says : " Why, didn't you see how much he 
drank, and how he gathered in what was set before 
him and devoured it .^ The fellow has no manners, 
and is starved to the limit ; even in his dreams he 
never had his fill of white bread, not to speak of 
guinea fowl or pheasants, of which he has hardly 
left us the bones I " A third observes : "You silly 
asses, in less than five days you will see him here 
in the midst of us making these same complaints. 
Just now, like a new pair of shoes, he is receiving a 
certain amount of consideration and attention, but 
when he has been used again and again and is 
smeared with mud, he will be thrown under the bed 
in a wretched state, covered with vermin like the 
rest of us." 

Well, as I say, they go on about you indefinitely in 




(f)0V(TL, fcai TTOV I'-jhr] koI tt/oo? 8ca^o\d<; Tive<; 

18 avToyv irapaaKevd^ovrai. to 8' ovv (jvynrbcnov 

0\0V €K6LV0 (TOV icTTLV KoX 7T€pl aOV ol TrXelcTTOl 

T(ov X6y(i)v. (TV 5' viT* drjdeia^ irXeov rod Ikuvov 
i/jLTTicbv oXvov \eiTTOv Kol S/ot/^609, TToXav xf;? 
yaarpo^ e7r€Lyova7j<;, 7rovrjpcb<; e%6t9, fcal ovre 
Trpoe^avaarrjvai aoi koXov ovre fiiveiv d(T(^a\e^. 
aTTOTeLVOfxevov toLvvv tov irorov koI \6ycov iirl 
\6yoi<; yiyvofxevwv Koi Oea/jbdrcov iirl Oedfiaai 
rrapiovrcov — diravra yap iTTiBeL^ao-Oai croc ra 
avTou ^ovKerai — KoXacnv ov puKpav v7rofi6veL<; 
fiTjre 6p(ov ra yiyvofieva /nrjre ukovcov el ri? n}>ei 
rj fciOapL^ei irdvv ti/jL(o/jL€vo<; fieipaKLO-KO^;, dW' 
irraivel^; /lev utt' dvdyKT]<;, ev^V Be rf aeiafiw avfi- 
Treaeiv eKelva Trdvra rj TTvpKa'idv riva irpoaay- 
yeXOrjvaL, iva irore kol SidXvOfj to avp,- 


19 TovTO fieu Br] (TOi TO TrpoiTOv, o) kralpe, koI 
7]Bia-Tov CKecvo Beirrrvov, ovk ep^ocye tov 6vp.ov koI 
Tcav XevKcov dXcov tjBlov oTrrjvLfca ^ovXo/j,ai kol 
OTTocrov iXev6ep(o(; eaOiofievayv. 

"\va yovv aoL ttjv o^vpeyp^iav ttjp iirl tovtol<; 
irapS) KoX tov ev Trj vvktI ejxeTov, ecoOev Bei^aet 
ire pi TOV /jLcaOov (7v/iifii)vai vfiatiy oiroaov re kol 
oTTore TOV erov^ 'X,PV XapL^dvetv. irapovTwv ovv 
T)^ Bvo r) TpLcov <^iX(ov TrpoaKaXeaa^; ae koX icadi- 
^ecrOai KeXevaa'^ dp)(^6TaL Xiyeiv' " Td puev ^/xs- 
Tcpa oiTold iaTLv 6(t)paKa<; tjBij, kol tw? TV<po<; iv 
avTol<=i ovBe el?, drpaywBrjra Be koI ire^d Trdvra 
Kal BijfioTCfcd, ')(^pr} Be ae ovra)<; e)(eLV (h<i aTrdpreov 

* Koi ? Cobet excises. 


that vein, and perhaps even then some of them are 
getting ready for a campaign of slander. Anyhow, 
that whole dinner-party is yours, and most of the 
conversation is about you. For your own part, as you 
have drunk more than enough subtle, insidious wine 
because you were not used to it, you have been 
uneasy for a long time and are in a bad way : yet 
it is not good form to leave early and not safe 
to stay where you are. So, as the drinking is pro- 
longed and subject after subject is discussed and 
entertainment after entertainment is brought in (for 
he wants to show you all his wealth !), you undergo 
great punishment ; you cannot see what takes place, 
and if this or that lad who is held in very great 
esteem sings or plays, you cannot hear ; you applaud 
perforce while you pray that an earthquake may 
tumble the whole establishment into a heap or that 
a great fire may be reported, so that the party may 
break up at last. 

So goes, then, my friend, that first and sweetest of 
dinners, which to me at least is no sweeter than 
thyme and white salt eaten in freedom, when I like 
and as much as I like. 

To spare you the tale of the flatulency that follows 
and the sickness during the night, early in the morn- 
ing you two will be obliged to come to terms with 
one another about your stipend, how much you are to 
receive and at what time of year. So with two or 
three of his friends present, he summons you, bids 
you to be seated, and opens the conversation : " You 
have already seen what our establishment is like, and 
that there is not a bit of pomp and circumstance in 
it, but everything is unostentatious, prosaic, and ordi- 
nary. You must feel that we shall have everything in 



rjfMV KOLVMV eaofxevwv' yeXolov yap el to Kvpi(o- 
rarov, rrjv '^v^ijv croi rrjv ifjuavrov r) /cal vt) ^la 
tS)v iraihcov " — el 7ral8e<; elev avrw iraihevaew^i 
heofievoL — ** €7rcTpe7rcov tmv dWcov firj eV La7j<; 
rjyoL/jLt]v Bea-TTorrjv. eVet ^e kol copicrOai ri hely 
— opS} fiev TO pbirpLov /cal avTapfce<^ rov aov 
rpoTTOv KOi avvirjfjLi (h<; ov^i jxiaOov eXTrlBc irpoa- 
€\7]\v0a(; rj/jLCt)v rfj oIklo,, roiv Be dWcov eve/ca, 
T?)? evvoia^ tt)? nrap rj/xcov Kal Tt[Mr}^, f)v irapa 
TTaaiv e^€L<;' oficos S' ovv /cal aypLO-Oco ri, — au S* 
avTo<; 6 Ti Kal fiovXei Xeye, pLe/juvrj/jbevo^, cj ^iX- 
rare, /cd/ceivcov direp ev eopTai<i BLerrjaioi^ el/co<; 
rjfj,d<; Trape^eiv ov yap d/jLeXTjao/iiev ovSe roiv 
TOiovTwv, el Kal pur) vvv avrd avvriOepieOa' 
TToXXal Be, olaOa, rov erov^ at rotavrai dcpopfiai. 
Kal 7Tpo<; eKelva toIvvv diropXeTrcdv pLerpicoTepov 
BtjXov OTt eVfySaXet? rjpiv rov picrOov. aXXco^; re 
Kal TTpeirov dv etrj roU ireTraiBevpievot,^ vpuv Kpelr- 
rocTiv elvai y^prjpdrcov.^^ 
20 'O p,6v ravra elirwv Kal oXov ere Biacreiaa^i ral<; 
eXiriai riOacrov eavra> ireTroirjKe, av Be irdXai 
rdXavra Kal pivpidBa<; 6veLpoiToXr)aa<^ Kal dypov^ 
6Xov<; Kal avvoLKLa<; avvLrff; piev r]pepa rr)'^ puKpo- 
Xoyia<;, aaiveL^; Be 6p,a)<; rrjv V7r6a')(^e(Ti,v Kal ro, 
" Udvra rjpLiv Kotvd earai^ ^efiaiov Kal dXrjOe^; 
eaeadat vopLL^ei<;, ovk elBoo^; ore rd roiavra 

^(eLXea puep t' ehirjv, V7repa>rjv S* ovk iBiijve. 

reXevralop 8' utt* alBov<i avrw e'iTerpey\ra<i. 6 Be 



common ; for it would be ridiculous if I trusted you 
with what is most important, my own soul or that of 
my children" — suppose he has children who need 
instruction — " and did not consider you equally free 
to command everything else. But there should be 
some stipulation. I recognise, to be sure, that you 
are temperate and independent by nature, and am 
aware that you did not join our household through 
hope of pay but on account of the other things, the 
friendliness that we shall show you and the esteem 
which you will have from everyone. Nevertheless, 
let there be some stipulation. Say yourself what you 
wish, bearing in mind, my dear fellow, what we shall 
probably give you on the annual feast-days. We 
shall not forget such matters, either, even though we 
do not now reckon them in, and there are many such 
occasions in the year, as you know. So, if you take 
all that into consideration, you will of course charge 
us with a more moderate stipend. Besides, it would 
well become you men of education to be superior to 

By saying this and putting you all in a flutter 
with expectations, he has made you submissive 
to him. You formerly dreamed of thousands and 
millions and whole farms and tenements, and you are 
somewhat conscious of his meanness ; nevertheless, 
you welcome his promise with dog-like joy, and think 
his " We shall have everything in common " reliable 
and truthful, not knowing that this sort of thing 

"Wetteth the lips, to be sure, but the palate it 
leaveth unwetted." ^ 

In the end, out of modesty, you leave it to him. He 

1 Iliad 22, 495. 



auTo? fJiev 01) <f)r]aiv ipelv, tmv (plXcov Be nva rdv 
irapovTwv KcXevet fxiaov ikOoma rod Trpdyfiaro^; 
eliTeiv o fit^r avro) ylyvotT av /3apv koX 7rp6<; 
aWa TOVTCdv ava^Kaiorepa hairavodVTi \xr]Te rw 
Xrjyfrofievo) ei^reXe?. o Be oifMoyepcov Ti? ifc iraiBcov 
KoXaKela (rvvrpocpof;, " 'H? /xey ovk evBaifioveara- 
TO? 66," <j)7}aiv, " Tcov iv rfj TToXcL airdvTWVi w 
OUT09, OVK av etTTOi?, o5 ye tovto irpwrov v-rrrjpyev 
o TToXXot? irdvv y\i')(OfxevoL'^ ii6\l<^ av yevoiro 
irapa t^}? Ti;t^^?* Xeyco Be 6fitkLa<; d^iwOrjvai xal 
6<TTta9 KOLvo)vi]aat, Kal €i<; rrjv Trpcorrjv olKiav to)V 
iv rfj 'VwjjLaiwv dpxf) KaraBex^^jvar rovro yap 
virep rd Kpolaov rdXavra fcal rov MlBov ttXov- 
Tov, el aoycfypovelv olaOa. IBq)V^ Be 7roX\,ov<; rtov 
€vBoKi/jL(ov edeXrjaavra^; dv, el Kal irpocrBiBovai 
BeoL, /JiovT}^ rrj^ B6^i]<^ eveKa avvelvat rovrw Kal 
opdaOai irepl avrov eraipov^ Kal (plXov^; elvat 
BoKovvras, ovk e;^ft) ottco? ae rr)<; eviror jiia^ [xaKa- 
ptaco, 0? Kal TrpoaXijyjrrj fjnadov rrj<; roiavrr]<; 
evBaLixovLW^. dpKelv ovv vo/jll^co, el fxr) irdvv daco- 
T09 el, roaovBe rr '* — elirayv iXd^ccrrov Kal /iidXiara 
21 7r/)09 Ta9 cra9 eKeLva<i iXTriBa^;. dyairdv S' o/xft)9 
dvayKolov ov yap ovV dv (j)vye2v ert aoi Bvvarov 
ivr6<i dpKvwv yevop^evw. Bexo roivvv rov x^Xtvov 
ixvaa<i Kal rd irpcora evdyci)yo<; el 7rpo9 avrov ov 
irdvv irepiaircovra ovBe 6^ect)<; vvrrovra, P'^XP^ ^^ 
XdOr)<; reXeov avrw avvrjOrj'^ yevofievo^. 

01 fiev Bt) e^co dv6pcoiToi ro p,erd rovro 
^ijXovai ae 6p(ovre<i ivrcx; rr]<; KiyKXlBo^ Bia- 
rpi^ovra Kal dKcoXvrax; elcriovra Kal rojv irdvv 

* iSwy Gesner : ddov MSS. 


himself refuses to say, but tells one of the friends 
who are present to intervene in the business and 
name a sum that would be neither burdensome to 
him, with many other expenses more urgent than this, 
nor paltry to the recipient. The friend, a sprightly 
old man, habituated to flattery from his boyhood, 
says : " You cannot say, sir, that you are not the 
luckiest man in the whole city. In the first place 
you have been accorded a privilege which many who 
covet it greatly would hardly be able to obtain from 
Fortune ; I mean in being honoured with his com- 
j)any, sharing his hospitality, and being received into 
the first household in the Roman Empire. This is 
better than the talents of Croesus and the wealth of 
Midas, if you know how to be temperate. Perceiving 
that many distinguished men, even if they had to 
pay for it, would like, simply for the name of the 
thing, to associate with this gentleman and be seen 
about him in the guise of companions and friends, I 
cannot sufficiently congratulate you on your good luck, 
since you are actually to receive pay for such felicity. 
I think, then, that unless you are very prodigal, 
about so and so much is enough " — and he names 
a very scanty sum, in striking contrast to those 
expectations of yours. You must be content, how- 
ever, for it would not even be possible for you to get 
away, now that you are in the paddock. So you 
take the bit with your eyes shut, and in the begin- 
ning you answer his touch readily, as he does not pull 
hard or spur sharply until you have imperceptibly 
grown quite used to him. 

People on the outside envy you after that, seeing 
that you live within the pale and enter without let 
and have become a notable figure in the inner circle. 



Tiva evhov ^e'yevrnjbevov av he avTO^ ovheirw 6pa<^ 
ovTLvo^ €V€Ka euSaifjbcov avTot<i eivaL hoKel<;. ttXtju 
aWa ')(aip€L<; ye /cal creavTov e^a7rara<; kol del 
ra fxeWovTa ^eXrlo) yevrjaeaOac vofiL^ei^;. to S* 
efiiToXiv Tj av rfkTTLcra^ yuyverai, koX 0)9 77 irapoifjuia 
^7]aiv, €it\ MavBpo^ovXov %ft)/oet to 7rpay/xa, 
KaO^ eKdaT7)v, &)9 el-rretv, rrjv rj/jLepav diroafjLLKpv- 

22 vofievov kol eh Toviria-co dvairoBi^ov. t]pep,a ovv 
KOI Kar oXiyov, wairep ev d/jLvSpS) rw (^wrt tot6 
irpMTov BiafiXeTrcov, ^PXV Karavoelv o)? at jiev 
')(^pvaal eKelvai eA-TrtSe? ovSev dX)C fj <f>vaai rive<; 
rjaav i7rL)(pvaot, ^apel<i 8e kol dXrjOet^ kol dira- 
paiTTjTOi KOL avvex^L^ 01 ttovol. '^TtW? ouTOi;" 
IVo)? iprjcrr) fMC " ov^ opcb yap 6 re to eiriirovov 
iv ral^ TOLavrac^; avvovaiaL<^ icrrlv ovh^ eirivoS) 
VLTLva 6(f>r]a6a ra KUfiarrjpa koX d(f)6p7]Ta. ovkovv 
aKovaov, w yevvale, fxi^ el Kdp,aTO<; eveajiv ev ra> 
irpdypLari fiovov i^erd^cov, dXXd Koi to alaxpov 
KOL raireLvov kol avvoKw'^ hovXoTT peire'^ ovk ev 
Trapepyo) t^9 dKpoda€0)(; Ti,6epievo^. 

23 Kal TTpoiTov ye pLefJuvtiao /jLr)K€Ti eXevdepov to 
dir eKeivov /jurjSe evirar piSrjv aeavrov oteaOai. 
Trdvra yap ravra, ro yevo<^, rrjv eXevOeplav, rovf; 
7rpoy6vov<; e^co rod oBov KaTaXeLyjrcov laOi eireLSdv 
eirl TOLavrrjv aavrov Xarpelav aTre/JLTroXyjaa*; 
elairj^' ov yap eOeXrjaei aoi rj ^EXevOepua avveia- 
eXOelv e^' outoj? dyevvrj Trpdy/xara Kal raireivd 
elcriovTL. SovXo<; ovv, el Kal irdw d')(6e(Tri rw 
ovojxaTty Kal ov^ ^v6^, dXXd iroXXoiv BovXo<; dvay- 



You yourself do not yet see why you seem to them 
to be fortunate. Nevertheless, you are joyous and 
delude yourself, and are always thinking that the 
future will turn out better. But the reverse of what 
you expected comes about : as the proverb has it, 
the thing goes Mandrobulus-wise,^ diminishing every 
day, almost, and dropping back. Slowly and 
gradually, therefore, as if you could then distinguish 
things for the first time in the indistinct light, you 
begin to realize that those golden hopes were 
nothing but gilded bubbles, while your labours are 
burdensome and genuine, inexorable and continuous. 
"What are they? " perhaps you will ask me : " I 
do not see what there is in such posts that is 
laborious, nor can I imagine what those wearisome 
and insupportable things are that you spoke of." ^ 
Listen, then, my worthy friend, and do not simply 
try to find out whether there is any weariness in the 
thing, but give its baseness and humility and general 
slavishness more than incidental consideration in the 

First of all, remember never again from that time 
forward to think yourself free or noble. All that — 
your pride of race, your freedom, your ancient 
lineage — you will leave outside the threshold, let 
me tell you, when you go in after having sold your- 
self into such service ; for Freedom will refuse to 
enter with you when you go in for purposes so base 
and humble. So you will be a slave perforce, 
however distasteful you may find the name, and not 
the slave of one man but of many ; and you will 

^ " This Mandrobulus once found a treasure in Samoa and 
dedicated to Hera a golden sheep, and in the second year one 
of silver, and in the third, one of bronze." Scholia. 

* In chapter 13. 



Kaioa^ ear) koX 6r)Tevaet<; Karo) vevevKw^ eooOev et? 
iairepav ** aeiiceXiw iirl fiiaOwy koX are Br) fjir) i/c 
TraiScov rf) AovXeia (Twrpa^ei^;, 6ylri/j,a6ijaa^ Be 
Kol TTOppo) TTOV tt)? r)\i,KLa<; 7raLBev6/jLevo<i Trpo? 
avrr)^ ov irdvv evBo/ci/xo^ ear) ouBe ttoWov a^io^ 
T(p Beairorr)' BiacjiOeipei yap ae r) p-vrj/jur) r?}? eXev- 
Oepia<; vinovaa koI aTroaKiprav eviore iroLel Kal 
Bi avTO ev TTJ BovXeua 7rovr)pco(i dTraWdrreiv. 

Il\r)v el fit) diToxp^v aoL 7r/309 eXevOeplav vo/jll- 
Jet? TO fjLT) UvppLov /jLr)Be ZcoTrvpicovo^; vlov elvai, 
fir)B€ Morirep ti<; ^cdvvo<; viro fieyakocficovw tw 
Kr)pvKi d7rr)/jb7roXrja0aL. dXX^ oirorav, a> fieXnare, 
tt}? vov)ir)VLa<; eiTLardar)^ dvaiML')(6e\<i tw Tivppia 
KoX T(p ZcoTTvpicovL TT poT elvr)<; Tr]V %efc/3a 6/jlolco<; 
TOt? dXXoL<; olKeTat<; /cal Xd^T)<; eKelvo oriBrjiroTe 
rjv TO yiyvofievov, rovro r) irpdai^ ean. Kr)pvKO<i 
rydp ovK eBei eV dvBpa eavTOV d'jroicr)pv^avra Koi 
jjLaKpw ')(^p6v(p /jLVT)(TTevad/ijLepov eaurw rov Bea7r6Tr)v. 
24 EZt', cj xdOapfia, ^aLr)v dv, /cal fidXiara, 7rpo<i 
Tov <^iXoao<f>e2v (pdaKOvra, el fiev ae ti<; tj irXeovra 
KaTa7rovTi,(TTr)(i avXXa^cov 7) Xr)(TTT)<^ direBiBoTO, 
wfcreipe^ dv aeavrov 009 irapd Tr)v d^iav Bvarrv- 
')(^ovvTa, rj et rt? aov Xa/36fiepo<; r)<ye BouXov elvat 
Xeycov, e/Soa^ dv tou9 vo/jlov^ Kal Beivd eiToieL<; Kal 
r)yavdK7eL<; Kai, "'11 yr) Kal Oeoi" fieydXr) rfj (fxovi) 
eKeKpdyei^ dv, aeavrov Be oXlycov ev€Ka o^oXwv 
ev Tovrw ri)^ r)Xi,KLa<;, ore Kal el (fivaei BovXo^i 
^aOa, Kaipo^ rjv irpo^ eXevOepiav 7)Br) opdv, avry 


drudge from morn till night with hanging head, " for 
shameful hire." ^ Since you were not brought up in 
the company of Slavery from your boyhood but 
made her acquaintance late and are getting your 
schooling from her at an advanced age, you will not 
be very successful or highly valuable to your master. 
The memory of your freedom, stealing over you, 
plays the mischief with you, sometimes causing you 
to be skittish, and for that reason to come off badly 
in slavery. 

Perhaps, however, you think it quite enough to 
establish your freedom that you are not the son of a 
Pyrrhias or a Zopyrion, and that you have not been 
sold in the market like a Bithynian by a loud-voiced 
auctioneer. But, my excellent friend, when the first 
of the month arrives and side by side with Pyrrhias 
and Zopyrion you stretch out your hand like the rest 
of the servants and take your earnings, whatever 
they are — that is sale ! There was no need of an 
auctioneer in the case of a man who put himself up 
at auction and for a long time solicited a master. 

Ah, scurvy outcast (that would be my language, 
above all to a self-styled philosopher), if a wrecker 
or a pirate had taken you at sea and were offering 
you for sale, would you not pity yourself for being 
ill-fated beyond your deserts ; or if someone had 
laid hands upon you and were haling you off, 
saying that you were a slave, would you not invoke 
the law and make a great stir and be wrathful and 
shout '' Heavens and Earth ! " at the top of your 
voice .'' Then just for a few obols, at that age when, 
even if you were a slave by birth, it would be high 

' Either a variation upon Homer (cf. Odyssey 19, 341 : 
Iliad 13, 84, 21, 444-5), or a quotation from a lost epic. 



aperfj koX ao(f)La (jyepwv dTrrjfnroXrjKa'i, ovBe tov<; 
7roX\ov<; eVetVof? Xoyov^; ai8eo-^€t9 ov<i 6 KaXo^ 
UXciTcov rj 6 Xpi;crt7r7ro9 r) ^ Api(TT0T6\r)<; Sie^e- 
XrjXvOaai to fxev eXevdipcov i7raivovvT€<;, to SovXo- 
7r/367re9 Se Bial3aXXovT€(;; /cal ov/c al(T')(vvr) KoXa^iv 
av6 pcoTTOL^ Kal ayopaioi^i Kol ^co/jloXo^ol^; dvTe^e- 
Ta^6jiM€V0<; Kal iv ToaovTW ttXtjOcc 'Pco/iialKu> ^ 
pi6vo<; ^evi^wv tm Tplficovt, Kal irovrjpSi^; ttjv 'Po)- 
fxaicdv (j)(ovr)v ^ap^api^oov, elTa BeiTrvwv Belirva 
OopvffcoSr] Kal TroXudvOpcoira avyKXvScov tivmv 
Kal TMV irXeLCTTOov /xoxdrjpayv; Kal iv avTol<; 
ewaLvel<i ^opr^Arw? Kal 7rLV6i<; Trepa tov /jL6TpL(D<; 
e'X^ovTOf;. ecoOev re vtto kooBcovl €^ai'aaTa<^ diro- 
(T€L(TdfjLevo<i TOV VTTVov TO 7]Bi(TT0v avp,ir6pi6el<; dv(o 

Kal KdTCi) BTL TOV %^fcfoi^ ^'X^^ TTrjXoV €7tI TOLV 

aKeXolv. ouTCO<; diropla puev ere Oeppcov ea')(€v rj 
Tcbv dyflcov Xaxdvcov, eireXLirov Be Kal al Kprjvat 
peovaai tov y\rv')(pov vBaTO^, &)? eirl TavTd ae vtt* 
d/j,7)')(^avia<; iXOetv; dXXd BrjXov cu? ov^ vBaTO<; 
ovBe depficov, dXXd TrepL/idTcov Kal oyp^ov Kal oXvov 
dvOoap'iOv iiriOv/jicov eaXo)?, KaOdrrep 6 Xd^pa^ 
avTov fJidXa BiKaico<; tov opeyopievov tovtwv Xatpov 
BiaTrapei^. irapd 7r6Ba<; TOiyapovv t/}? Xi^veia<; 
raurry? Td7rL')(^ecpa, Kal oddirep ol ttlOijkol Bedel^i 
kXolw tov Tpd^7)Xov dXXoL<; puev yeXcoTa nrape^ei^y 
creavTO) Be BoKeL<; Tpvcpdv, otl eaTL gov twv lo'xd- 
Bcov d(f)06vco<i evTpayelv. 77 Be eXevOepia Kal to 
evyeve<i avToh (jyvXeTai^; Kal (j)pdT6p<TL (f)povBa 
rrdvTa Kal ovBe pvi]p.rj ri? avTcov. 
25 Kal dyairrjTOv el piovov to ala'Xpov Trpoarjv raJ 

* a.(TT€iK^ N : affTiK^ Dindorf, edd. 


time for you to look forward at last to liberty, have 
you gone and sold yourself, virtue and wisdom 
included ? Had you no respect, either, for all those 
wonderful sermons that your noble Plato and 
Chrysippus and Aristotle have preached in praise 
of freedom and in censure of servility ? Are you 
not ashamed to undergo comparison witli flatterers 
and loafers and buffoons ; to be the only person 
in all that Roman throng who w^ears the incon- 
gruous cloak of a scholar and talks Latin with a 
villainous accent; to take part, moreover, in up- 
roarious dinners, packed with human flotsam that 
is mostly vile ? At these dinners you are vulgar 
in your compliments, and you drink more than is 
discreet. Then in the morning, roused by a bell, 
you shake off the sweetest of your sleep and run 
about town with the pack, up hill and down dale, 
with yesterday's mud still on your legs. Were 
you so in want of lupines and herbs of thfe field, 
did even the springs of cold water fail you so com- 
pletely, as to bring you to this pass out of desperation ? 
No, clearly it was because you did not want water 
and lupines, but cates and meat and wine with a 
bouquet that you were caught, hooked like a pike 
in the very part that hankered for all this — in the 
gullet — and it served you quite rij^ht ! You are 
confronting, therefore, the rewards of this greediness, 
and with your neck in a collar like a monkey you are 
a laughing-stock to others, but seem to yourself to 
be living in luxury because you can eat figs without 
stint. Liberty and noblesse, with all their kith and 
kin, have disappeared completely, and not even a 
memory of them abides. 

Indeed, it would be lucky for you if the thing 



irpdy/jiaTi, BovXov avr eXevOepov BokcIp, ol Be 
iTovoi /JLT) Kara tou? iravv toutou*? olKera^. aX)C 
opa el fierpLcorepd aoi TrpocrTeraKTat, rcov Apo/jLwvi 
Koi Ti/SetVi) TT poareray fjievwv , 03V /J.ev yap epeKa, 
tS)v /JLaOrjfidrcov iTTiOv/jLelu (f)r}(Ta<;, TrapelXijcpe (re, 
ciXiyov avT& fieXei. " Tl yap kolvov,^^ (fiaai, 
"\vpa Koi ovfpr irdvv yovv, — ou% opa?; — eVre- 
TrjKaai t© ttoOw rrjq 'Opirjpov (TO^ia^ rj t% 
ArjfioaOevovf; BeLvorrjrof; rj rrj^; TTXarcoi^o? fieyaXo- 
(f)poavvr](;, a)V r)V ri? eic Trj<; yjrv^ij^; dcpeXr} to 
'^pvalov Kal TO dpyvpLov Kal Td<; irepl rovrcop 
(fypoPTiSa^;, to KaraXenro/jbepop iari TV(f)o<i Kal 
fiaTuLKia Kal rjhvTrdOeia Kal daeXyeia koi vffpt<; 
Kal aTraiSevaia. Belrat Bij aou iir^ eKclpa jxep 
ovBa/jLCO^;, eirel Be ircoyaypa e%e^? paOvp Kal ae/jLp6<; 
T£9 el TTjp 7rp6ao\lnp Kal i/jbdrLop 'JLXXtjplkop 
€V(TTaX(x)(i 7repi^e^X7)(raL Kal 7rdpT€<; laaai ae 
ypap^fiaTLKOP r) p7JTopa rj (f)iX6(T0(f)0P, KaXop avTa> 
BoKel dpa/jLe/jLLX^cii Kal roiovrop ripa roU irpolovai 
Kal TTpoTTOfJiTrevovaiP avrov' Bo^ei yap €k tovtou 
Kal (f)LXouLaOr)<i rcop ^KXXijplkcjp fiaOrjiidraip Kal 
oXft)9 irepl TraiBeiap (fiiXoKaXo^. axxre KCpBui>eveL<;, 
a> yeppale, dprl tcop davp^aarcop Xoycop top wcoy copa 
Kal TOP TpL^copa fiefiKTOcDKepai. 

^prj ovp ae del crvp avTw opaaOai Kal p,r]Be7roTe 
aTToXeLTreo-Oat, dXXd ecoOep e^apaardpra 7rape)(€ip 
aeavTOP 6<j)Or}(T6p,epop ip tJ depaireia Kal fjurf 
XiTreiP Tr)p rd^ip. 6 Be eTrt/SdXXcop epiore aoi tt]p 
X^^P^i TL ap TVXJ} Xrjpel, to?? ePTvy^dpovaip 



involved only the shame of figuring as a slave 
instead of a free man, and the labour was not like 
that of an out-and-out servant. But see if what is 
required of you is any more moderate than what is 
required of a Dromo or a Tibius ! To be sure, the 
purpose for which he engaged you, saying that he 
wanted knowledge, matters little to him ; for, 
as the proverb says, "What has a jackass to do 
with a lyre ? " Ah, yes, can't you see ? they 
are mightily consumed with longing for the 
wisdom of Homer or the eloquence of Demosthenes 
or the sublimity of Plato, when, if their gold and 
their silver and their worries about them should be 
taken out of their souls, all that remains is pride 
and softness and self-indulgence and sensuality and 
insolence and ill-breeding ! Truly, he does not want 
you for that purpose at all, but as you have a long 
beard, present a distinguished appearance, are neatly 
dressed in a Greek mantle, and everybody knows 
you for a grammarian or a rhetorician or a philo- 
sopher, it seems to him the proper thing to have a 
man of that sort among those who go before him 
and form his escort; it will make people think 
him a devoted student of Greek learning and in 
general a person of taste in literary matters So the 
chances are, my worthy friend, that instead of your 
marvellous lectures it is your beard and mantle that 
you have let for hire. 

You must therefore be seen with him always and 
never be missing ; you must get up early to let 
yourself be noted in attendance, and you must not 
desert your post. Putting his hand upon your 
shoulder now and then, he talks nonsense at random. 



eiTiheLKvviievo^ co? ovhe ohw IBahi^cov ajjueXt^^i itm 
rwv ^lovawv, aXhJ eh koXov ttjv ev tw TrepLTraTW 
26 BiariOeraL (T')(o\rjv. av 5' dO\LO<; ra fiev irapa- 
Spa/jicov, ra Be ^dBr/p avavra iroWa kol Karavra 
— roiavrrj yap, co? olaOa, y iroXi^ — TrepieXOcbv 
XBpoiKa^ re Kal 7rvevaTta<;, Kafceivov evSov rtvl rcov 
<^iX(ov irpb^ OP rfxOev SiaXeyofievov, /irjBe ottov 
KaOl^rjf; e^cov opOo^ vir airopia'; avayiyv(£i(JKei<^ 
TO /3l^\lop iTpo'xeipLa-dixepo^. 

"'V^TTeiBap Be daiTOP re koX olttotop t] pu^ Kara- 
Xcifir), XovadfjLepo<; iroP7]po)<; dcopl irepl avro irov 
a^^Bop TO fieo-opvfCTtov ^/cet? eirl rb BcIttpop, ovxeO^ 
ofjLOLO)^ ePTLfio^ ovBe Tre pi fiXeiTTO^i rot? Trapovaip, 
a)OC Tjp TL<s a)O\.0<^ eiTeiaeXBr] peaXeaTepo<;, el<i 
Toviriaw gv' kcli ovTa><; et? ttjp aTi/xoTdTrjp ywpLav 
i^coaOeU KaTdKeuaai yuapTf? fjLOPOP twp 7rapa(f)e- 
pofxepwp, TO, oaTa, el ecpiKOLTO fiexpt' gov, KaOdirep 
ol Kvpe<; irepLecrOiwp i) to aKXrjpop t7]<; fiaXd')(^r)<; 
(pvXXop a> TCL dXXa avpeiXovaip, el vTrepoc^idelr] 
VTTO Tcop TTpoKaTaKeL/jiepcop, dafjL€vo<; viro Xi/jLov 

Ou jjLTjp ovBe 7] dXXt] v/3pi,<; drreaTLP, dXX! ovTe 
WOP e'X€L<; fi6po<i — ou yap dpay/cacop eaTLP Kal ae 
TMP avTcop del to?? feVoi? Kal dypd)aTOi<i dpTi- 
TTOLelaOar dypco/juoGVPr) yap Brj ^ tovto ye — ovTe 
T) oppL<; ojJLOia Tal<; dXXaL<i, dXXd tw fxep TrXrjaLOP 
Tra')(ela Kal 7nixeXrj<i, aol Be pcotto^; rj/jLLT0fjL0<; rj 
(j)dTTa Tf9 vTToaKXripo^, v^pL<; dpTtKpv; Kal aTLfjLia. 
TToXXdKL^ B^ el^ eTTiXiTroi dXXov tlpo^ at^i/iSto)? 

^ irapo\pc!>iuLevos Jensius : '!rapa\p6/j.svos MSS. {irapaipdiJ.€vos U). 

2 hh Fritzsche : o-)? MSS. 

' 8' el U^ : 5e other MSS., all except N continuing eVel 



showing those who meet him that even when he 
takes a walk he is not inattentive to the Muses but 
makes good use of his leisure during the stroll. For 
your own part, poor fellow, now you run at his side, 
and now you forge about at a foot's pace, over many 
ups and downs (the city is like that, you know), 
until you are sweaty and out of breath, and then, 
while he is indoors talking to a friend whom he 
came to see, as you have no place to sit down, you 
stand up, and for lack of employment read the 
book with which you armed yourself. 

When night overtakes you hungry and thirsty, after 
a wretched bath you go to your dinner at an unseason- 
able hour, in the very middle of the night ; but you 
are no longer held in the same esteem and admiration 
by the company. If anyone arrives who is more of a 
novelty, for you it is " Get back ! " In this way 
you are pushed off into the most unregarded corner 
and take your place merely to witness the dishes 
that are passed, gnawing the bones like a dog if 
they get as far as you, or regaling yourself with 
gratification, thanks to your hunger, on the tough 
mallow leaves with which the other food is garnished, 
if they should be disdained by those nearer the head 
of the table. 

Moreover, you are not spared other forms of rude- 
ness. You are the only one that does not have an egg. 
There is no necessity that you should always expect 
the same treatment as foreigners and strangers : 
that would be unreasonable ! Your bird, too, is 
not like the others ; your neighbour's is fat and 
plump, and yours is half a tiny chick, or a tough 
pigeon — out-and-out rudeness and contumely! Often, 
if there is a shortage when another guest appears of 



iiriTrapovTOf;, dpd/jL€Vo<i 6 SidKovo<s rd aol irapaKeL- 
fjueva (j)€p(ov eKelvw iraparedeLKev {jiroTOvOopvcra^;, 
**Sv ^dp '^fjL€T€po<; €*." rejjivo/jLevov fiev ydp ev 
TO) fJL6(T(p Tj arvo^ vTToyaarpLov rj i\d(f)ov, ')(^pr] ire 
7ravTo<; rj top hiavefiovra XXecov e-)(eLv r) t7)v JJpo- 
/jLTjOio)^ fiepiBa (fiipeaOai, oard K€Kd\vpbp,€va rfj 
TnixeXfj. TO ydp tw fiev virep ae rrjv \oirdha 
irapeardvaL ear dv dirayopevarj ifi(f)opov/jL€vo<;, ae 
Be ovTco Ta)(^€(o<; TrapaBpa/jielv, rivi <^opr)Tov eXev- 
Oepw dvBpl Kav ottocttjv at eKa<j)Oi rrjv ')(o\r}v 
exovTi; Kairoi ovBeirw €K€lvo e(i>r]v,6Ti tmv dWodv 
rjBLarov re kcli iraXaLorarov oivov irivovrcov fi6vo<; 
av 7rov7]p6v riva kol rrayyv Trivet'^, Oepaireixov del 
ev dpyvpw rj "^pvaw iriveiv, co? fir) e\ey')(deir)f; diro 
rov 'X,pd)/JLaro<; ovrax; drifio<i o)V av/jLTrorrjf;. Kal 
eiOe ye Kav ixeivov eh Kopov rjv inelv, vvv Be 
7roWdKi<; alrrjcravro^ 6 ttoI'^ " ou8' dtovn eoiKevT 
27 ^Avid Brj ae iroWd koI ddpoa kuI a^eBov rd 
irdvra, Kal fidXiara orav ae TrapevBoKififi klvulBo^ 
Tt? rj opx^^'ToBcBdaKaXo'; rj ^IcoviKa avvelpwv 
* A\e^avBpeQ)riK6<; dvOpwiriaKO'^. rot<; fiev ydp rd 
epcoriKd ravra BiaKovovfievoL^; Kal ypapLfiariBia 
VTTO koXttov BiaKOfii^ovaLv rroOev av y la6ri/io<;; 
KaraK€ifievo<; roiyapovv ev p^vx^ "^^^ avjinroaiov 
Kal vir alBou<; KaraBeBvKcb<; arevei^ di<i ro eiKo<; 
Kal aeavrov olKreipei^; Kal alrta rrjv Tv^V^ °^^^ 
dXiya aoi ro)v ;^a/5tTft)i^ eTnyjreKaaaaav. 77860)9 S* 
dv fioi BoK€i(; Kal TroLrjrrj^; yeveaOau rcov epcoriKwv 


a sudden, the waiter takes up what you have before 
you and quickly puts it before him, muttering : 
" You are one of us, you know." Of course when a 
side of pork or venison is cut at table, you must by 
all means have especial favour with the carver or 
else get a Prometheus-portion, bones hidden in fat. 
That the platter should stop beside the man above 
you until he gets tired of stuffing himself, but speed 
past you so rapidly — what free man could endure it 
if he had even as much resentment as a deer ? And 
I have not yet mentioned the fact that while the 
others drink the most delectable and oldest of wines, 
you alone drink one that is vile and thick, taking good 
care always to drink out of a gold or silver cup so 
that the colour may not convict you of being such 
an unhonoured guest. If only you might have your 
fill, even of that ! But as things are, though you ask 
for it repeatedly, the page *' hath not even the 
semblance of hearing " ! ^ 

You are annoyed, indeed, by many things, a great 
many, almost everything ; most of all when your 
favour is rivalled by a cinaedus or a dancing-master 
or an Alexandrian dwarf who recites Ionics. ^ How 
could you be on a par, though, with those who 
render these services to passion and carry notes 
about in their clothing ? So, couched in a far corner 
of the dining-room and shrinking out of sight for 
shame, you groan, naturally, and commiserate your- 
self and carp at Fortune for not besprinkling you 
with at least a few drops of the amenities. You 
would be glad, I think, to become a composer of 

^ Iliad 23, 430. 

2 Anacreontics, Sotadeans, and in general, the "erotic 
ditties " mentioned below. 



da/ndroyv rj kclv dWov 7roir]aavTO<; BvvaaOat aheiv 
d^i(o^' ^ 6pa<^ 'yap ol to TrpoTifidaOaL kol €v8oki- 
fjuelv i(TTiv. viroaTairi^ 8e dv, el koI {xdyov rj 
jxdvTLv viTOKpivacrOaL heoi tmv K\i]pov^ iroXvra- 
\dvTOv<; Koi dp)(^d<{ Kal dOp6ov<; tou<; ttXovtov^ 
v7ri<T)(vovfieva)V' Kol 'yap av /cal tovtov^ 6pa<; ev 
(j)€po/jiepov<; ev rat? cfiiXiaL'^ Kal ttoWcov d^iov/jii- 
vou<^. Kav ev tl ovv tovtwv rjSeco^ dp <yevoio, to? 
/jLT) dTTo^Xrjro^i Kal 7re/3tTTO? eL7)<;' a\V ovSe 
7r/?o? ravra 6 KaKoBaifiayp 7ri6avo<; el. roiyapovv 
avdyKTi /neLOvaOac Kal aio)7Trj dve^^eaOai vTrocfid)- 
^ovra Kal dfJieXovfievov. 

28 "Hz^ jjiev 'yap KaTeinrr) crov Tt9 '^i6vpo<^ olKiTr]<;, 
ft)? /ii6vo<; ovK eirrjvei^ tov tt)? Bea7roivr]<; TraihiaKov 
opxovjJievov 7) KiOapi^ovra, klvBvvo<; ov fiiKpo^; ck 
TOV 7rpdy/JLaro<;. ')(pr) ovv x^paaiov fiarpd'^^ov 
Blktjv Si-^covra KeKpa'yevat, co? €7rLcrrj/jL0<; ear] ev 
Tol<; eiratvovai Kal Kopvcpalo^; eTTL/xeXov/nevov' 
TToXXa'/ci? Be Kal rcov dWcov (TicoTrrjadvrcov avrbv 
eireiirelv eaKe/jL/jLevov rivd eiraivov TroWyv rrjv 
KoXaKeuav efi(f)ai'iovvra. 

To fiev yap Xl/jlu) avvovra Kal vr) Aia ye BiyfrcovTa 
jjLvpw ')(^pLea6aL Kal are^avovaOai rrjv Ke(j)a\rjv, 
r^pefxa Kal yeXolov eotKa<; yap rore arrjXrj ecoXov 
Tivo<; veKpov dyovTO^ evayLo-fiara' Kal yap eKeivayv 
Kara^eavre^ fivpov Kal tov aTe(f)avov e7n6evT€<i 
avTol TTLVova-L Kal evcoxovpTai Ta irapeaKevaa fjieva. 

29 "Hz^ fiev yap Kal f/^A-oTUTro? rt? y Kal 'TralBe<^ 
evp,op(f)Oi (baiv 7) vea yvvrj Kal crv /jlt) 7ravTeX(a<i 
TTOppo) \^.(f>poBLTr]<; Kal XapLTcov rj^, ovk ev elprjvr} 

* Sf^iws Jacobs. 


erotic ditties, or at all events to be able to sing 
them properly when somebody else had composed 
them : for you see where precedence and favour go ! 
You would put up with it if you had to act the part 
of a magician or a soothsayer, one of those fellows 
who promise legacies amounting to many thousands, 
governorships, and tremendous riches ; you see that 
they too get on well in their friendships and are 
highly valued. So you would be glad to adopt one 
of those roles in order not to be entirely despicable 
and useless ; but even in them, worse luck, you are 
not convincing. Therefore you must needs be 
humble and suffer in silence, with stifled groans and 
amid neglect. 

If a whispering servant accuse you of being the 
only one who did not praise the mistress's page when 
he danced or played, there is no little risk in the 
thing. So you must raise your thirsty voice like a 
stranded frog, taking pains to be conspicuous among 
the claque and to lead the chorus ; and often when 
the others are silent you must independently let 
drop a well-considered word of praise that will convey 
great flattery. 

That a man who is famished, yes, and athirst, 
should be perfumed with myrrh and have a wreath 
on his head is really rather laughable, for then you 
are like the gravestone of an ancient corpse that is 
getting a feast to his memory. They drench the 
stones with myrrh and crown them with wreaths, 
and then they themselves enjoy the food and drink 
that has been prepared ! 

If the master is of a jealous disposition and has 
handsome sons or a young wife, and you are not 
wholly estranged from Aphrodite and the Graces, 



TO TrpdjfjLa ovBe 6 klvSvvo^ evKaracjipovriro^;. cora 
yap Koi ocpOaXfiol jSaaLXeco^ ttoWoI, ov fiovov 
Ta\r)Oi] 6pcbvT€<;, aX\* aei rt koI irpoaeirL/jie- 
TpovvTe<;, 009 /x^ vuard^eiv hoKolev. Bel ovv coairep 
ev TOi? Tl€paLKol<^ BeLirvoL^; Karco vevoma Kara- 
Keladai, BeBiora jjufj ti<; €vvovx,6<; ae iSr) irpocr- 
pXe-^avra pna rcbv TraWaKiBcov, iirel dWo'? ye 
evvov)(o<i ivreTafievov irdXai to to^ov €')(^(ov a 
fjL-q depLi^ opoiVTa 6TOi/xo9 KoXdaai} hiaiveipa'^ tw 
oiaTcp pLeTa^v ttIvovto^; ttjv yvdOov, 
30 EZra direKQcov tov Beiirvov puKpov tl KaTe- 
hap6e<i' VTTO he (oBrjv aXe/CTpvovcop dveyp6p,evo<^, 
*'"0- SetXato^i ey(i>r ^f]'^, '' KaX ciOXio^, o'lw^ ra? 
TTiiXac SLaTpiffa<; diroXLiTcbv ko.\ eTaipov^ Ka\ ^iov 
aTTpdypiOva fcal virvov pueTpoupievov TJj eTriOvpia 
KoX TrepLirdTov^ eXev6epiov<; eU olov fidpaOpov 
(l>ep(ov epiavTOv evaeaeiKa. tivo^ eveKa, co deoi, rj 
Tt9 XapLTTpo^i 0UT09 pLLa06<; icTTLv; ov yap /cal 
aX,Xco9 P'Oi TrXeico tovtcjv e/ciropi^eiv hvvaTov r)v 
Kol TTpoarjv TO eXevOepov kuI to irdvTa eir e^ov- 
crta9; vvp Be to tov Xoyov, Xecov KpoKjj BeOel^;, 
avu) Kal KUTW iT€ptavpop,aL, to ttuptcov olkticttop, 
ov/c evBoKtpielv elBcof; ovBe Ke)(^api(T p,evo<i eivat Bvvd- 
pevo<i. IBiooTr}^ yap eycoye tmv tolovtwv kol 
aTe)(yo<i, Kal pdXiaTU 7rapa^aXX6pieP0<; dvBpdcn 
rex^l^ TO Trpaypua ireiroi'^pievoi^, waTe^ Kal d^^d- 
piaT6<; elpLi Kal rjKLCTTa avpLiTOTLKo^, ovB^ oaov 
yeXcoTa iroLTjaaL Bvpdp,evo<;. avpiijput Be a)9 Kal 
evoxXo) 7roXXd/ci<: ^XeiropLepo^;, Kal pudXcaO' OTap 

^ 'iroifios Ku\d(Tai Bekker : not in MSS. 
« S.o-Tff, edd.: ij 8e MSS. 



your situation is not peaceful or your danger to be 
taken lightly. The king has many ears and eyes, 
which not only see the truth but always add some- 
thing more for good measure, so that they may not 
be considered heavy-lidded. You must therefore 
keep your head down while you are at table, as at a 
Persian dinner, for fear that an eunuch may see 
that you looked at one of the concubines ; for another 
eunuch, who has had his bow bent this long time, is 
ready to punish you for eyeing what you should not, 
driving his arrow through your cheek just as you are 
taking a drink. 

Then, after you have left the dinner-party, you 
get a little bit of sleep, but towards cock-crow you 
wake up and say : " Oh, how miserable and wretched 
I am ! To think what I left — the occupations of 
former days, the comrades, the easy life, the sleep 
limited only by my inclination, and the strolls in 
freedom — and what a pit I have impetuously Hung 
myself into ! Why, in heaven's name .'' What does 
this splendid salary amount to ? Was there no other 
way in which I could have earned more than this 
and could have kept my freedom and full indepen- 
dence ? As the case stands now, I am pulled about 
like a lion leashed with a thread, as the saying is, up 
hill and down dale ; and the most pitiful part of it 
all is that I do not know how to be a success and 
cannot be a favourite. I am an outsider in such 
matters and have not the knack of it, especially 
when I am put in comparison with men who have 
made an art of the business. Consequently I am 
unentertaining and not a bit convivial ; I cannot 
even raise a laugh. I am aware, too, that it often 
actually annoys him to look at me, above all when he 



rjSiwv avro<; avrov elvai 6e\r)' <TKv0pco7ro<; yap 
avTw BoKco. Kol okw^ ovK e%a) oTra}? dp/ioa-co/jbai, 
7rpb<; avTov. rjv jjuev yap eVl rod ae/xvov (puXdrreo 
ifiavTOV, a7]Br)<; eSo^a Kal fjLOi'ovov)(l (f)€VKTeo<;' tjv 
he /jL€tBtd(7co Kal pvOfiiao) to irpoacaiTOv eh to 
rfhiarov, KaTe(f)p6vr]aev ev6u<; Kal BUirrvaev, Kal 
TO rrpaypia 6/jlolov Bokcl wairep av el Tt? Kcop^wBlap 
viTOKpivaiTO TpayiKov irpoaoyirelov TrepiKeip.evo'^. 
TO 8' oXov, Tiua ciWov o pLaraLO'; ip,avT(h ^Lcoaop^ai 
/3lov top TrapovTa tovtov aWw /Se/StcoAro)?;'* 

31 "Ert GOV TavTa BiaXoyi^op^evov 6 kcoBcov rjj(r)aev, 
Koi ')(pr} Tcbv opLOLcov e^eadai Kal TrepivoaTelv Kal 
eaTavai, viraXei^^avTa ye nrpoTepov tou? ^ov- 
^Mva<; Kal Td<; lyvva<;, el OeXeL<; BiapKeaac tt/jo? top 
aOXov. elTa BeiTrvov opLOtov Kal eU Tr}v avTrjv a>pav 
TrepLijypevov. Kai aoi to, t/}? BiacTrj^; 7rpo<; top 
irdXaL pLov dvTLaTpo^a, Kal rj dypvirvia Be Kal 
6 iBp(i)<; Kal 6 Kdp,aTo<; rjpepa ijBr] viropiiTTOvaiv, 
Tj ^d6r}V rj nrepLTTvevpiOviav rj kcoXov dXyr}p,a rj ttjv 
KaXrjv TToBdypav dvaTrXdTTOVTe<i. dvTe')(^ei<i Be 
opco^, Kal iToXXdKL<; KaTaKelaOai Beov, ovBe tovto 
avyKexft^pV^CLC aKrjyjrL^; yap rj vocro^ Kal <f)vyr) twv 
KadrjKovTtov eBo^ev. oxtt ef aTrdvTwv ft);^/309 del 
Kal oaov ovBeiTw Tedvrj^ophw eotKa^. 

32 Kal TOL pev ev Tjj iroXei ravTa. rjv Be ttov Kal 
dTToBr]pr)aaL Berj, to, fxev dXXa ico' vovto^ Be irdX- 
XaKL'^ vGTaTO's iXOcbv — toiovto ydp aoi diroKe- 
KXrjpcoTaL Kal to ^evyo<; — irepipevei^ ecrr av 
ovKeT ov(jr)<; KaTaycoyr}^ tw pbayelpw ae t] tw t?}? 
BeairoivT^^i KopupcoTy avpuirapa/Svacao-tp, ovBe tq}V 
(fypvydvcop BayjnXa)<; viro^aXopTe^. 



wishes to be merrier than his wont, for I seem to him 
gloomy. I cannot suit him at all. If I keep to 
gravity, I seem disagreeable and almost a person to 
run away from ; and if I smile and make my features 
as pleasant as I can, he despises me outright and 
abominates me. The thing makes no better im- 
pression than as if one were to play a comedy in a 
tragic mask ! All in all, what other life shall I live 
for myself, poor fool, after having lived this one for 
another? " 

While you are still debating these matters the 
bell rings, and you must follow the same routine, go 
the rounds and stand up ; but first you must rub 
your loins and knees with ointment if you wish to 
last the struggle out ! Then comes a similar dinner, 
prolonged to the same hour. In your case the diet 
is in contrast to your former way of living ; the 
sleeplessness, too, and the sweating and the weariness 
gradually undermine you, giving rise to consumption, 
pneumonia, indigestion, or that noble complaint, the 
gout. You stick it out, however, and often you 
ought to be abed, but this is not permitted. They 
think illness a pretext, and a way of shirking your 
duties. The general consequences are that you are 
always pale and look as if you were going to die any 

So it goes in the city. And if you have to go into the 
country, I say nothing of anything else, but it often 
rains ; you are the last to get there — even in the 
matter of horses it was your luck to draw that kind! — 
and you wait about until for lack of accommodation 
they crowd you in with the cook or the mistress's 
hairdresser without giving you even a generous 
supply of litter for a bed ! 



33 OvK OKVCd he aoi kov hii^yrjaaadai 6 fJLOL Secrfio- 
TToXf? ovTO<; 6 SrcotATO? BirjyTjaaro avfjLJBav avrw 
irdvv yeXoLov Kal vr) Ai" ovk avekinaTOv cw? av 
KoX aW(p ravrov av/jL^air}. avvrjv fxev yap 
TrXovaia tivI kol rpvtfxiiar} yvvaiici twv e'Tn(f)avwv 
ev TTJ TToXei. Serjaav Be /cat aTroBrj/jLrjaaL irore, to 
jxev irpcoTOV cKelvo iraOeZv e^if yeXotorarov, 
avyKaOe^eaOai yap^ avT& TrapaSeScaOat (f)L\o- 
aocfyw ovTi Kivaihov riva tmv TreirLrrco/iievwv ra 
aKeXrj kol top Trcoycova Trepie^vprjpevwv Bia 
Tifjurjf; S' avTOV eKelvi], o)? to slko^;, rjyev. koX 
Tovvop^a Be rov klvulBov direfjLvrjfjLoveveu' XeXc- 
Boviov yap KaXeicrOai. rovro tolvvv irpwrov 
rfKiKOV, a Kv6 pwiro) Kal yepovri dvBpi Kal iroXico 
TO yeveiov — olaOa Be &)? /SaOvv Trcoycova Kal 
(T€/jlvov 6 ©eapLOTToXi^i elx^v — irapaKaOl^eaOai 
(f)VKo<; evTerpippevov Kal viroyeypapfievov tou? 
6(f)6aXp,ov<; Kal BiacreaaXevp^evov to /SXe/z/xa Kal 
Tov rpd^TJXov eiriKeKXaa peuov, ov 'X^eXiBova pa 
Ai\ dXXd yvird riva TrepLreriXpevov ra irrepd''^ 
Kal €L ye py iroXXd BeijdPjvaL avrov, Kal rov KeKpv- 
(paXov e')(ovra eirl rfj K€(f)aXrj dv avyKadl^eaOai. 
ra 8' ovp dXXa irap oXrjp rrjv ohov pvpLa<; ra^ 
dr)Bia<; dvaa-^eaOai viraBovro'i Kal reperi^oi'TOf;, 
el Be prj eirel-)(^ev avro^^, ta(o<^ dv Kal op^ovpevov 
eirl T/}? d7rr]vr]<;. 

34 ''Krepov 3' ovv rt Kal tolovtov avro) irpodra- 
')(6rjvaL. KaXecraaa yap avrov rj yvvi^, ** ^eapo- 
TToXf," <f)7](TiV, ** ovrco<; ovaiOt %a/?fz/ ov piKpdv 

1 yap Fritz-sche : -nap MSS. 

2 Text Halbertsma, de Jong : irepiTeTiX/.ifyoi' rov rrwywyos rh 
irrtpd MSS. 



I make no bones of telling you a story that 1 was 
told by our friend Thesmopolis, the Stoic, of some- 
thing that happened to him which was very comical, 
and it is not beyond the bounds of possibility that 
the same thing may happen to someone else. He 
was in the household of a rich and self-indulgent 
woman who belonged to a distinguished family in 
the city. Having to go into the country one time, 
in the first place he underwent, he said, this highly 
ridiculous experience, that he, a philosopher, was 
given a favourite to sit by, one of those fellows who 
have their legs depilated and their beards shaved off; 
the mistress held him in high honour, no doubt. He 
gave the fellow's name ; it was Dovey ! ^ Now what 
a thing that was, to begin with, for a stern old man 
with a grey beard (you know what a long, venerable 
beard Thesmopolis used to have) to sit beside a 
fellow with rouged cheeks, underlined eyelids, an 
unsteady glance, and a skinny neck — no dove, by 
Zeus, but a plucked vulture ! Indeed, had it not 
been for repeated entreaties, he would have worn a 
hair-net on his head. In other ways too Thesmopolis 
suffered numerous annoyances from him all the way, 
for he hummed and whistled and no doubt would 
even have danced in the carriage if Thesmopolis had 
not held him in check. 

Then too, something else of a similar nature was 

required of him. The woman sent for him and said : 

"Thesmopolis, I am asking a great favour of you; 

* Chelidonion : Little Swallow. 



alrovo-t) So9 firjBev avreiircov /juySe ottw? eVl irXelov 
(70V SerjaofiaL irepLfieiva^;.^^ rod Be, oirep elKO<i 
Tjv, v7ro(T')(^ojbL6Pov TTOLvra TTpd^etv, " Aeofial aov 
TOVToT ^(f>Vy " X/'^o'TOT^ opcoad a€ KoX iTri/ieXrj 
Kul (pcXoaropyov, rrjv Kvva rjv otaOa T7]v Mup- 
pivrfv dvoKa^cov ei9 to o^Vpa (piiXarre /jLOL koI 
iirt/JieXov ottco^ /jLrjBevo<; eV5e^9 earar ^apvverac 
yap i) dOXia rrjv yaaripa kol a')(^eBov co? iTrire^ 
iariv ol Be Kardparoi ovtol kol dTrei6el<; ol/cerai 
ov')(^ OTTft)? e/€eLV7]<;, dXX^ ovB^ ifiov avrrjfj ttoXvv 
TTOtovvrat Xoyov ev rai<; 6Bol<;. /jlt) tolvvv tl 
a/jLiKpov olriOfi^ ev iron^aeiv fxe ro ireptaTTOvBaorTOV 
fjLoc Kol 7]Bl(Ttov kvvLBlov Bia(j)vXd^a<;.'* v7re(T)(eT0 
6 ^eapLOTToXt^ TToXXa iKeTevovar]<; koI /jlovovov)(1 
Kol BaKpvov(r7}<;. to Be irpdypxi irayyeXoiov rjv, 
KVviBiov €K Tov Ip^arlov irpoKvirrov pLLKpov vtto top 
TTooycova koX Karovprjcrav 7roXXdKL<;, el Koi /jlt) 
ravra 6 0ecr/to7roX«9 irpoderlOeL, kuI fiav^ov 
Xeinfi rfi cpcovfj — roiavra yap rd MeXtrala — Kal 
TO yeveiov tov (jaXoaocjiov TrepiXiXf^^/^^^ov, Kal 
fidXicTTa et tl tov ydt^ov avT(p ^copov eyxaTe- 
/jLep,i/cTO. Kal 6 ye KivaiBo^;, 6 crvveBpo^, ovk 
dpovaon'i Trore Kal et? tou? dXXov<; tol*? iTap6vTa<; 
ev T(p (Tvp.TToaicp diroaKcoTTTcov, eireiBi] Trore Kal 
iirl TOV Se<Tp.Q7roXLV KaOrJKe to (TKOjppia, " Tlepl 
Be S€ap.07r6XLBo<i" €(j)7], " tovto p,6vov elirelv e')(^co, 
OTL dvTl ^tcoIkov 'ijSrj K.vviK0(y rjpblv yeyevqTaL^^ 
to 8' ovv kvvlBlov Kal TeTOKevai ev tw Tpi^covc tu> 
tov @€a/jL07r6XtBo<^ eirvOop^rjv. 
35 ToLavTa €VTpv(f)coai, p,dXXov Be evv/Spt^ovat 
T0t9 (Tvvovcrty KaTa puKpov avTOV<; ')(eLpo^']6ei<i ttj 
v^pei 7rapaaKevd^ovT€<;. olBa 5' e'yo) Kal piJTopa 


please do it for me without making any objections or 
waiting to be asked repeatedly." He promised, as 
was natural, that he would do anything, and she 
went on : "I ask this of you because I see that you 
are kind and thoughtful and sympathetic — take my 
dog Myrrhina (you know her) into your carriage and 
look after her for me, taking care that she does not 
want for anything. The poor thing is unwell and is 
almost ready to have puppies, and these abominable, 
disobedient servants do not pay much attention even 
to me on journeys, let alone to her. So do not think 
that you will be rendering me a trivial service if you 
take good care of my precious, sweet doggie." 
Thesmopolis promised, for she plied him with many 
entreaties and almost wept. The situation was as 
funny as could be : a little dog peeping out of his 
cloak just below his beard, wetting him often, even 
if Thesmopolis did not add that detail, barking in a 
squeaky voice (that is the way with Maltese dogs, 
you know), and licking the philosopher's beard, 
especially if any suggestion of yesterday's gravy was 
in it ! The favourite who had sat by him was joking 
rather wittily one day at the expense of the company 
in the dining-room, and when in due course his 
banter reached Thesmopolis, he remarked : " As to 
Thesmopolis, I can only say that our Stoic has 
finally gone to the dogs! "^ I was told, too, that 
the doggie actually had her puppies in the cloak of 

That is the way they make free with their depen- 
dants, yes, make game of them, gradually rendering 
them submissive to their effrontery. I know a sharp- 

* «. e. had become a Cynic. 



rtav Kap\ap(ov iirl rw heiTrvcp KGkevaOevra fjuekerrj- 
cravra fia rov AC ov/c aiTaihevTco<;, dWa ttolvv 
T0/oa)9 KoX avyK6/cpoTr}fi€V(o<;' iirrjvelTo yovv /jue- 
ra^v TTivovrcov ov Trpo? vBcop fxeixerprjixevov, dWa 
TTpo^; oXvov d/jL<j)opea<; Xeycov, icai tovto vTToaTrjvaL 
TO ToXfJbrjfjLa iirl hiaKoaiaL^; hpa^fxal^; iXeyero. 

Tavra fikv ovv Xaw^ fierpia. rjv Be iroLrjTLKO'; 
avTO<; Tj avyypacpLKo^ 6 TrXovaLO^ rj, irapa to 
heliTVOv ra avrov payjrwBcov, rore Kal fidXiara 
Biappayrjvai ')(^pr) eTraivovvra Kal KoXaKevovra 
Kal rpoTTOVt; iiraivwv Kaivorepov^ eirivoovvra. 
elal 8' OL Kal eirl KaWet Oavfid^ecrdaL iOeXouaiv, 
Kal Bel ^ AB(t)vi,Ba<i avrov<; Kal 'TaKivOov<; dKoveiv, 
Tnjx^ci)^ iviore rrjv plva €^ovra<i. av 8' ovv dv /jlt) 
€7raivfj<;, et? ra? XiOoroiiia^ ra? Aiovvaiov ev6v^ 
d(pi^rj ft)9 Kal (f)Oov(ov Kal iTTL/SovXevcov avrw. 
'X^pr] Be Kal (TO(f)ov<; Kal prjropa^; elvau avT0v<;, Kav 
€L Ti aoXoiKLaavT€<; TvyjaaiVy avrb rovro^ Trj<; 
'ATTi«% Kal Tov 'Tfirjrrov /jL€<ttov<; BoKelv tov<; 
Xoyov^ Kal vofiov etvai to Xolttov ovtw Xeyeiv. 
36 KaiTOC (jioprjTd l'(rco<; tcl tmv dvBpcov. at Be 
ovv^ yvvaLKe<i — Kal yap av Kal ToBe viro toop 
yvvaLKMV (TTTOvBd^eTai, to elvai Tipa<; avTal<; 
TreTTaiBevfievovf; fiiaOov uTToreXet? ^ avp6vTa<; Kal 

^ avrh TOVTO edd. : avrh rb MSS. Perhaps something more 
has been lost. 

2 5^ oZu Seager : 5^ olv MSS. 

^ /xktOov vttotcXus = viro^ladovs. Cobet and Fritzsche 



tongued rhetorician who made a speech by request at 
dinner in a style that was not by any means uncul- 
tivated, but very finished and studied. He was 
ap{)lauded, however, because his speech, which was 
delivered while they were drinking, was timed by 
flasks of wine instead of measures of water ! And he 
took this venture on, it was said, for two hundred 

All this is not so bad, perhaps. But if Dives 
himself has a turn for writing poetry or prose and 
recites his own compositions at dinner, then you 
must certainly split yourself applauding and flattering 
him and excogitating new styles of praise. Some 
of them wish to be admired for their beauty also, 
and they must hear themselves called an Adonis 
or a Hyacinthus, although sometimes they have 
a yard of nose. If you withhold your praise, off" you 
go at once to the quarries of Dionysius because 
you are jealous and are plotting against your master. 
They must be philosophers and rhetoricians, too, 
and if they happen to commit a solecism, precisely 
on that account their language must seem full of 
the flavour of Attica and of Hymettus, and it must 
be the law to speak that way in future. 

After all, one could perhaps put up with the con- 
duct of the men. But the women — ! That is another 
thing that the women are keen about — to have men 
of education living in their households on a salary 

^ It was not the fashion at ancient banquets for guests to 
make speeches. In consenting to deUver a selection from 
his repertory, the rhetorician put himself on a par with a 
professional entertainer. This was bad enough, but he made 
things still worse by allowing the company to time his 
speech with a substitute for a water-clock which they im- 
provised out of a flask of wine. 



T« (^ope'ifp 67ro/jL6vov<;' €V <ydp tl koI tovto rfav 
aWcov KaXkcoTTtcr /jLciTcov avral^ So/cet, r)v XeyrjTai 
CO? TTeTTaL^evfjievai re elaiv /cal ^tX6ao(fiot, fcal 
TTOiovcTLV aa^ara ov ttoXv ri}? 'Ea7r<pov<; airo- 
Biovra — Sea Br) ravra fjnaOoiTov^ koX avrai 
ireptdyovrai prjropa^ kol ypa/jL/xarLfcov'i koX (^l\o- 
a6(poi><;, cLKpooiVTai 8* avrSiv — TTTjviKa; yeKolov 
yap fcal tovto — tjtol jxeTa^i) KOfi/iiov/ievaL Kal ra? 
Ko^a^ irapairXeKOfievaL rj irapa to helirvov 
dWoTC yap ovk dyovai G')(^o\rjv. 7roWdKi<i Se 
Kal /JL€Ta^v Tou ^L\oa6(f>ov TL 8c€^i6pT0<i r) dppa 
TTpoaeXdovaa wpe^e irapa tov yLOiyov ypayijxdTiov, 
ol Be irepl aco(f)poavvr)<; eKelvoi Xoyoi eaTaai irepi- 
fxevovTe^, ecrr' av 6Keivr] dpTiypdyp-aaa tw fjLoi^w 
iTravaSpd/jLj) Trpo? Tr]v aKpoaacv. 

37 ^KTreiBdv Be ttotc Bid fiatcpov tov ')(p6vov Kpo- 
VLCOV rj Uavadrjvaiwv iino-TdvTcov Tre/jLTrrjTai, tl 
COL e^edTplBiov dOXtov t) 'x^ltcdulov viroaaOpov, 
ivTavOa fjidXicTTa iroXXrjv Bel /cal fieydXrjv ye- 
veadat ti-jv TTO/jLTnjv. Kal 6 fieu 7rpcoT0<i €vdv<; 
€TL (TKeiTTOixevov ^ iTapaKOvaa'^ tov BeairoTOV Trpo- 
Bpap.a)V Kal TTpojxrjvvaa^ aTckpyeTai fjnaOov ovk 
oXiyov T?}? dyyeXia'^ TrpoXaficov. ewOev Be Tpta- 
KaiBeKa ijKOvaiv Ko/jLL^ovTe<;, eKacrTO<; &)? TroXXd 
elire Kal w? vTre/jLvijae kol o)? einTparrel^ to KdX- 
Xiov irreXe^aTo Bl€^lcov. diravTS'^ B' ovv diraX- 
XdTTOVTac Xa^6vT€<;, ert Kal ^pevOvofievot otl fir] 
irXeiw eBwKa^. 

38 'O jJiev yap paa-Oo^ avTO<; KaTa Bv^ 6fioXov<; rj 
TeTT apa<;, Kal ^apv^ ahcov a if Kal 6xXrjpo<; 
BoK€L(;. Iva B' ovv Xd^r]<;, KoXaKevTCO^ fiev avTO^ 

^ cTi ffKeTTTOfjift'OV J", edd. : i-mcrKeirToiJ.fvov MSS. 



And following their litters. They count it as one 
among their other embellishments if it is said that 
they are cultured and have an interest in philosophy 
and write songs not much inferior to Sappho's. To 
that end, forsooth, they too trail hired rhetoricians and 
grammarians and philosophers about, and listen to 
their lectures — when.'* it is ludicrous I — either while 
their toilet is being made and their hair dressed, or 
at dinner ; at other times they are too busy ! And 
often while the philosopher is delivering a discourse 
the maid comes up and hands her a note from her 
lover, so that the lecture on chastity is kept waiting 
until she has written a reply to the lover and hurries 
back to hear it. 

At last, after a long lapse of time, when the feast 
of Cronus ^ or the Panathenaic festival comes, you are 
sent a beggarly scarf or a flimsy undergarment. Then 
by all means there must be a long and impressive 
procession. The first man, who has overheard his 
master still discussing the matter, immediately runs 
and tells you in advance, and goes away with a 
generous fee for his announcement, paid in advance. 
In the morning a baker's dozen of them come 
bringing it, and each one tells you : " I talked about 
it a great deal ! " "I jogged his memory ! " "It was 
left to me, and I chose the finest one ! " So all 
of them depart with a tip, and even grumble that 
you did not give more. 

As to your pay itself, it is a matter of two obols, 
or four, at a time, and when you ask for it you are 
a bore and a nuisance. So, in order to get it you 

* The Greek festival that corresponded to the Roman 


Q 473 


KoX t/cereuTeo?, Oepa'TrevTeo^ he kol 6 oIkov6[xo<^, 
ovTO^ fjL€v KUT^ ciWov OepaiTeia^ rpoirov'^ ovk 
d/jL€\r)Teo<; Be ovBe 6 avfil3ov\o<; Koi cplXo^i. kol 
TO \r}^6ev ySr) TrpocjcjyeiXeTO IfiaTLOKaiTrfKw rj 
larpw Tj a/cvTorofio) rivi. aSaypa ^ ovv aoL ra 
Bcjpa Kol avovrjTa. 
39 110X1;? Be 6 (^Oovof;, Kai irov kol Blu^oXt] t£9 
r]peiia vTre^avicTrarai tt/jo? avBpa rjBr) tov<; Kara 
GOV Xoyov^f i)B6co<i evBe^op^evov opd yap r^Bt] ae 

fieV VTTO T(t)V (7VVe')((t)V TTOVCOV eKTeTpV')(^a>/jL€VOP KOl 

irpo'^ Tr)V Oepaireiav aKa^ovra kol aTrjjvBrjKora, 
rrjv iToBdypav Be viraviovcrav. 6XQ)<i yap oirep yv 
vo(TTL^i(t}TaTOV iv aol dTTavOiadfievo^; koI to €7- 
KapTTorarov t?}? r)XtKia<; koI to d/c/jLaLorarov rov 
(T(OfjLaT0<i €7riTpLyfra<; koi pdKO<; ae TroX^o-^^^i^e? 
ipya(TdfjLevo<; rjBij irepL^Xeirei, ere p,€v ol tt}? 
KOTTpou dTroppi-^et (f)epo)V, dXXov Be ottco^ tmv 
Bwapbevcov rov<; irovov^ Kaprepelv irpoaXrjylreraL. 
Kol TjTOL fieipdKLOV uvTov OTL eTTeipaad^; irore^ 7) 
T^9 yvvatKO<; d/3pav irapOevov yepwv dvrjp Blu- 
<^6eipeL<; rj dXXo rt tolovtov e'jnicXri6ei<;, vvfcrcop 
eyKeKaXvp^fievo*; eirl rpd^rjXov oyadeh e^eX7]Xv0a<;, 
epr]iJLO^ aTrdvTcov kol d7ropo<;, rrjv ^eXrlaTTjv 
iroBdypav avTw yrjpa irapaXa^diV, kul a /leu Teco? 
178669 diTOfJiaOwv iv ToaovTcp y^povwy OvXaKov Be 
fiel^co TTjv yacnepa epyaad/jLevo<;, dTrXtjpcorov tl 
Kol dirapaLTrjTOv /caKov. koi yap 6 XaifjLo^ 
dirairel ra ^ €K tov e6ov<; Kal dirojiavOdvcdV avrd 

1 /car' A.M. H.: /cai MSS. 

2 Text r, edd.: &\Xos . . . rpoiros MSS. 

• &Sc»pa vulg. : 6.ccpa MSS, * irore 5- : tJt6 MSS. 

' TO Lehmann : not in MSS. 



must flatter and wheedle the master and pay court to 
his steward too, but in another way ; and you must 
not neglect his friend and adviser, either. As what 
you get is already owing to a clothier or doctor or 
shoemaker, his gifts are no gifts and profit you 

You are greatly envied, however, and perhaps some 
slanderous story or other gradually gets afoot by 
stealth and comes to a man who by now is glad to 
receive charges against you, for he sees that you are 
used up by your unbroken exertions and pay lame 
and exhausted court to him, and that the gout is 
growing upon you. To sum it up, after garnering all 
that was most profitable in you, after consuming the 
most fruitful years of your life and the greatest 
vigour of your body, after reducing you to a thnig of 
rags and tatters, he is looking about for a rubbish-heap 
on which to cast you aside unceremoniously, and for 
another man to engage who can stand the work. 
Under the charge that you once made overtures to a 
page of his, or that, in spite of your age, you are trying 
to seduce an innocentgirl, his wife'smaid, or something 
else of that sort, you leave at night, hiding your face, 
bundled out neck and crop, destitute of everything 
and at the end of your tether, taking with you, in 
addition to the burden of your years, that excellent 
companion, gout. What you formerly knew you have 
forgotten in all these years, and you have made your 
belly bigger than a sack, an insatiable, inexorable 
curse. Your gullet, too, demands what it is used to, 
and dislikes to unlearn its lessons. 

^ An allusion to Sophocles, Ajax 665 : ix^puy &So^a Swpa 
KovK ovrfaifia. 



40 Kat (T€ ovK dv Tf9 dWo<; Se^airo e^wpov i]Br) 
yeyovora koX rot<; >y€<yr)paKO(rLv tTTTrot? eoiKora, 
a)v ovBe TO Bepfia ofJLoio}^ ^(^prjaLfiov. a\X(o<i 
re zeal 17 ck tov airwaOrjvaL SLafioXr) 7rp6<; 
TO /xel^ov eiKa^o/ievr} /j,oi)(^6v rj (jiapfxaKea ae ij tl 
TOLOVTOV dWo BoK€LV TTOLel' o iiev yap KaTrjyopo^ 
Kol aicoTTMV d^i67rtcrTO<;, av he "EjWr)v koI pdSiO'i 


TOtovTov; yap diravTa^; r)fjid<; elvai oiovTat, fcal 
/LiaXa €tVoTa>9* Bokcj yap jjloi Kal t?}? TOLavTi]<; 
B6^r)<; avTcov, r)v e^ovai Trepl r)fjLa)v, /caTavevoT)- 
Kevau Tr]v alTiav. iroWol yap e/9 ra? olKia^ 
7rap€X.06vTe<; virep tov /jLTjBep dXXo ^(^prjaLiJLov 
elBevat iiavTeia<^ ^ Kal <j)apfiaK€La<i v'rrea')(0VT0 Kal 
')(^dpiTa<; €7tI TOi? ip(OTLKol<; Kal eiraywyd'^ toI<^ 
€^0pOL<;, Kal Tavra TreTraiBevaOaL XiyovTe^^ Kal 
TpL0(Ova<i dfiTrexo/jLevoi, Kal izcoywva^ ovk evKaTa- 
<f>pov^Tov<; KaOeifxevoL. €Ik6t(o<; ovv ttjv ofioiav 
irepl irdvTwv virovoLav €')(pv(jiv, 01)9 dplaTov^ 
wovto TOiovTovf; 6pa)VT€^, Kal /iidXiaTa eTriTT)- 

p0VVT€<i aVTOiV TrjV 6V T0i9 BeiTTVOL^ Kal TTJ dWr] 

avvovala KoXaKelav Kal ttjv 7r/909 to K6pBo<; 
BovXoir perreiav . 

41 ^ AiroaeLddiievoi Be avTov<; jiiaoixn, Kal fidXa 
elKOTco^if Kal 6^ aTTavro^ ^r)Tovaiv oireof; apBi-jv 
dmoXeawGLVy rjv BvvcovTar Xoyi^ovTai yap 609 
e^ayopevcTOVcTLV avTMv to, ttoXXcl eKelva Tr}'; (pv- 
o-€ft)9 diToppriTa 0)9 diravTa elBoTet; dKpi,/3co<i Kal 
yv/jLVOv<? auTOt'9 eirwrrTeuKOTe^. tovto toLvvv 
diTOTTViyei avTov<;' diravTe^ yap dKpifico^; o/jloiol 

^ fiayeias Valckenaer, which has been generally adopted ; 
but cf. 27 fidyov ^ fxdvriv. 



Nobody else would take you in, now that you have 
passed your prime and are like an old horse whose 
hide, even, is not as serviceable as it was. Besides, 
the scandal of your dismissal, exaggerated by con- 
jecture, makes people think you an adulterer or 
poisoner or something of the kind. Your accuser is 
trustworthy even when he holds his tongue, while 
you are a Greek, and easy-going in your ways and 
prone to all sorts of wrong-doing. That is what they 
think of us all, very naturally. For I believe I have 
detected the reason for that opinion which they have 
of us. Many who have entered households, to make 
up for not knowing anything else that was useful, 
have professed to supply predictions, philtres, love- 
charms, and incantations against enemies ; yet they 
assert they are educated, wrap themselves in the 
philosopher's mantle, and wear beards that cannot 
lightly be sneered at. Naturally, therefore, they 
entertain the same suspicion about all of us on seeing 
that men whom they considered excellent are that 
sort, and above all observing their obsequiousness at 
dinners and in their other social relations, and their 
servile attitude toward gain. 

Having shaken them off, they hate them, very 
naturally, and endeavour in every way to destroy 
them outright if possible ; for they expect them to 
betray the many hidden mysteries of their make-up, in- 
asmuch as they are thoroughly acquainted with every- 
thing and have looked upon them unveiled. That 
sticks in their throat, because they are all exactly like 



elaiv TOi<; KaW[aTOL<; tovtol^ ^i^Kioi^;, wv XP^' 
aol fiev 01 oficpaXoL, iropcfivpa he CKroaOev 77 
Btcpdepa, ra Be evBov rj Sve(TT7)<; earXv rwv reK- 
vwv €(TTi(o/i€VO<; rj OlBlttov^; rfj fit^rpl avvcov rj 
Trjpevf; Bvo aBeXcjiaf; ajia ottv'kov, toiovtoc koX 
avTOL el(Ti, Xa/iTTpol /cat irepipXeinoLy evSov Be 
VTTO TTJ 7rop(f)vpa TToWrjv rrjv rpaywBiav axe- 
TTovref;' CKaarov yovv avrcov rjv i^eiXijarjf;, Bpcifia 
ov fJLLKpov evprjaet^ l^vpnrlBov ti,vo<; rj Xo(f>oK\eov<;, 
ra B* e^ct) Trop^vpa evavOrj^ Ka\ ^/^ua-oi)? 
6/ji(f)a\6';. ravra ovv o-vveTnardfievoi avTol^f 
fjLiaovcri xal eTri^ovXevova-iv €l ri<i airodra'i 
aKpi^a)<i KaravevoriKoa^ avToif^ eKTpaywBrjarei KaX 
irpo^ TToWovf; epel. 
42 BouA-o/iat 3* o/^o)? eycoye waTrep 6 Ke'yS?;? 
€K€tvo<; euKOva riva rov tolovtov Plov aoi ypdyjrai, 
oTTft)? 6t9 ravTTjv dTro^Xeircov elBfjf; el' (tol irapirr]- 
T€OV earlv eh avTrjv. rjBeox; fiev ovv 'ATreXXoO 
TLvo<; rj Uappaalov rj ^ AeTiwvo<; rj Kal Kv(t)pdvopo<; 
av eBei]6r]v eirl rrjv ypa^rjv' eVel Be diropov vvv 
evpeiv TLva ovtco<; yevvalov Kal aKpifirj rr)v re^- 
vr]v, yfriXrjv co? olov re <tol einBei^co rrjv eiKova. 

Kat Br] yeypdcpOco irpoTrvXaca p,ev vyfrrjXd fcal 
eirixpvaa Kal firj Kdru) eVl rov eBd(f>ov<;, dXX^ dvo) 
T?;9 7^? iirl X6(f)ov Keifieva, Kal r) dvoBo^ eirl iroXv 
Kal dvdvrr]<i Kal oXlctOov exovora, &>? 7roXXdKi,<; rjBr] 
7r/309 Tft) dKpw €(Teadav eXiriaavTa^ eKrpaxV' 
XiaOrjvaL BiajxaprovTO^ rov iroBo^. evBov Be 
IIXoOto? avTO<; KaOrjaOco ^yovcrot)? o\o9, co? BoKei, 
irdvv evfiop^o^ Kal eirepaaTO^. o Be €paaTr]<; 
/jl6Xl<; dveXOcov Kal TrXrjaidcra^ ry Ovpa redrjirero) 
d^opcov eh TO ^/oucrtoi/. irapaXafiovaa 8' avrov 



the finest of papyrus rolls, of which the knobs are of 
gold and the slip-cover of purple, but the content is 
either Thyestes feasting on his children or Oedipus 
married to his mother, or Tereus debauching two 
sisters at once. They too are splendid and 
universally admired, but inside, underneath their 
purple, they hide a deal of tragedy ; in fact if you 
unroll any one of them, you will find an ample drama 
by an Euripides or a Sophocles, while on the outside 
there is a gaudy purple laticlave and a golden bulla. 
Conscious of all this, they hate and plot against any 
renegade who, having become thoroughly familiar 
with them, is likely to expose the plot and tell it 

I desire, nevertheless, in imitation of Cebes,^ to 
paint you a picture of this career that we have 
discussed, so that you may look at it and determine 
whether you should enter it. I should gladly have 
requisitioned an Apelles, or Parrhasius, or Action, or 
Euphranor to paint it, but since it is impossible 
nowadays to find anyone so excellent and so 
thoroughly master of his craft, I shall show you the 
picture as best I can in unembellished prose. 

Imagine painted a lofty, golden gateway, not down 
on the level ground but above the eartii on a hill ; 
the slope is long and steep and slippery, so that many 
a time those who hoped soon to be at the summit have 
broken their necks by a slip of the foot. Within, 
let Wealth himself be sitting, all golden, seemingly, 
very beautiful and fascinating ; and let his lover, 
after ascending with great toil, draw near the door 
and gaze spellbound at the gold. Let Hope, herself 

1 Reputed author of the Tabula, a description of an 
imaginary allegorical painting representing human life. 



rj 'E\7rt9, €V7rp6(TQ)7ro<; kov avrrj koI iroiKLka 
a/jLTrexofiivT}, elo-ayerco a^oBpa €K7r€7rXrjyfjL6V0v 
TJ} elaoBo), TovvrevOev he t) /jlcv 'EX7rt9 ael irpo- 
7]y€l(rOo), SLaBe^dfjievaL 8' avrov aXkai yvvalK€<;, 
^Airdrr) teal ^ouXeia, TrapaBoTcoaav rw YlovtOy 6 
Be TToWa Tou dOXiov Karayvfivdcra^ reXevTMV 
iyX^ipK^dro) avrov tw Trjpa ijBr] virovoaovvTa 
Koi T€T pa jJLfievov T^y 'y^poav. vardTr) Be rj "T/3/3t? 
eTTiXa^Ofievrj avperw 7rpo<; rrjv ^ Airoyvwcnv. r) Be 
'EXttI? to diTo TOVTOV d<f)avr]<i dTTOirTeadco, koI 
firjKerc xaO^ ou9 elarfkOe tov^ ')(^pvaov<; 6vp(»3va<;, 
€K Tivo<; Be aTToa-rpo^ov /cal \e\7]6vLa<i i^oBov 
i^coOeladcD yvfivo^ irpoydaTcop o)Xpo<i yepcov, rfj 
erepa jxev rrjv alBct) aKeirayv, ry Be^ta Be avTo<; 
eavTov dy)(Q)v. diravrdra) 8' e^iovn r) M.eTdvoia 
BaKpvovaa ek ovBev o(/)€Xo9 /cal rov dOXiov 

TovTO /xev €(TTco TO TeXo? T^9 ypa<^ri<;. av S* 
ovv, CO dpiare Tcp^oKXei^, avTO<; rjBrj aKpiffm 
eiTLCTKOiTcov cKacTTa evvorjcrov, et act, KaX(a<; e^et 
irapekdovra^ eh rrjv elxova Kara ravra^ rd<; 
Bvpa^ eKeivT]^ T179 ^ epnraXiv alayjpw^ ovTa)<; 
eKTreaelv. o ri S' av irpdrTrj^, fjLe/JLvrjtro tov 
ao(f)Ov XeyovTd c»9 ^€09 dvaiTLo<;, alria Bi 

^ irapeXfloi'To A.M.H.: irpo<re\d6vTa M.SS, 
* ^Kfivrjs rrjs Bourdelot : iKtivriv ttjv MSS. 



fair of face and gaily dressed, take him in charge and 
conduct him within, tremendously impressed by his 
entrance. Then let Hope keep always in advance 
of him, and let other women. Deceit and Servitude, 
receive him successively and pass him on to Toil, who, 
after breaking the wretch with hard labour, shall at 
length deliver him, now sickly and faded, to Old 
Age. Last of all, let Insolence lay hold of him and 
drag him along to Despair ; let Hope then fly away 
and vanish, and instead of the golden portal by 
which he entered, let him be ejected by some 
remote and secret postern, naked, paunchy, pale, and 
old, screening his nakedness with his left hand and 
throttling himself with his right; and on the way 
out, let him be met by Repentance, weeping to no 
avail and helping to make an end of the poor man. 
Let that be the conclusion of the painting. The 
rest, my dear Timocles, is up to you ; examine all the 
details with care and make up your mind whether it 
suits you to enter the pictured career by these doors 
and be thrown out so disgracefully by that one 
opposite. Whatever you do, remember the words of 
the philosopher : " God is not at fault ; the fault is 
his who maketh the choice." ^ 

1 Plato Republic 10, 617 «. 




Abdera, city in Tlirace, 369 

Academic sciiool, 65, 273 

Academy, gymnasium near Athens 
in wliich Piato lectured, 21, 81, 
145 ; personification of the scliool 
97, 109, 113, 115-121 

Achaeans, 159, 405, 431. 439 

Acheron, 357 

Achilles, 47. 185, 291, 295, 297 

Acropolis of Athens, 25, 61, 63 and 
note, 67, 97 note, 99, 101 and note 

Admetus. king of Pherae in Thes- 
sa'y, 159 

Adcnls, 471 

Adr atic, 139 

Aeacus, door-keeper of Hades, 107, 

Aegean Sea, 189 

Aeschines, Attic orator, opponent 
of Demosthenes, 207, 227, 287, 

Aeschines, the Socratic, pupil of 
Socrates, 279, 289 

Aeschylus, 193 

Aetion, painter (of Marriage of 
Alexander and Roxana), 479 

AetoUan, 155 

Agamemnon, 157. 291, 293, 295, 431 

Agave, mother of Pentheus, king of 
Thebes, and leader of the Bacchae 
who tore him to pieces, 197 

Aldoneus, 8 (Pluto) 

Ajax, son of Telamon, 291, 293, 295, 

Alexander the Great, 199, 201, 281 ; 
a pretender (Balas), 199 and note 

Alexandrian, 459 

Alexicles, father of Glaucias (ficti- 
tious), 341 

Alopece, suburb of Athens, 353 

Altar of Mercy, on the market-place 
in Athens, at which foreign sup- 
pliants for Athenian aid took 
refuge, 127 


Amaltheia, the goat that gave suck 

to Zeus ; her horn, by his grace, 

became the horn of Plenty, 435 
Amphilochus of Argos, son of 

Amphiaraus, 377 and note 
Amphitrite, 71 
Anaceum, temple of Castor and 

Pollux at Athens, 63 and note 
Anaxarchus of Abdera, philosopher 

of the Atomic school, at court of 

Alexander, 281 
Anchises, 393 

Andriscus of Adramyttium, 199 note 
Anonymi (comic poet), 41 ; (tragic 

poet), 5 ; (Orphic poet), 169 
Antigonus, a physician (fictitious), 

329 sq. 
Antisthenes, founder of the Cynic 

school, 37, 207, 289 
Anytus, wealthy tanner and poli- 
tician, prosecutor of Socrates, 17, 

Apelles, famous painter, 479 
Aphrodite, 163, 165, 177 note, 461 ; 

in Judgement of the Goddesses, 

385 sq. 
Apis, sacred bull of Memphis, 171 
Apollo, 85, 87, 157, 159. 165, 167, 

187, 191, 377 
Apollonius, philosopher, 305 note 
Arab, 183 (Median), 347. 355 
Arcadia, 103, 325 
Archelaus, son of Perdiccas, king of 

Macedonia, 281 
Archilochus, 207 
Areopagus, 25, 63, 93, 99, 105, 107, 

Arethas, Bishop, 9-lOth cent. A.D., 

author of scholia to Lucian, 

173 note 
Ares, 387 

ArRive, 159 ; Argives, 165 
Argos, 403 
Argus, 89, 396 


Arignotus, fictitious Pythagorean, 

363 sq. 
Aristippus of Cyrene, founder of 

the Cyrenaic school, 3, 111 and 

note, 131-133, 279 
Aristogeiton, of Athens, with 

Harmodius conspired against tlie 

Pisistratidae and slew Hip- 

parchus, 299 
Aristophanes, 41, 145 and note, 147, 

Aristotle, 3 sq., 281, 289, 311 note, 

341 note, 453 
Aristoxenus, 281 and note 
Artemis, 155, 169 
Asclepius, 63, 87, 95, 335 
Asia, 183, 401 

Assyrian, 137 (= Syrian), 161, 169 
Astarte, 177 note 
Asteropaeus, 185 
Astyanax, 161 
Athena, 33, 35, 51, 79, 157, 161, 165, 

167, 387 sq. 
Athenians, 93, 101, 107, 117, 135, 

165, 287, 289, 325 
Athens, 101, 113, 179, 287, 299 
Atlas, daughter of. Calypso, 259 
Attic, 35, 43, 207 
Attica, 99, 325, 471 
Atticus, 175 and note, 205 
Attis, Asiatic demigod, legendary 

worshipper of Rhea (Cybele) who 

emasculated himself in orgiastic 

frenzy, 163 
Aulis, in Boeotia, 157 

Babylon, 31, 435 

Babylonian magician, 337, 339 

Bacchae, play of Euripides, 197 

Balas, 199 note 

Baptae, play of Eupolis, 207 and 

Bassus, 203 

Batrachion, a cook, 201 
Battalus, flute-player, 203 
Bellerophon, 197 and note 
Bithynian, 451 
Boeotia, 289 
Book-collector, The ignorant, 

Boreas, 325 
Branchidae, temple of Apollo near 

Miletus, 87 

Busiris, king of Egypt, who sacri- 
ficed strangers, and was slain by 
Heracles, 97 

Caeneus, a Lapith, 293 

Callinus, a scribe, 175 and note, 205 

Calydonians, 155 ; Calydonian boar, 

Calus. See Talus 
Calypso, 259 

Cassander of Macedon, 201 
Caucasus, 163 
Cebes, 479 and note 
Centaur, 147 ; breed of horses, 183 
Cerameicus (Potters' Quarter, in 

Athens), 21 
Cerberus, 341, 357 
Chaldaean, 337 
Charon, 359 
Chelidonion, fictitious name, 466, 

467 note 
Chimaera, 325 
Chryses, 157 

Chrysippus, 3 sq., 130 note, 453 
Chrysis, wife of Demeas (fictitious : 

borrowed from Menander, 5amia), 

341, 343 
Cleodemus, fictitious Peripatetic, 

329 sq. 
Colophon, city in Asia Minor, near 

which was a famous temple of 

Apollo, at Clarus, 85 
Corinth, 181, 183 note, 197, 365, 403 
Cornel Grove, locality in Corinth, 

Coroebus, 325 and note 
Cotys (Cotytto), 207 noU, 209 
Crates, Cynic, disciple of Diogenes, 

37, 289 
Cretans, 165, 325 
Crete, 159, 167 
Critius (Kritios, not Kritias), early 

sculptor, who worked with 

Nesiotes ; they restored the 

statues of Harmodius and Aristo- 
geiton in 477 B.C., 347 
Critolaus, 235 note, 247 note 
Croesus, 87, 447 
Cronus, 159, 167, 473 
Ctesias of Cnidus, physician to 

Artaxerxes, author of works on 

Persia, India, etc., 323 
Cumae 49 



Cyclops (Polyphemus), 169 ; Cy- 
clopes, 159, 325 

Cynic school, 65, 67, 73, 469 and 

Csrprus, 31 

Gyrene, 279 

Cyrus the Elder, 161 

Daedalus, carved statues that could 

move, 351 
Daphne, 159 

Dead Come to Life, 1-81 
Deinomachus, fictitious Stoic, 329s?. 
Deinon, father of Eucrates, ficti- 
tious, 347 
Delium, in Boeotia, battle of, 289 
Delians, 165 
Delos, 87 

Delphi, 85, 185, 187, 189 
Demades, Athenian demagogue, of 

the Macedonian party, 287 
Demaenete, wife of Eucrates, 

fictitious, 361 
Demeaa (fictitious), 341 
Demeter. See Goddesses Twain 
Demetrius of Alopece, sculptor, 

347, 349 and note, 351, 353 
Demetrius, the Cynic, of Corinth, 

Ist century A.D., 197 
Democritus of Abdera, 171, 369, 

Demosthenes, 135, 137 and note, 

143, 179, 227, 287, 288 note, 289 

and note, 311, 423, 455 
Demylus, blacksmith, fictitious, 359 
Dialogue, personified, 43, 113, 135, 

139, 141, 145-151 
Diogenes of Sinope, the Cynic, 9, 

37, 39, 45, 73, 111 and note, 133, 

289 ; of Seleucia, the Stoic, 2nd 

cent. B.C., 235 note 
Diomed, 291 
Dion of Syracuse, 246 
Dionysia, 41, 439 
Dionysius, the Convert, 109 and 

note, 123, 129, 133 : of Syracuse, 

the Elder, 193 and note, 195 and 

noU, 279, 281, 471 
Dionysus, 41, 101, 161, 191 
Dioscuri. See Twin Brethren, 

Castor, Pollux 
Doris, wife of Dionysius the Elder, 

Double Indictment, 83-151 

Dream, or Lucian's Career, 

Dreams, god of, 87 
Dromo, typical slave -name, 455 

Echo, 107 

Education, personified, 22^ sq. 

Egypt, 55, 169, 171, 371, 379 

Egyptian, 367, 373 

Elaphebollon, Attic month (March- 
April), 105 and note 

Eleven, the, Athenian police magis- 
trates, 93 

Empedocles, 5 and note, 311 note 

Endymion, 163 

Epictetus, 153 note, 193 

Epicurean school, 65, 255 note, 
259 sq., 277, 357 

Epicurus, 3, 9, 89, 123, 125-131, 
259, 261, 263, 273, 311 note 

Eplmenldes, 361 and note 

Eplrus, 199 

Erlchthonlus, 325 

Erinyes. See Furies 

Eros, 406, 408 

Ethiopian, 95, 157, 209 

Eubatldes, fictitious Corinthian, 
365, 369 

Eucrates, character in "Lover of 
Lies," 319 sq. 

Eucratldes, son of Eucrates, 361 

Eumelus of Eiis, 189 

Eumenides, 93 

Euphranor, Corinthian painter and 
sculptor, 4th cent. B.C., 479 

Euphrates, 113 

Eupolis, 41, 147, 207 

Euripides, 7, 9, 59, 129, 197, 209, 
249, 281, 479 

Eurytus, competed in archery with 
Heracles (Lucian says Apollo), 
who taught him to shoot, 13 

Evangelus of Tarentum, 185, 187, 

Exadlus, a Laplth, 293 

Fates (Moerae), 359 

Fisherman (Dead Come to Life), 

Frankness, pseudonym of Lucian's, 

1-81, especially 31 
Furies (Erinyes), 327, 359 



Ganymede, 385, 393 

Oargaron, peak of Ida, 385, 391 

Gaul, 139 

Geryon, 193 

Giants, 171, 323 

Glaucias, young man, fictitious, 341, 

Goddesses, Dread (Eumenides), 93 ; 
Twain (Demeter and Kore), 49 

Gorgias, 35 

Gorgon, 325, 355 

Graces, 407, 409, 461 

Great King, 429 

Greece, 139, 327, 403, 405, 407 

Greek, 151, 345, 373, 455; the 
Greeks, 121, 143, 257, 275, 277, 
295, 441, 477 

Gyges, king of Lydia, who, accord- 
ing to one story, achieved the 
throne by finding a ring, which, 
when he turned it, made him in- 
visible, 127, 313 

Hades (Pluto), 323, 357 ; (lower 

world), 359 
Harmodius (see Aristogeiton, 

Critius), 299 
Hebrus, river in Thrace, 189 
Hecate, 341, 343, 355, 357, 379 
Hector, 185, 293, 295 
Hecuba, 157 

Helen, 47, 403 sq., 431, 439 note 
Helicon, mountain in Boeotia, 177 
HeUus, 85 

Hemitheon of Sybaris, 203 
Hephaestus, 159, 161, 163, 165 
Hera, 21, 161, 221 
Heracles, 47, 51, 57, 125, 181, 203, 

Heraclitus of Ephesus, 171 
Hermes, 85 sq., 97, 167, 169, 385 sq. 
Herodotus, 323 
Hesiod, 127 and note, 163, 177, 265 

and note 
Hestia, 329 

Himeros (Desire), 407, 409 
Hippias of Elis, 35 
Hippocrates of Cos, 87, 353 
Hippocrene, fount of the Muses, on 

Helicon, sprung from the hoof- 
print of Pegasus, 179 
Hipponax, 207 
Homer, 3, 7, 11, 61, 63, 85, 89, 157, 

163, 165, 169, 183, 185. 219, 257, 

259, 271, 273, 291, 293, 295, 297, 

299, 301, 321, 323, 335, 399 and 

notes, 413, 427, 429, 431, 439, 445. 

451, 455, 459 
Hours, 163 
Hyacinthus, favourite of Apollo, 

accidentally killed by him with a 

discus, 159, 471 
Hymenaeus (Wedlock), 409 
Hymettus, mountain E. of Athens, 

97, 471 
Hyperborean, 339, 341, 343 
Hyperides, Attic orator, 287, 311 

Ida, Mount, 385, 387, 391, 393, 403 

Idomeneus, 291, 293, 299 

Ilians, 59 

India, 167 

Indian, 305, 355 

Ion, the Platonist, fictitious, 329 sq. 

Ionia, 137, 139 

Iphigenia, alluded to, 157 

Iris, 163 

Isis, 193, 373 

Ismenias, 181 and note 

Isocrates, 287 and note 

Italy, 179 

Ixion, 21, 165, 359 

Judgement of the Goddesses, 


Koppa-brand, Corinthian horses, 

Koptos, in Egypt, 371 

Lake, in Hades (Acheron), 357 
Lamia, 325 
Laomedon, 159 
Larissa, city in Thessaly, 201 
Latin, 453 
Leda, 405 
Lemnians, 161 
Lemnos, 257 

Leontichus, fictitious, 329, 379 
Lesbos, 189, 191 
Libya, 333 
Libyan, »61, 431 

Lover op Lies, or the Doubter, 




Lycaon, 185 
Lyceum, grove of Apollo, near 

Athens, where were the " Walks " 

of the Peripatetics, 81, 145 
Lycurgus, Athenian demagogue, 

Lydia, 403 
Lydian, 87, 169 

Macedon, 287 

Mallus, town in Cllicia, 377, 379 

Maltese dog, 363, 469 

Mandrobulus, 449 and note 

Marathon, 101, 325 

Margites, 325 and note 

Marsyas, discovered the flute 

which Athena had made and 

thrown away, 181 
Median horse (Arab), 183 
Meleager, whose mother caused his 

death by burning the brand 

which he was destined not to 

outlive, 155 
Meletus, one of the prosecutors of 

Socrates, 17, 95 
Memnon, statue of, 371 
Memphis, 371, 373 
Memphites, 193 
Menelaus, 405 
Menippus, 43, 147 
Meriones, 299 
Midas, king of Phrygia, 447 ; a 

vine-dresser, 337 
Miltiades, a dialogue by Aeschines, 

now lost, 279 
Minos, 349, 353 
Mnason, son of Eucrates, fictitious, 

Momus, son of Night, personifica- 
tion of carping criticism, 385 
Moon (Selene), 341, 343 
Mormo, a Greek bogey, 325 
Muses, 13, 159, 177, 187, 457 
Mygdoniana (Phrygians), 165 
Myron, sculptor of the Discobolus, 

221, 347 
Myrrhina, name of dog, 469 

Nausicaa, 273 

Neanthus, son of Pittacus, of 

Mytilene, 191, 193 
Neleus, 281 note 

Nemean herdsman (Argus), 89; 
Nemean lion, 333 

Nero, the false, 199 and note 

Nesiotes, sculptor (see Critius), 347 

Nestor, 291, 293 

Nicias, Athenian general disas- 
trously defeated in Sicily, 281 

Niobe, 229 

Nisus, 171 

Odysseus, 257, 259, 261, 299, 321, 
427, 429 note 

Oedipus, 479 

Oeneus, king of Aetolia, father of 
Meleager, 155 

Oenone, 387 and note 

Olmeios, stream rising on Helicon, 

Olympic games, 167 ; crown, 435 

Olympus, mythical poet and flute- 
player, 181 

Oratory, personified, 113, 135-145 

Oreithyia, daughter of Erechtheus, 
of Athens, 325 

Orpheus, 5, 187, 189, 191, 193 

Painted Porch (Stoa Poecile, in 

Athens), 21, 25, 65, 81, 97 ; its 

paintings, 121 and note 
Palestine, 345 
Pan, 101 sq., 169, 325 
Panathenaic festival, 473 
Pancrates, a magician, fictitious, 

373, 375 
Paphians (of Paphos, a city in 

Cyprus), 165 
Parasite, Parasitic an Art, 235- 

Paris, 295, 385 sq. 
Parnes, mountain in N. Attica, 97, 

Parrhasius, celebrated painter, rival 

of Zeuxis, 479 
Parthenion, 101 and note 
Patara, city in Lycia, with famous 

oracle of Apollo, 377 
Patroclus, 295, 297 
Pegasus, 229, 325 
Peiraeus, 71 

Pelasgicon, 63 and note, 71, 101 
Peleus, 297 
Pellichus, statue of, 349 sq. ; tee 

349 note 
Pelops, 405 



Pentheus, 5 and note, 197 

Perdiccas, 201 

Peregrinus, 193 and note, 311 note 

Pergamon, city in Mysia, near which 
wa3 a celebrated temple of 
Asclepius, 377 

Peripatetic school, 273, 341 

Persian, 161, 275, 463 

Phaedra, 209 

Phalaris, tyrant of Agrigentum in 
Sicily, notorious for his cruelty,97 

Phidias, sculptor of the colossal 
chryselephantine statue of Zeus 
at Olympia, 167, 221, 223, 243 

Philip of Macedon, 201, 227, 287 ; 
the false (Andriscus), 199 and note 

Philocles, fictitious, 319 sq. 

Philocrates, Athenian demagogue, 

Philoctetes, owner of the bow of 
Heracles, abandoned in Lemnos 
by the Greeks on their way to 
Troy because his wound (a 
scratch from one of the arrows 
dipped in the blood of Nessus) 
was noisome, had to be fetched 
(a Stoic labour) before the city 
could be taken, 181, 257 

Philosophy, personified, 139 sq. 

Philoxenus, dramatic and lyric 
poet, 4th cent. B.C., 193 

Phrygia, 159, 385, 387, 391, 403 

Phrygian, 159, 169, 385 (Gany- 
mede), 393 

Pine-bender, Pityocamptes, slain 
by Theseus, who would bend 
down two pines, fasten a man 
between their tops, and let them 
spring up again, 97 

Pisa (Olympia), 167 

Pittacus, tyrant of Mytilene, 7th- 
6th cent. B.C., 191 

Plato, 3 sq., 147, 149, 163, 207, 251, 
267, 281, 289, 345, 357, 361, 453, 
455, 481 

Platonists, 65, 75 

Plenty (Amaltheia), 435 

Pliny the Younger, 319 note 

Pluto, 9 (Aidoneus), 359 

Pnyx, place where the Athenian 
people assembled, on the slope of 
the Areopagus, 99 

Polemo, 109 and note, 115 sq. 

Polus, pupil of Gorgias, 35 

Polycleitus, 167 221, 223, 347 


Polygnotus, 120 note 

Polyxena, 47 

Poseidon, 51, 71, 77, 159, 167 

Pothos (Longing) 409 

Potters' Quarter (Cerameicus), 21 

Praxiteles, 167, 221 

Priam, 385, 431 

Prodicus, 35 

Prometheus, 159, 163, 323 ; cheated 
Zeus by serving him bones 
wrapped in fat, 459 

Protesilaus, 295 

Proteus, the sea-god, 161 ; nick- 
name of the Cynic Peregrinus, 193 

Prytaneum, town-hall of Athens, 69 

Pylos, home of Nestor, 157 

Pyriphlegethon, River of Blazing 
Fire, in Hades, 357 

Pyrrhias, slave-name, 357, 451 

Pyrrho, the Sceptic, 111 and note, 
133 sq. 

Pyrrhus of Epirus, 199, 201 

Pythagoras, 9, 17, 39, 43, 49, 55, 65 

Pythagorean school, 65, 363 

Pythian games, 185 

Rhea, 159, 163, 165, 167 
Romans, 417, 453 ; city of Rome, 
441 ; Roman Empire, 447 

sacrifices, 153-171 

Salaried Posts in Great Houses, 

Sappho, 473 
Sardis, capital of Lydia, seat of 

Croesus, 435 
Sarpedon, 295 
Scheria, city of Alcinous, king of the 

Phaeacians, 261 
Sciron, robber who controlled the 

pass from the Isthmus of Corinth 

into Attica, slain by Theseus, 97 
Sculpture, personified, 221 sq. 
Scythia, Scythian, 163, 169, 289, 

Selene (Moon), 85, 163, 341, 343 
Sextus of Chaeronea, 305 note ; 

Empiricus, 247 note 
Sicily, 279, 281 
Simon, a parasite, 237 sq. 
Sinope, in Paphlagonia, on the 

Black Sea, 133 
Sisyphus, 359 
Sleep, 87 


Socrates, 3 sq., 17, 41, 93, 227, 267, 

279, 289 and note, 311 note, 357 ; 

the Socratic (Aeschines), 279 
Soli, In Cilicia, where the corrupt 

Greek gave rise to the term 

" solecism," 31 
Sophocles, 479 

Sophroniscus, father of Socrates, 93 
Sown Men (Sparti), sprung from the 

serpent's teeth sown by Cadmus, 

Sparta, Spartan, 291, 403, 405, 407 
Stageira, city of Macedonia, 31 
Stoa, see Painted Porch ; Stoic 

philosophy personified, 109, 121- 

Stoic school, 65, 77 sq., 255, 257, 

273, 277, 467, 469 
Sulla, L. Cornelius, 179 
Sunium, 97, 99 
Sybaris, 203 
Syracuse, 279 
Syrians (Lucian), 31, 113, 135 sq., 

197 ; (book-collector), 173 note, 

197 ; (magician), 345 and note ; 

Syrian accent, 431 ; see Assyrian 

Talos, the Cretan, son of Minos (so 
Lucian seems to mean, but the 
usual story makes him a gift of 
the gods), a man of bronze, who 
guarded the shores of Crete, 
making the rounds three times a 
day, 349 sq. 

Talus, nephew of Daedalus, his 
tomb, 63 and note 

Tantalus, 127, 165, 359 

Tarentum, 185 

Tartarus, lowest limbo of Hades, 

Taureas, gymnasium of, in Athens, 

Tegeans (of Tegea in Arcadia), 193 

Telamon, king of Salamis, 295 

Telephus, son of Heracles and 
Auge, exposed in infancy, found 
his mother in Mysia, and became 
king of Mysia, 161 

Teles, 153 note 

Tereus, of Thrace, married Procne, 
daughter of Pandion, and 
assaulted her sister, Philomela, 

Teucer, 295, 301 

Thamyris, who challenged the 
Muses and lost his sight, 13 

Thebans, 193, 325 

Theognis, 421 and note, 423 

Thersites, 185, 429 and note 

Theseus, 125 

Thesraopolis, a Stoic, fictitious, 467, 

Thespis of Thebes, 187 

Thessaly, 159 

Thrace, 167, 189, 289 

Thucydides, 179, 299 

Thyestes, son of Pelops, and brother 
of Atreus, who killed the two 
sons of Thyestes and served their 
flesh up to him, 159, 479 

Tibius, slave-name, 365, 455 

Timarchus, of Athens, 4th cent. 
B.C., object of a vicious invective 
by Aeschines because of his im- 
morality, 207 

Timocles, to whom Lucian ad- 
dresses a piece, 411 note, 415, 
435, 481 

Timotheus of Thebes, flute-player 
(not the lyric poet Timotheus), 
181 and note 

Tityus, 359 

Triptolemus, of Eleusis, received 
the gift of corn from Demeter, 
and sowed it over the earth from 
her chariot, drawn by winged 
serpents, 229, 325 

Trojan, 159, 185, 431 ; Trojans, 59, 

Troy, 157, 257, 291, 409 

Twin Brethren, Castor and Pollux, 
the Dioscuri, 63, 415 

Tychiades, 235 note, 237 sq., 321 sq. 

Tyrant-slayers, Harmodius and 
Aristogeiton {see Aristogeiton and 
Critius), 347 

Uranus, 159, 323 

Victory (Nice), 59 

Winds, 87 

Xanthus, city in Lycia, 85 
Xenophon, 231 

Zeno, 289 

Zeus, 5, 37, 51, 85 tq., 147, 157, 159, 
161, 163, 165, 167, 169, 221, 243, 
291, 295, 299, 323, 325, 385 sq., 
393, 397, 401, 405, 433, 437 

Zopyrion, slave-name, 451 


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Aristotle : Athenian Constitution, Eudemian Ethics, 
Virtues and Vices. H. Rackham. 

Aristotle : Generation of Animals. A. L. Peck. 

Aristotle : Metaphysics. H. Tredennick. 2 Vols. 

Aristotle : Meteorologica. H. D. P. Lee. 

Aristotle : Minor Works. W. S. Hett. " On Colours," 
" On Things Heard," " Physiognomies," " On Plants," 
" On Marvellous Things Heard," ** Mechanical Problems," 
" On Indivisible Lines," " Situations and Names of 
Winds," " On Melissus, Xenophanes, and Gorgias." 

Abistotlb : Nicomachean Ethics. H. Rackham. 


Aristotle : Oeconomica and Magna Moealia. G. C. 
Armstrong, (With Metaphysics, Vol. II.) 

Aristotle : On the Heavens. W. K. C. Guthrie. 

Aristotle : On the Soul, Parva Naturalia, On Breath. 
W. S. Hett. 

Aristotle : Organon — The Categories. On Interpreta- 
tion. H. P. Cooke ; Prior Analytics. H. Tredennick. 

Aristotle : Organon — Posterior Analytics. H. Treden- 
nick ; Topics. E. S. Forster. 

Aristotle : Organon — Sophistical Refutations. Coming- 
to-be AND Passing-away. E. S. Forster. On the Cosmos. 
D. J. Furley. 

Aristotle : Parts of Animals. A. L. Peck ; Motion and 
Progression of Animals. E. S. Forster. 

Aristotle : Physics. Rev. P. Wicksteed and F. M. Corn- 
ford. 2 Vols. 

Aristotle : Poetics and Longinus. W. Hamilton Fyfe ; 
Demetrius on Style. W. Rhys Roberts. 

Aristotle : Politics. H. Rackham. 

Aristotle : Problems. W. S. Hett. 2 Vols. 

Aristotle : Rhetorica ad Alexandrum. H. Rackham. 
(With Problems, Vol. II.) 

Arrian : History of Alexander and Indica. Rev. E. 
Ilifife Robson. 2 Vols. 

Athenaeus : Deipnosophistae. C. B. GuHck. 7 Vols. 

St. Basil : Letters. R. J. Deferrari. 4 Vols. 

Callimachus : Fragments. C. A. Trypanis. 

Callimachus : Hymns and Epigrams, and Lycophron. 
A. W. Mair ; Aratus. G. R. Mair. 

Clement of Alexandria. Rev. G. W. Butterworth. 


Daphnis and Chloe. Cf. Longus. 

Demosthenes I : Olynthiacs, Philippics and Minor 

Orations : I- XVII and XX. J. H. Vince. 
Demosthenes II : De Corona and De Falsa Legationb. 

C. A. Vince and J. H. Vince. 
Demosthenes III : Meidias, Androtion, Aristocrates, 

TiMOCRATES, Aristogeiton. J. H. Vince. 
Demosthenes IV- VI : Private Orations and In Neaeram. 

A. T. Murray. 
Demosthenes VII : Funeral Speech, Erotic Essay, 

Exordia, and Letters. N. W. and N. J. DeWitt. 


Dio Cassius : Roman History. E. Gary. 9 Vols. 

Dio Chbysostom. 5 Vols. Vols. I and II. J. W. Cohoon, 

Vol. III. J. W. Cohoon and H. Lamar Crosby. Vols. IV 

and V. H. Lamar Crosby. 
DiopoBus SicuLUS. 12 Vols. Vols. I- VI. C. H. Oldfather. 

Vol. VII. C. L. Sherman. Vols. IX and X. Russel M. 

Geer. Vol. XI. F. R. Walton. 
Diogenes Laertius. R. D. Hicks. 2 Vols. 
DiONYSius OF Halicarnassus : Roman Antiquities. Spel- 

man's translation revised by E. Cary. 7 Vols. 
Epictetus. W. a. Oldfather. 2 Vols. 
Euripides. A. S. Way. 4 Vols. Verse trans. 
Eusebius : Ecclesiastical History. Kirsopp Lake and 

J. E. L. Oulton. 2 Vols. 
Galen : On the Natural Faculties. A. J. Brock. 
The Greek Anthology. W. R. Paton. 5 Vols. 
The Greek Bucolic Poets (Theocritus, Bion, Moschus). 

J. M. Edmonds. 
Greek Elegy and Iambus with the Anacreontea. J. M. 

Edmonds. 2 Vols. 
Greek Mathematical Works. Ivor Thomas. 2 Vols. 
Herodes. Cf. Theophrastus : Characters. 
Herodotus. A. D. Godley. 4 Vols. 
Hesiod and the Homeric Hymns. H. G. Evelyn White. 
Hippocrates and the Fragments of Heracleitus. W. H. S. 

Jones and E. T. Withington. 4 Vols. 
Homer : Iliad. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. 
Homer : Odyssey. A. T. Mm'ray. 2 Vols. 
IsAEUS. E. S. Forster. 

Isocrates. George Norlin and LaRue Van Hook. 3 Vols. 
St. John Damascene : Barlaam and Ioasaph. Rev. G. R. 

Woodward and Harold Mattingly. 
Josephus. H. St. J. Thackeray and Ralph Marcus. 9 Vols. 

Vols. I-VII. 
Julian. Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. 
LoNGUS : Daphnis and Chloe. Thornley's translation 

revised by J. M. Edmonds ; and Parthenius. S. Gase- 

LuciAN. 8 Vols. A. M. Harmon. Vols. I-V. K. Kilbum. 

Vol. VI. 
Lycophron. Cf. Callimachus. 
Lyra Graeca. J. M. Emonds. 3 Vols. 



Lysias. W. R. M. Lamb. 

Manetho. W. G. Waddell ; Ptolemy : Teteabiblos. F. E. 

Marcus Aubelifs. C. R. Haines. 
Menander. F. G. AUinson. 
Minor Attic Orators. 2 Vols. K. J. Maidment and 

J. 0. Burtt. 
NoNNOS : DiONYSiACA. W. H. D. Rouse. 3 Vols. 
Oppian, Colluthijs, Tryphiodorus. a. W. Mair. 
Papyri. Non-Literary Selections. A. S. Hunt and C. C. 

Edgar. 2 Vols. Literary Selections (Poetry). D. L. 



Pausanias : Description of Greece. W. H. S. Jones. 5 

Vols, and Companion Vol. arranged by R. E. Wycherley. 
Philo. 10 Vols. Vols. I-V. F. H. Colson and Rev. G. H. 

Whitaker ; Vols. VI-IX. F. H. Colson. 

Two Supplementary Vols. Translation only from an 
Armenian Text. Ralph Marcus. 
Philostrattjs : The Life of Apollonius of Tyana. F. C. 

Conybeare. 2 Vols. 
Philostratus : Imagines ; Callistratus : Descriptions. 

A. Fairbanks. 
Philostratus and Eunapius : Lives of the Sophists. 

Wilmer Cave Wright. 
Pindar. Sir J. E. Sandys. 
Plato I : Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo, Phaedrus. 

H. N. Fowler. 
Plato II : Theaetetus and Sophist. H. N. Fowler. 
Plato III : Statesman, Philebus. H. N. Fowler ; Ion. 

W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato IV : Laches, Protagoras, Meno, Euthydemus. 

W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato V : Lysis, Symposium, Gorgias. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato VI : Cratylus, Parmenides, Greater Hippias, 

Lesser Hippias. H. N. Fowler. 
Plato VII : Timaeus, Critias, Clitopho, Menexenus, Epi- 

stulae. Rev. R. G. Bury. 
Plato VIII : Charmides, Alcibiades, Hipparchus, The 

Lovers, Theages, Minos and Epinomis. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato : I^ws, Rev. R. G. Bury, 2 Vols. 
Plato : Rbpublio. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. 


Plutarch : Mobalia. 15 Vols. Vols. I-V. F. C. Babbitt ; 
Vol. VI. W. C. Helmbold ; Vol. VII. P. H. De Lacy and 
B. Einarson ; Vol. IX. E. L. Minar, Jn., F. H. Sandbach, 
W. C. Helmbold ; Vol. X. H. N. Fowler ; Vol. XH. H. 
Chemiss and W. C. Helmbold. 

Plutarch : The Parallel Lives. B. Perrin. 11 Vols. 

PoLYBius. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. 

Procopius : History of the Wars. H. B. Dewing. 7 Vols. 

Ptolemy : Tetrabiblos. Cf. Manetho. 

QuiNTUs Smyrnaeus. A. S. Way. Verse trans. 

Sextus Empiricus. Rev. R. G. Bury. 4 Vols. 

Sophocles. F. Storr. 2 Vols. Verse trans. 

Strabo : Geography. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. 

Theophbastus : Characters. J. M. Edmonds ; Herodes, 
etc. A. D. Knox. 

Theophrastus : Enquiry into Plants. Sir Arthur Hort. 
2. Vols. 

Thucydides. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. 

Tryphiodorus. Cf. Oppian. 

Xenophon : Cyropaedia. Walter Miller. 2 Vols. 

Xenophon : Hellenica, Anabasis, Apology, and Sympo- 
sium. C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 3 Vols. 

Xenophon : Memorabilia and Oeconomicus. E. C. Mar- 

Xenophon : Scbipta Minora. E. C. Marchant. 



Aristotle : History of Animals. A. L. Peck. 
Plotinus. a. H. Armstrong. 


Babrius and Phaedrus. B. E. Perry. 






Harmon, A.B. editor H3 

vol. Ill